|of these articles is concerned with the column as solidium. For the column as a component of a vehicle body see vehicle column.|
a column is a perpendicular support from wood, Stone or metal with round or polygonal cross section. Columns can a Gewölbe, arcades or the roof of a building support and partly or completely the walls replace. In contrast to a basic column they however also that can Decoration serve or even as Monument alone stand. Half built into the wall one calls it dazzling column (half column).
Or gave there are columns in all architectural styles and all historical epochs.
As Säulenordnung the systems of forms become and Proportions with columns and timberwork designates. They were also for far parts of the archie DEK door from the Renaissance to in 19. Century obligatorily (canonically).
Table of contents
components of a classical column
traditional is divided a column into three parts: The shank rests on the column foot, which so-called basis, and bekrönt of a Kapitell. The Säulenschaft is the only statically necessary component oneColumn. The remaining components have predominantly decorative tasks. In many architectural styles the combination of shank, basis and Kapitell forms fixed Säulenordnungen, which permit only little variation.
see the major item basis
the allocation of the basis beginsin the classical Säulenordnungen down with the square or rectangular Plinthe. She distributes the load of the column on a larger surface area. The Plinthe is verziert in rare cases with ornamentations or motives for sheet. On it further horizontal plates can rest,those the optical arrangement of the basis serve. Their cross section is round; the profile varies between concave fillets and convex bulges.
With the Greek temple form represented in the picture the basis stands on a treppenförmigen underbody, the Stereobat or Krepis '. Thosehighest stage is called Stylobat. A wedge-shaped compensating element (Scamillus) on the bent surface of the Stylobats ensures for the fact that the Plinthe on a horizontal surface rests upon.
see the major item shank
the shank of a column can monolithically from a part be worked, is with largerColumns however usually compound from several Säulentrommeln in such a way specified. Nearly everywhere shank forms are used, which taper themselves upward. With the classical Säulenordnungen is usual an easy curvature of the shank, so that it on for instance a third of its height thatlargest extent (Entasis) achieves. This differentiates the column from the round column, which does not exhibit Entasis.
The only decoration of the shank is the dorischen, ionischen and korinthischen correct the Kannelierung. Toskani column shanks are perfectly plain. Other style directions operatestraight decoration most sumptuous at the shank. Columns of Byzantine, Roman and gothical architecture, in addition, the German Renaissance are often covered with geometrical or organic ornamentations.
With Pilastern there is often no taper ratio upward. Frequently they are arranged thereby,that the Kannelierung begins only on a third of the shank height.
see the major item Kapitell
Between Kapitell and shank the Säulenhals , usually by a plate or a panel in an educated manner, lies which obtain between the construction units optically and with egg staff - ornamentations to be verziert can.
Above the actual Kapitells a square separates,ornamental plate, the abacus, the Säulenkopf of the timberwork verzierte. If the column does not carry a timberwork, but an elbow or a Gewölbe, a further, trapezoidally auskragendes construction unit can lie, the fighter on the abacus. It has also static function,because it leads up the pressure of the Gewölbes to the center of the column and preserves so the corners of the Kapitells.
history of the column forms
the oldest built columns,until today are received, decrease/go back to old persons Egypt . Although they are manufactured from behauenem stone, they imitate forms, as they develop when building with reed. Säulenhallen (Hypostyle), approximately in the Luxor temple or with the temple of Dendera, by monumental columns were carried. The very solid working columns were richly painted with hieroglyphics and Bildwerken.
Three kinds are differentiated from columns: Lotossäulen, whose Kapitell resembles a representative Lotosblüte; Papyrussäulen, those with strips of papyrustapes to be seem; as well as Palmensäulen, whose Kapitelle Palmblättern resembles. Neck and Kapitell imitate umgürtete bundles of branches or reeds. The Kapitell is either bud-like closed and tapers themselves upward (closed Kapitell) or widens themselves kelchförmig (open Kapitell).Also with the faces of Gods verzierte Würfelkapitelle was used.
