South America

South America is with a surface of 17.843.000 km ² and a population of 355.070.540 the fourth largest continent of the earth.

1494 became South America in the contract of Tordesillas of Pope Alexander VI. between Spain and Portugal divided. The easternPart, on which today Brazil is, Portugal was slammed shut, western Spain. Therefore in Brazil today Portuguese is spoken, while in nearly all other South American states the national language is Spanish. Only in Suriname Sranan Tongo becomes (as Lingua franca)and Netherlands (when official national language), in Guyana English and in French Guayana, which is however no independent state, but a French overseas section, French spoken.

Today still the furthest common indigenen languages in South America are Quechua, Guaraní and Aymara.

To table of contents

states in South America

Südamerika; politische Karte
South America; political map
State/
dependent area
surface (km ²) population
(estimations 2005)
population density
(inhabitant per km ²)
Argentina 2.766.890 38.592.150 14.0
Bolivia 1.098.580 8.724.156 7.9
Brazil 8.547.404 186.112.794 21.5
Chile 756,950 15.823.957 20.9
Colombia 1.138.910 42.310.775 37.0
Ecuador 283,560 13.212.742 46.0
Falklandinseln (UK 1) 12,173 2,967 0.2
French Guayana (Fr.) 91,000 191,300 2.0
Guyana 214,970 705,803 3.2
Paraguay 15.0 Peru 1.285.220
27.925.628 21.4 Suriname 163,270
492,829 3.0 Uruguay 176,220
3.415.920 19.0 Venezuela 916,445
25.017.387 27.0 sum 17.818.508
355.070.540 19.9 1 history

major item stresses 406.750 6.347.884

from Argentina [

work on

]: History of South America

the usual opinion is that over40,000 v. Chr. America over the Bering Strait was populated by asiatic trunks. Into South America the first traces of a population dip between 20.000 and 10.000 v. Chr. up. As the oldest American culture the Valdívia is considered - to culture in Ecuador in 4. Milleniumv. Chr.. Starting from that 2. Millenium v. Chr. developed individual local cultures in completely South America. The earliest, today still recognizable advanced culture, was those the Chavín de Huántar, those about 800 v. Chr. to 300 v. Chr.existed.Further there was among other things the Paracas -, Herrera -, Nazca -, Moche -, Chimú and Chachapoya - culture.

From approximately 1200 to 1532 the Inka , the probably most well-known advanced culture of South America, prevailed over large parts of the continent and createdenormous realm. The Inkareich was smashed by the arrival of the Spanish conquerers.

Already 1494 became South America in the contract of Tordesillas of Pope Alexander VI. between Spain and Portugal divided. The eastern part, today's Brazil, was awarded Portugal. Panamaand the remainder of the continent fell at Spain. Numerous mission acres came into 15. and 16.Jahrhundert to South America and introduced the Christianity. For this reason belong today over 96% to the population in South America (catholic) the Christianity. However are for some years evangelikale churches in come and register particularly in Brazil one move inlet. In the year 1543 the viceroy realms new Spain (Mexico and Venezuela) and Peru (Spanish part of South America and Panama) were created. 1717 separated Ecuador, Colombia and and the viceroy realm Neugranada formed Venezuela from the viceroy realm Peru. Bolivia, Chile, Argentina and Paraguay followed 1776 this example and created the new viceroy realm of the Río de la Plata.

The urge after independence took since thenconstantly too.1813 triumphed for the first time to insurgent in Caracas under the leader Simón Bolívar. In the south 1816 Argentina fought for independence. In the years 1817/1818 the independence of Chile followed. 1819 defeated the army under SimónBolívar the Spaniards in the battle of Boyaca and released thereby Colombia. The independence of Ecuador was implemented 1822. The armies of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar united and won the decisive battle with Ayacucho in Peru to 9. December 1824. With this battle the Spaniards withdrew themselves finally from South America.

After the independence from Spain large Colombia , consisting of the States of Venezuela, developed Colombia and Ecuador. Briefly Peru and Bolivia the alliance followed.But already 1832 disintegrated the Konföderation finally and it formed the today's national states.

Topographie
To topography

geography

see major items (still in treatment): Physische Geographie Südamerikas

Südamerikas Rückgrat bilden die Anden, ein Gebirgszug, der sich an derWest coast over 7.500 km along-pulls, from Colombia to the south point. In the center the low countries lie, taken by the powerful Amazon and its innumerable supplies. In the east are mountain countries. The south point of the continent is been appropriate for cape Hoorn, on an island.Here the Atlantic and the Pacific meet.

The climate is tropical warm in the north half of the continent. In the Anden there are several Klimastufen however because of the altitude. In Argentina, south Bolivia, south Brazil, Chile and Uruguay is subtropical the climate to moderately with pronounced seasons. At the south end of the continent one finds also subpolares climate, particularly in fire country and on the Falkland Islands.

The longest river of South America is the Amazon also over 6.671 km,the highest mountain of the Aconcagua also over 6.900 M.

Die Staaten des MERCOSUL/MERCOSUR
2002 the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT decreased

of the MERCOSUL/MERCOSUR

[ work on] to economics from South America by 0,3% and the unemployment ratio lay with 10,8%.

Due to in the past high inflation innearly all South American countries are the interest rates high and investments small. The interest rates lie normally about twice as highly as in the USA. So e.g. are they. 22% in Venezuela and 23% in Surinam. The exception is Chile.

Those South American community of states is a planned, the entire continent comprehensive foreign trade zone, which would combine the organizations Mercosur and and close A SHANk existing so far.

In South America the gap between realm and arm is frightening. In Venezuela, Paraguay, Brazil, andmany other South American states possess the richest 20% of the country 60% of the financial resources, while the poorest 20% less than 5% of the financial resources possess. This large gap can be seen in many South American cities, where barracks and Slums house at houseto Wolkenkratzern and Luxusapartements stand.

see also

Wikibooks: South America - learning and teaching materials
Wikinews: South America - current messages
Commons: South America - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wiktionary: South America - word origin, synonyms and translations

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