São Tomé and Príncipe

República Democrática de
São Tomé e Príncipe

Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe
Flagge von São Tomé und Príncipe Wappen von São Tomé und Príncipe
(detail) (detail)
office language Portuguese
capital São Tomé
system of government Präsidiale democracy
president Fradique de Menezes
head of the government Tomé Vera Cruz
surface 1,001 km ²
number of inhabitants 187,410 (conditions July 2005)
population density of 187 inhabitants per km ²
independence from Portugal to 12. July 1975
currency Dobra (STD)
time belt UTC
national anthem Independência totally
Kfz characteristic STP
Internet TLD .st
preselection + 239
Karte Afrikas, São Tomé und Príncipe hervorgehoben
Karte von São Tomé und Príncipe
Der Golf von Guinea

the island state São Tomé and Príncipe [sɐ̃u̯ntuˈmɛ ɛ ˈprĩsipə] is appropriate for about 200 km before the coast of Africa in the gulf west of Guinea before Equatorial Guinea and Gabon.

Table of contents

geography

São Tomé and Príncipe is after Seychelles the secondarysmallest state of Africa. Over 90% the inhabitant São Tomé live on the southern, larger island,48 km long and 32 km is broad. It is the gebirgigere of the two islands. The highest collection is 2,024 m highly. On São Tomé lies the capital of the same name. The northern, smaller Hauptinsel Príncipe is about 16 km longand 6 km broad. The highest collection of the island Príncipe measures 927 meters.

Both islands are part of a mountain chain resulted from volcanic activities, however there are there no more active volcanos.

The southern point São Tomés is enough to the equator.

The largest cities are (conditions 1. January 2005):

  1. São Tomé: 56,167 inhabitants
  2. Santo Amaro: 8,239 inhabitants
  3. Neves: 7,392 inhabitants
  4. Santana: 6,969 inhabitants
  5. Trindade: 6,636 inhabitants

see also: List of the cities in São Toméand Príncipe

population

the population growth lies with approximately three per cent the baby and child number of deaths with six per cent and/or. 7.7 per cent. The life expectancy amounts to 64 years.

Apart from the office language Portuguese, which function at the same time as Lingua Franca, become upthe islands still different on Portuguese and western Bantu languages based Kreolsprachen spoken: Saotomense (70.000), Principense (1.500) and Angolar (5.000).

About 80% of the population are catholics. About 10% of the population are Neuapostoli.

history

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The colonial age

as discoverers of the islands applies the Portuguese sailor João de Santarém, for that on behalf the buyer Fernão Gomes, which of the Portuguese king Alfons V. the right acquired, annually 100 Leguas of African coast in the name thatPortuguese crown, however at own expense to explore. To 21. December 1471 he discovered São Tomé, to 17. January 1472 finally Santo António (or also Antão), which was renamed 1502 in Principe.

1485 took place the establishment firstPortuguese address. On the one hand the islands served as place of transshipment for the slave trade between Africa, Portugal, Brazil and the Caribbean islands, on the other hand one settled Portugal of the Inquisition expelled Portuguese Jews and convicts. 1572 became São Tomé and in the subsequent year then alsoPríncipe directly the Portuguese crown subordinates. In the future a plan day economy with changing Monokulturen was first formed , in 16. to 18. Century Zuckerrohr, then in the first half 19. Century coffee and finally since approximately 1850 cocoa, At the beginning 20. Century were the islands even the largest cocoa producer of the world.

With the establishment of different liberations movement outside of the country the end of the colonial age began. In Libreville (Gabon) 1950 a liberation movement were created by students, 1960 in Ghana was the establishment of the Comité de Libertaçao de São Tomé e Príncipe (CLSTP) as forerunners of the MLSTP (Movimento de Libertação de São Tomé e Príncipe) (starting from 1972). 1974, after the carnation revolution in Portugal becamethe MLSTP as legitimate agency recognition, what then finally led 1975 to the dismissal into independence. The MLSTP controlled the country as a unit party the first 15 years after the end of the colonial age.

Nachkoloniale history

independence from Portugal to 12. July 1975.

1991 are selected Miguel Trovoada to the president of the country.

1995 come it to a Putsch. The following governments are not characterised by stability.

To 5. January 1999 becomes Guilherme Posser there Costa the Prime Ministerappointed. However corruption scandals bring, in those falsified government notes in the value of 500 millions US Dollar the main role play, the government fast in distress. In March 1999 the Minister of Finance as well as the president of the central bank withdraw.

In August 2001 Fradique becomes deMenezes to the president selected.

Militärputsch 2003

to 16. July 2003 comes it to a Militärputsch under guidance of major Fernando Pereira.

The president Fradique de Menezes is at this time on state visit in Nigeria,therefore by the Putschisten only the Prime Minister minister as well as some other Ministers are arrested. Already on the next day the well-informed Putschisten an interim government and new elections on. As reason for the Putsch the uncertain political situation on that became from the PutschistenIsland indicated, which had resulted from oil finds some years before and the quarrels resulted from it. After eight days the Militärputsch on pressure of the international community is unblutig terminated. In a “memorandum OF Understanding” becomes a stronger participation of the population onimportant government decisions been entitled. It comes to a change in the cabinet under the whereabouts of the Prime Minister minister, but replacing of seven Ministers.

current

in September 2004 comes it again to a change in the cabinet to a bribery scandal, into that the Prime Minister minister and further Ministerswere complicated.

politics

the republic exist since independence 1975 with a condition of 1990.

The parliament (Assembléia Nacional) has 55 members, that are selected on four years (data of 2000). The president becomesevery five years selected. Right to vote has each citizen over 18 years.

Sao Tomé and Príncipe is one of the few states, which recognize not the People's Republic of China, but the Republic of China on Taiwan according to international law.

administration

São Toméand Príncipe is arranged into two provinces, these again into seven districts.

  • the island São Tomé and the surrounding islands form the province of the same name with the city São Tomé as province capital. The province is divided into six districts.
  • the island Príncipe and the surrounding islands form the province of the same name with the capital Santo António. The province forms at the same time the sieved district.

economics

the currency of the country is divided the Dobra, into 100 Céntimos.

That todaystill economically insignificant island state exports nearly only cocoa (portion of 2001: 93 %). This economic adjustment still originates from the colonial age. 2001 imported goods in the value of 20 million euro faced exports in the value of 2.5 million euro. Are imported,among other things from Portugal and France, food and living animals (30%), capital goods (21%) and fuels (11%). Most important export country are the Netherlands. The foreign debt was already 2001 with 260 million euro, thus the restaurant achievement from over7 years. This contains however debts at a value of 166 million euro, already left. The inflation rate amounted 2001 to 8,6%.

The gross national product 2003 amounted to 556,9 billion Dobra (approx. 50 millions Euro), the gross national product 2003 per inhabitantlay therefore with approximately 283 euro. For the future offshore promotion of oil becomes and - gas expects. The geostrategic situation in west Africa, which is considered as future of the drilling places, becomes and. And. to the first oil-political race between the People's Republic of China and the USA lead. Both strive at present strengthened diplomatically for exploration and drilling rights for intimate companies. The moreover one the USA seem interested to establish on Sao Tomé a naval basis.

culture

  • national holiday: 12. July (independence)

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: São Tomé and Príncipe - word origin, synonyms and translations



Coordinates: 0°-2° N, 6°-7° O

 

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