the Russians (Russian: Русские - Russkie), also large Russians, are a people with approx., belonging to the ostslawischen language's group. 145 million-members (it gives data, which set your number still clearly more highly). They are thereby the largest people in Europe and exceed the other slawischen peoples in each case around a multiple (e.g. Ukrainer 46 millions, Poland 60 millions). The Russians profess themselves predominantly to the orthodox Christianity.
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the ancestors of the Russians were ostslawische trunks, which inhabited the areas of the today's west of Russia , white Russia as well as the Ukraine. To the Ethnogenese of the Russians also Scandinavian and finno ugrische trunks were involved beside them. The underlying Ethnonym “rus'" originally designated the Waräger, which placed first the Oberschicht of the Kiewer Rus , originating from Scandinavia, the first state thing of the region. (see. Finnish “Ruotsi” = “Sweden”) and was transferred later to the entire population of the realm, particularly since the Skandinavier experienced rather rapidly a cultural Slawisierung.
At the beginning of homogeneous old-Russian Ethnie of the Kiewer Rus began itself at that 15. Century culturally in large Russians, white Russians and Ukrainer (in former times: To split up small Russian). The large Russians inhabited at the beginning of the area, which covered the northwest of today's Russia. With military successes against the golden horde/hurdle and act arene their settlement area spread along the Volga to the south. Above all however the case of the act arene capital Kazan' 1552 opened the way for the Russians over the Urals to Siberia, which they began to open afterwards to it. In 17. The Russians arrived to century for the first time at the Pacific. The Russian Kosaken played an important role with colonizing new areas. Starting from that 18. Century expanded the residential area of the Russians after the Zurückdrängen of the Osmanen and Krimtataren into the Südukraine (new Russia) and the north Caucasus. Before 1917 the Russians near exclusively lived in the area of the Russian realm, until the October Revolution many noble and civil families for escape-like emigrating arranged and a world-wide Diaspora developed.
At present Russian minorities in almost all partial republics developed for the Soviet Union. While this decreased/went back in the Baltic to a forced settlement politics of the state, existed in central Asia or in the south Caucasus rather a natural need at qualified specialists for the setting up the infrastructure, the industry or the educational facilities, for which predominantly only by Russians could be covered. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union there are however rear wall other movements to the Russian federation.
distribution of the Russians in the different countries
Russians in the states of the former Soviet Union
- Armenien -约。 27.000 (0.9% of the population)
- Azerbaijan - approx. 150.000 (1.8%)
- Estonia - approx. 380.000 (28.1%)
- Georgien - approx. 77.000 (1.5%)
- Kazakhstan - approx. 4,5 millions (30.0%)
- Kirgisistan - approx. 635.000 (12.5%)
- Latvia - approx. 687.000 (29.6%)
- Lithuania - approx. 218.000 (6.31%)
- Moldavia - approx. 551.000 (13.0%)
- Russia - approx. 116 millions (79.8%)
- Tadschikistan - approx. 69.000 (1.1%)
- Turkmenistan - 48,000 (9.8%)
- Ukraine - approx. 8,4 millions (17.3%)
- Usbekistan - approx. 1,4 millions (5.5%)
- White Russia - approx. 1,1 millions (11%)
In Moldavia a large part of the Russians in Transnistrien ( Dnjestr republic) lives, which loose-said itself 1992 of Moldavia. Fraud the portion of the Russians in the area 1989 only 25.4%, are in the meantime 30.3% of the 555,000 inhabitants Russians. Those are approx. 30% of the Russians in Moldavia.
