as baby or a baby one designates a child starting from the birth in the first Lebensjahr. In this time it is satisfied frequently with the mother's milk. Because of the suction reflex it is called baby. During the first four weeks it is called “newborn child “. Starting from the second Lebensjahr one calls it “infant “.
For the first Lebensjahr there are typical development phases. The tolerance width becomes larger with increasing age. Development deficits can be caught up quite at short notice. Remarkable or long-term deviations should be clarified always medically. They are article of the Pädiatrie.
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of feelings (over sensory stimuli ) and reactive movement (over neuromuscular interaction) is meant 21 days old with sensomotorischer development. The current research assumes humans fall back in his first Lebensjahr to an immanent teaching program that it makes possible for it to carry out a continuous development from the birth to the upright conditions.
Babies are already like all humans individuals. They are different and have already character characteristics. A normal development of the baby is not therefore one, which corresponds to the average, under any circumstances meant however deviating from normality equal to Unnormalität. There is rather a very large range to normal developments and the order of the learned abilities can be also very different. While the baby already laughs from full neck, an only mild one of the same age grinst; while the one directly from crawling to running turns into, crawls other much longer, and so on.
the first days
immediately after the birth an examination of the vital functions takes place after the APGAR - scale in Germany (newborn Screening). Are examined respiration, pulse, skin color, muscle tonus and the Vigilanz of the child 1, 5 and 10 minutes after the birth. With births in the hospital healthy found children as well as the nut/mother are shifted in the newborn child room and to be able often on the same day home. Cases of risk will become observed, ill newborn children stationarily treated.
The normal respiration rate is with for instance 40-50/min. The pulse lies on the average with 120-140/min, heart frequencies to 200/min with the crying baby is not unusual meanwhile. Babies are with the birth approx. 52 cm largely. During the first yearly they grow by approximately 25 cm. The average weight amounts to 3400g. With under 2500g one speaks of a lack birth (frequent with Frühgeburten). By the adjustment it comes in the first days to a decrease in weight of up to 10% of the birth weight, after 3-4 days usually increases the child weight and reaches approx. 10 days after relieving again its birth weight. The adjustment mechanisms concern the respiration, the heat regularization, the cardiovascular system, the digestive tract, the general blood circulation and the argument with the force of gravity.
The first chair course of the newborn child, the Mekonium or also child pitch, are viscous and very darkly colored to black. In the following life days the chair more highly liquid and is rather yellowish colored. An Mekonium outlet of the Fetus still before the birth shows up in a green colouring of the fruit water. Often an oxygen under supply of the Feten is appropriate for that to reason, which can have various reasons, usually however mild runs. Feared complication is possibly. resulting Mekonium aspiration syndrome. If the Mekonium is missing within the first two days after the birth, a bottleneck, a catch or a transportation disturbance can be present within the intestine range. This can lead to a peritoneum inflammation (Peritonitis).
the first month
remarkable - however normal - are uncoordinated mass movements, the inclined body attitude (asymmetry) and the Moro reaction in such a way specified (stretching and clasping reflex with sudden noises).
|lying on the back||lying on the belly|
|head||stretched to the side turned, to the rear||stretched to the side turned, to the rear|
|spinal column||convex to the face side||grossbogig (box seat), emphasis: Breastbone|
|of arms||into U-stops, hand gefaustet, thumbs hidden||does not angebeugt under the body, a supporting function|
|of legs||easily bent and spread, feet soil contact||to the belly pulled|
|behavior||cries with uneasiness; Body contact, Herumtragen and a stroking calm down. The baby sleeps very much.|
the second month
the mass movements are still dominance, balancing attempts gegen die Schwerkraft führen zum Tonuswechsel der Muskulatur --> the child stretches “all Viere of itself” (Dystonie). After 6 weeks the thumb should be free.
|lying on the back||lying on the belly|
|head||to the side turned, starting from the 6. Where. fix possible||to the side turned, can to 45° be raised briefly|
|spinal column||less asymmetry||emphasis: lower ribs/navels|
|of arms||hand hand co-ordination||lower arm-support, to wrist in central position|
|of legs||from time to time taken off||hip and knee to go into aspect ratio|
|behavior||more attentive, regarded - listens - listens, coincidental seizing, Vokalisieren, social smile|
the third month
the mass movements are diminished by the increasing brain-ripe. Reflex-well-behaved body attitudes depend on the head position (tonische reflexes). The head can be turned alone without the trunk. A carrying of the legs (upside-down position) and elbow-support (prone position) should “actively” be, thus no “dips”.
