the term Russian-German is a comprehensive term for the German minority in Russia. Colloquially also the ethnic Germans inhabitants of the other former Soviet republics than “Russian-Germans” are designated, although this correct-proves than” Ukrainedeut “,” Kazakhstan German “etc. are designatedshould. In addition, these often still call themselves as Russian-Germans (the Russian-Germans are falsely called occasionally also German Russians).
This concerns regionally much group (Volga German, Wolhyniendeut, Bessarabiendeut, Krimdeut, Kaukasiendeut originally distributed, Black sea Germans) within the Russian Zarenreiches. Some of them even their settlements based in the far east at the Amur. Today still about 800,000 Russian-Germans in the Russian federation (strongly sinking tendency) live.
Table of contents
major items: History of the Russian-Germans
already in 15. Century gave it isolates Germans in Russia, which concentrated particularly in the capital Moscow. This russifizierten either or turnedafter completion of its task (mining industry, military affairs, medicine, science) into their homeland back.
Reasons for the immigration were various. For the pazifistischen Mennoniten release from the war service, for many different was substantial the free dispatching of country. As the first Katharina calledthe large one in the year 1763 their German compatriots on a large scale in the country. Before there were already larger groups in Moscow and northwest Russia (Nowgorod, Pskow, pc. Petersburg).
1914 lived approximately 2.4 million in the Zarenreich (including Russian Poland)Russian-German.
After beginning of the Hitler-German over case on the Soviet Union 1 became,209,430 Russian-Germans according to the decree of the highest Soviet of 28. August 1941 within fewer weeks under the reproach of the Kollaboration with the third realm from the European partsthe Soviet Union eastward - predominantly Siberia, Kazakhstan and into the Urals - into special settlements so mentioned deportiert. Several hundredthousand - the not determined number varies around 700,000 - died in this time particularly at bad work, lifeor medical conditions. The Germans in the western areas of the Ukraine escaped first this fate. They were resettled however 1944 into the Warthegau in the context of the “home in realm resettlement”. At the beginning of of 1945 came from there from a mostly wild escape before the red one Army of far to the west into the area of the today's new Lands of the Federal Republic and e.g. also Lower Saxony. After end of the Second World War the USSR these Germans deportierte and. A. to Siberia and central Asia. The part of the Russian-Germans from the Soviet zone of occupation becameon arrangement back into the USSR “repatriates”, while the parts, which were in the western zones of occupation, frequently by wrong promises of the Soviet liaison officers (“comes home - your men wait already for you”) into the USSR were back-lured.
In the 60's slowly the departure of Russian-Germans began into its historical and cultural homeland. Above all they resettled into the Federal Republic, in addition, in the GDR some families began a new life. Only into that 80's and particularly after the self dissolution of the Soviet Union 1991 the number to Germany of the back travelers evacuees increased and amounted to for many years around 200.000 per year, whereby since center of the 1990er years more and more also non-German relatives alsoto Germany came. Since then the number of entries from year decreases to year strongly, so that the evacuee stream will triumph probably completely to Germany in the next years.
today's situation in Russia
at the 1. July 1991 the 1938 dissolved German national circle half city (Nekrassowo) in the Altai was again-created, to 18. February 1992 took place the establishment of the German national circle Asowo (with Omsk). With Saratow and Wolgograd are further national circles or - districts (Okrugs) to be based. Inthe proximity of Uljanowsk at the Volga at the beginning of the 90's the German village Soviet (village advice) was likewise created by Bogdaschkino. The future of these autonomous things on lowest stage is however questionable, because the old-established ethnic Germans population also from there by the majorityalready emigrated.
- Pure hard Aulich: No trace of romance. The generation-spreading fate of the Russian-Germans. To a study of Hugo hitting a corner ore. In: Suevica. Contributions to Swabian the history of ideas and literature 9 (2001/2002). Stuttgarr , S. 467-473 (ISBN 3-88099-428-5)
- The federal center for political education: Information for political education (number 267)
- to history of the Russian-Germans
- Russian in Germany
- Russian culture in Germany
- late repatriate
- homeland association of the Germans from Russia
- refugee federations
- Plautdietsch (… thatFlat-German the evacuee)
- Sudeten Germans
- mountain valley