Inhabitants of Estonia and Lettlands, who came only during the Soviet time into these countries, got the possibility their nationality to attain only, after they had successfully put a test down, it knowledge over the national history, whose examined customs and the national language. Particularly in Latvia it came to protests of ethnical Russians against instruction in Lettisch and the locking of Russian schools. About half of the Russian minority in Latvia speaks only Russian. Since 1992 has 137,000 inhabitants the estnische nationality in Estonia on this way receives, about which most ethnical Russians were. 136.000 or 10% the inhabitant is still without nationality. In Latvia that so far scarcely 100,000 naturalizations face 17% of the lettischen population since 1995 of well 400,000 “non--citizens” -. Their legal status as “non--citizens” is unique in the world-wide law practice and contradicts the standards of the European union.
Russians in other states of the world
- Brazil - 122,000 Russians and Russischstämmige
- China - approx. 15,000
- Germany - approx. 180,000
- Finland - approx. 28.000 (0.54%)
- Israel - about 1 million Russischsprachige (15%)
- Canada - 80,000 Russians and Russischstämmige
- Romania - approx. 43.000 (0.2%)
- Turkey - the 20,000
- USA - approx. 338,000 Russians and 5.1 millions Russischstämmige
in the People's Republic of China are recognized the Russians (俄罗斯族) as official minority, which already exists there since generations. Here they live in the north of Xinjiang, internal Mongolia and in Heilongjiang. Since the end of the Soviet Union there are again larger immigration movements, both from Russians to China, and from Chinese to Russia.
One estimates that 5.1 million inhabitant of the USA are russischstämmig. Particularly worth mentioning is here Alaska, which was originally part of the Russian realm, until it was sold 1867 to the USA. In the wedding of the colony 40,000 Russians in Alaska lived, mainly on the Aleuten. Hier findet sich immernoch eine克莱茵orthodoxe Minderheit。 According to the census of 2000 however only 706,242 Americans call Russian as their everyday life language. Larger groups of Russian Americans live in New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, San Francisco and bad clay/tone. About 90% of the Russian-speaking Americans are Jews. About 80% of the Russian-speaking Americans are not born in the USA. One assumes between 1990 and 2000 more than half millions immigrants from the states of the former Soviet Union established themselves in the USA.
From the earlier Soviet Union over one million Jewish immigrant came to Israel, of it alone in the time of 1989 to 1999 more than 750.000. Today one assumes about 1 million Israeli Russian speak. Into as far one it as Russians to designate can, is matter of opinion. In the Soviet Union and its succession states Jews are counted as own group of peoples, although the far majority Russian speaks as native language.
the Russians living at the coast of the white sea are called since ever ago Pomoren, it are the descendants of the old Nowgoroder and possess own cultural courses in Tracht, folklore and discussion. In Danube - delta live descendants of the Russian Altgläubigen, the Lipowaner. Among a further Russian grading group one can rank the Don and the Kuban Kosaken. Often also the Siberian Russians refer to their certain cultural self-sufficiency.
in German citizens of the Russian federation are called often overall Russians, independently their respective ethnical affiliation. In the Russian one against it “russkij” primarily ethnical Russian means. The nationality designates against it the adjective “rossijskij” (российский), which is derived from “Rossija” (Россия = Russia). A Russian citizen of arbitrary ethnical affiliation is called accordingly “Rossijanin” (Россиянин), Plural “Rossijane” (Россияне), which could be translated with “soot countries”. However sometimes in the colloquial language this distinction can be lost.
forming modern Russian surnames found between that 16. and 17. Century instead of. The typical endings were thereby the genitive endings - ow /-ew and/or. - in, those today approx. 2/3 of the Russian surnames possess. One mostly formed thereby the genitive to first names, animal names or occupations. Rarer name endings were - ski (adjective; either to the geographical origin or by immigrants from Polish litauischem realm area was imported), - ych ( Pluralgenitiv, particularly in the Urals ), - itsch, - ez, - AC referred, - ago. In the more recent time also names arose - enko and - uk from the Ukrainian area.
Since the genitive in the Russian one is DEK-lined depending upon Genus, female surnames keep attached with the endings - ow , - ew and - in in each case an additional A. The adjective dung - ski changes too - skaja. All other cash on deliveries are not DEK-lined.