Babylonian, assyrische and Persian columns
the columns, those in Assyrien, Babylonien and Persia in the centuries around 500 v. Chr. were used,can be regarded as gathering molds of the Greek column forms; they were partly imported however also directly from Greece. Here are already slim, high columns with Kannelierung like, which are bekrönt by uniformly arranged Kapitellen. The Persian Voluten (Schnörkel) probably became of ionischen building masters after Persepolis brought. Other still received Kapitelle is formed with horse or bull heads.
the Proportionierung, design and Ornamentierung of classical columns including the timberwork are called Säulenordnung. On these orders particularly temples and buildings of representations depended in the architecture of the antique Greece and the Roman realm. First two Säulenordnungen were differentiated,since Vitruv three main orders and some Nebenordnungen, which came out from them. For the history of European architecture the classical Säulenordnungen are coining/shaping. In architectural history are the Renaissance and the classicism 19. Century the most important phases, in those thoseArchitecture by a return to the antique canon renewed.
The dorische order is originated in the oldest of the Greek Säulenordnungen, in to 7. Century v. Chr. on the Peloponnes. It has comparatively compact, itself upward clearly tapering columns with clear swelling(Entasis) and usually 20 flat, sharply together-pushing longitudinal furrows (Kanneluren) to Säulenschaft. The column stands without basis directly on the underbody (Stylobat). The shank carries a horizontally rotating groove at least at the upper end and carriesa three-divided Kapitell, consisting of the inconspicuous, likewise kannelierten neck (Hypotrachelion), which Echinus, a toric cushion and the abacus, which locking square cover plate, on which the timberwork rests. The timberwork is for his part essentially doubledivided into Architrav or Epistyl from smooth stone bars and a Fries, which are verziert with Triglyphen (ends of wooden ceiling beams stylized ) and Metopen (medaillonförmigen reliefs). Over it the Giebel with the Tympanon is appropriate, for the Giebeldreieck. Vitruv, that the columnsafter the human measure characterized, the strength and beauty of the male body sees in the dorischen column.Leon Battista Alberti again describes it as proportion of 7:1, thus as relationship of the height to shank width.
the ionische order hasslimmer columns, which taper themselves only easily. The 20 to 24 Kanneluren separated from bars is deeper and ends briefly before column foot and - head in a roundness. They stand for a square on a basis, consisting of the Plinthe,Base plate, and a consequence of horizontal bulges and fillets (tori and Trochili). The Kapitell is more complex than the dorische: The Echinus is more delicate and than egg staff in an educated manner, among them still another narrow Perl staff lies. Above the Echinus liesthe typical Pulvinium with lateral Voluten, a pad, which is rolled up to snails laterally. The abacus is flat and smaller than the Pulvinium. The timberwork is split in the Epistyl with three easily pre-assembled-rising up stages (Fasciae) anda Gesims with tooth cut or a Fries with reliefs. Vitruv sees the frauliche slimness in the ionischen column. Alberti describes it as proportion of 8:1.
The korinthische order is a brightistic derivative from the ionischen order. The columns are stillslimmer and more highly, under the floralen Voluten of the Kapitells is additionally a wreath/ring of Akanthus sheets. (The Roman Kompositkapitell is still enriches verziert and has larger Voluten.) the timberwork is three-divided into Epistyl, Relieffries and tooth cut. Vitruv sees in thatkorinthischen column the virgin/girlful Zartheit. Alberti describes it as proportion of 9:1.
As Kompositordnung designates one both the korinthische order on use of the Kompositkapitells (a combination of korinthischem and ionischem Kapitell) and also a facade design of dreistöckiger buildings also before-dazzled columns, half columns or Pilastern, those in the ground floor of the dorischen, in the first stickthe ionischen and in the second stick of the korithischen order follows. This front program was developed in Roman architecture and taken up in the Italian Renaissance again.