|on the back lying||on the belly lying|
|head||central position and selective head turn possible||outside of the supporting surface turned|
|spinal column||symmetrically, weight direction shoulder shifts||Schwerpkt: Hypogastric region/Symphyse|
|of arms||hand hand mouth co-ordination, coincidence seizing||more symmetrically elbow-support|
|legs||stretchers of the legs possible (Hüft and knee joints in 90°-Stellung)||central position of the joints, selective foot mobility|
|behavior||attentively, regarded - hears can voices differentiate between, laughter, Quiet, blowing sounds|
the fourth month
the primitive reflexes and the tonischen reflexes become diminished. The brain-ripe makes a selective moving possible of the head, the trunk and the extremities against each other. It begins “go and standless time” (Abasie and Astasie).
|on the back lying||on the belly lying|
|head||selective head turn fully developed||during head turn Gewichtsverlagerung to the rear side|
|spinal column||rotation beginning, child tries to turn||singleelbow-supports, selective rotation of the eddy bodies possible|
|arms||equilateral purposeful seizing (split brain)||singleelbow-supports|
|legs||foot foot co-ordination||assumption of supporting function in since situation|
|behavior||color seeing is possible, it more attractions is taken up, it plays with its language|
the fifth month
it begins the standing readiness. In addition the “body placing reactions” develop, i.e. the body begins to win the fight against the force of gravity and new movements coordinates to learn. This begins with independent turning, which should be developed up to the sieved month fully. The head mobility and - control is final.
|on the back lying||on the belly lying|
|spinal column||full spinal column mobility, turn possible||tricks up to singleelbow-support (play attitude)|
|arms||seizing over the body center to the other side possible||intensive playing in singleelbow-support (“small garden dwarf”)|
|legs||leg length differentiation for the rotation (a leg tightened)||edge of foot transfers supporting function to since situation|
|behavior||repeating same play samples (vibrate, strike)|
the sixth month
in the upside-down position the development with the hand hand foot co-ordination is locked. The environment attractions motivate the child to explore the world in a “higher floor”. It turns on the belly, in order handsupports to compile. It supports itself off with the hand inner surfaces.
Play behavior: it told, if it alone is, it begins to understand names (mummy, dad…)
the sieved month
from the prone position the first progressive movement attempts begin for the investigation of the environment.
- Robben --> Forwardpull with bent arms, with or without leg participation, in order to reach something before itself. Rigid aspect ratio of the arms or legs would be remarkable.
- Pivoting --> Child makes a gyration in half side situation (singleelbow-support), in order to reach something beside or behind itself. Side differences would be remarkable.
The hand reaches into the Zangengriff, articles from one into the other hand is handed over (“Bimanuelle co-ordination”). The radius of action is extended, it copies much, refused by head vibrating, applauds with joy.
the respected month
the standing readiness should be fully developed, i.e. when passive putting it is to take over consciously weight with the legs. Crawling is prepared: From the Vierfüsslerstand it falls back into the Fersensitz and pushes again forward (“Rocking”). Playing on the side is made with stretched arm, in order more highly to come (“large garden dwarf”).
It points with the index finger to articles. The hand seizes with the “tweezers grasp”. It puts articles and pushes obstacles aside, around other things to seize/reach. The child does not only repeat his learned abilities , now fits it it changed situations on (if-THENthink). It shows search behavior, takes the cover away from something hiding (“object permanence”). It begins to “Fremdeln” (distinction: admits <--> unknown).
the ninth month
crawling becomes more coordinated. The child takes different seating positions: Long seat, since seat, Fersensitz, intermediate heel seat or Hürdensitz (a leg bent, the other one stretched). A restriction would be remarkable on only one position, and/or. a preferential side with the since and Hürdensitz. Social behavior as in the respected month.
tenth until twelfths month
the child begins itself to put. It pulls itself with the arms first into the installation in kneeling and, then it begins to high-lift itself with the leg. In order to achieve distant articles, it moves freely only in the supported since waiting course (“coastal ship travel”), before it learns, to run. It reduces gradually its support surface (from breitbeinig to hüftbreit): The Gleichgewichtsreaktionen must be still trained.