Roman columns have a basis, which possesses a square surface area and into a circular top side one transfers upward. The triangular Zwickel, which develop thereby,by Blattformen (hitting a corner sheets) or figures are decorated. The shank is often spiral or with lozenge samples verziert.
In Roman column rows often importance is attached to the fact that each column and each Kapitell are individually arranged. The Kapitell Roman columns is like the basis würfelförmig, whereby the lower edges are rounded off, in order to attach to the circular cross section of the column. Roman Kapitelle is often decorated with figures or sheet work.
The distance between the column axles in a column row becomes as oh width, which designates clearance between the outside edges of the columns at its lower diameter Interkolumnium.
A facade organization with columns, which extend over several projectiles of a building, becomes as Kolossalordnungdesignated and serves above all the optical structuring of the front.
Beside the freely standing column there is the only partly stepping out dazzling column (half column, three-quarter column). They can be combined into bundles, which are to be found in particular in medieval architecture. Hereone speaks also of services, bundles of half or three-quarter columns, which is pre-aged to a column and which at least partly carries the load of the Gewölbes.
Columns, which move-ran as flat is arranged, are called Pilaster. Pilaster can also graduatedwill, in order to achieve a plastic wall organization, what is to be found in the architecture of the baroque frequently. If they extend over several floors, one speaks of Kolossalpilastern.
columns from rough or worked on Menhiren are already as basic elements in some Megalithanlagen Cueva de Menga. Special forms of the column developed also in the before-historical cultures on the Balearen. On the one handa short (rarely more than 2 m) measuring conical column was, with the smaller cross section at the basis was set up around the floor slabs of a building of cults dug into the earth to carry. To second it was a column out4 -6 gestappelten Monotlithen, by ever about 1 m ³ contents, in the center (mostly round) of the Talayots one put up around the floor to carry. At many buildings the antique one, in addition, the baroque and art nouveau replace the columns to sculptures.Female figures are called thereby Karyatiden , Kanephoren or Koren; male depending upon body attitude Atlases (with arms strained upward, which support the timberwork) or Kouroi (in upright attitude with angelegeten arms).
free standing columns
incertain forms appear to columns also as alone standing Monumente. One since the Roman antique one existing form is already the triumph column or victory column. It is often used as representative monument of important statesmen or won battles at public places. Triumph columnsfrequently as independent building are conceived, which is accessible from the inside. The most famous examples in Rome are the Trajanssäule and the Mark Aurel column, which both from a spiral Bilderfries umwunden are. The classicism availed itself with this Roman form of theTriumphmonuments and integrated it into large-scale city drafts. The model became here Napoleon, who let himself be built a triumph column according to kind of the Trajanssäule on the Place Vendôme in Paris (finished 1810). Further well-known klassizistische triumph columns are the admiral Nelson column to Trafalgar Square in London (1843), the Ludwig column in Darmstadt (1844) and the citizens of Berlin victory column (1873).
An interesting variant, which shows that the used Stilelmente also differently be used can, is thereby the resident of Munich peace angel, that the generals of the French-German war of 1870/71 as well as their victory positively represents, differently than earlier victory columns however to the following peace is dedicated.
Not in each case it concerns with a free standing column a monument. There are it also with almost more functionalMeaning. In addition the so-called advertising pillar counts.
Further Monumente, which consist of free standing columns:
further special cases
partial are called also unmarried elements due to their vertical form column, even if basis and Kapitell are missing to them:
- Slim high Bildstöcke are called often also „praying column “.
- Picture column monuments with statues are called because of their slim form.
- InYear 1855 was invented the advertising pillar of the citizen of Berlin printer Ernst Litfass as advertising surface.
- The post office mile column the Tanksäule
- (or also gasoline pump) served plague column
- and similar Monumente to the indication of distances has its designation because of their originally slim round form
- also„Bismarck column “monuments are designated, which the Bismarck tower - draft “God dawn” of the architect William circle as model have.
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