The child imitates language sounds and forms double syllables as “mamam” or “papap”.
reflexes and reactions
all earlychildlike reflexes and reactions are assigned to a certain range or level in the ZNS. Within a certain period they are physiological, and/or. they are expected. They accompany the sensomotorische development of the child. Reflexes are automatic, procedures regularly running off as answer to outside attractions (main over the skin receptors and the labyrinth). They become central over the Zwischenhirn (Thalamus and. Pallidum) mediated, the answer is hardly variable. Reactions are answers to outside attractions, which take place in a certain sample. The samples can be interrupted and changed. In the following only some reflexes and reactions important for the diagnosis and treatment are described (where = week, LM = life month, LJ = Lebensjahr). Where it does not stand differently, the starting position is the upside-down position.
palmarer grab reflex
- coating the hand inner surfaces with the thumb => Seize, fist conclusion
- physiologically: 0–6. LM, afterwards it prevents handsupports and. coordinated seizing
plantarer grab reflex
- coating the toe bundles with the thumb => Toe claws
- physiologically: 0–11. LM, starting from beginning of run disturbs and/or. prevents it a going
- loud noises or vibrations => 1.Abstreckphase (strain of the stretching musculature + head restraint straining) 2.Umklammerungsphase (strain of the bend musculature + head diffraction)
- physiologically: starting from 6. Where only Abstreckphase builds, off with the adjustment of the head
- child in prone position in the Schwebe held, 2 cm beside the spinal column (WG) with the fingers from the Schulterblatt to the basin comb along paints => WG since diffraction + head turn to the same side
- physiologically: 0–2. LM, weakening to 5. LM
walking reflex (automatic going)
- one carries the child with both hands laterally at the thorax and lets the feet mutually small weight take over => the child progresses.
- physiologically: 0–3. Mo, the legs must remain bent thereby.
- one carries the child with both hands laterally at the thorax and lets the feet at the same time small weight take over => the child answers with a rapid aspect ratio of the legs and the trunk.
- physiologically: 0–3. Mo
after the dismantling of the mass movements and the primitive reflexes develop differentiated movements, whereby the muscle tonus depends on the head position. Develop tonische reflexes, which are however never so strongly pronounced with a healthy baby that they obstruct the income of differentiated body positions. If they persist beyond the physiological period, they prevent putting and the development of the placing and Gleichgewichtsreaktionen up.
TLR (Toni labyrinth reflex)
- preventing the head => increasing bend tonus
- moving straining of the head => increasing stretching tonus
- physiologically: 0–3. LM
STNR (symmetrically tonischer neck reflex)
- preventing the head => Diffraction of the arms + aspect ratio of the legs
- moving straining of the head => Aspect ratio of the arms + diffraction of the legs
- physiologically: 0–3. LM
- Seitwärtsdrehung of the head => Face side: Poor stretched, hand loosely gefaustet, leg stretched with put on Vorfuss, Hinterhauptseite: Poor bent in loose U-stops, leg loosely bent with soil contact.
- physiologically: 4.–8. Where
the placing reactions serve to adjust head and trunk during a change of position in the area. They develop after the dismantling of the tonischen reflexes, serve the anti-force of gravity development and are the condition for the supporting and Gleichgewichtsreaktionen. They are integrated into the Wilkürbewegungen and to remain in modified form a life to keep long.
LSR (labyrinth placing reaction)
- at the 6 where begins the child to lift in prone position the head and to adjust it against the force of gravity.
- physiolog: full development up to 5. LM.
HSR (neck placing reaction)
- is turned the head in upside-down position, follows the body “EN bloc”.
- physiolog: up to the 3. LM, afterwards a selective mobility should be possible.
Body placing reaction to the body
- it makes the rotation possible between shoulder and basin belts with a turn.
- physiolog: it should up to 7. LM fully developed its, if the child of moving can turn in prone position and back. It is a condition for the adjustment of the head, the trunk and the extremities against the force of gravity.
- with the hands laterally at the basin is led briskly the carried child bauchwärts to the document => the child brings the arms forward to supporting.
- physiologically: starting from that 5. LM releasably.
with a change of the support surface, and/or. a shift of the body emphasis it comes to holding and supporting reactions.
- starting from 6. LM: in prone position, by lateral tilting of the document
- starting from 7. LM: in upside-down position, by lateral tilting of the document
- starting from 1. LJ: in the seat, in all directions. In the Vierfüsslerstand by dumps of the document
- starting from 2. LJ: while stationary
- starting from 3. LJ: in full swing
|Wiktionary: Baby - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- Remo H. Largo baby years (2001) ISBN 3492233198
Web on the left of
|Commons: Babies - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
- babies learn abstract words already in the first Lebensjahr
- like a baby nose Mutters smell recognize
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