Southern States

Region der heutigen Südstaaten hervorgehoben
region of the today's Southern States emphasized

the Southern States in the broader sense are a region of the USA, which forms on the one hand a certain cultural region, on the other hand one of the civil war parties in the war of secession placed. According to the definition of the United States Census office the Southern States exist outaltogether 16 states with scarcely 100 million inhabitants on 2,384,143 km ².

It concerns thereby those Federal States of the USA, which south the Mason Dixon line, for which border between Pennsylvania and Maryland are appropriate, and were permitted in those up to the American civil war the slave attitude.In the closer sense the term designates those 11 states, which split themselves off 1860/ 61 after the choice of Abraham Lincoln to the US president the union, which Konföderierten states of America formed and were subject in the war of secession to the north states.

Table of contents

geography

most Southern States has a damp subtropical climate. Important geographical characteristics are (from east to west) the Atlantic coast, the Appalachen, the Mississippi River and the far landscapes of Texas. The soils are usually fruitful, the safe frost-protected period are more than six months. Typical plants of the area are life oaks, Magnolien, Dogwood and Weihrauchkiefer.

Vorkoloniale

time around

the year 800

around stratifizierte societies in the area, which profited from an economic surplus, developed history [work on] for the first time. Particularly the Mississippi culture is remarkable. The Indians operated agriculture (above all corn) and beganto settle in cities. The largest of the cities of the Mississippi culture, Cahokia, convenient in the proximity of the union of Missouri River and Mississippi River, had in 12. Century around 20.000 inhabitants. To what extent this development was affected by the Indians of Central America, is not finally investigated yet.

Around that13. Century around however began a fall of the cultures. The total population decreased/went back, cities to leave. The expedition Hernando de Sotos in 16. Century found many since long time places left obviously in the pass, the exchange of the trunks and cultures among themselves was onlya weak Abglanz its that can be reconstructed with archaeological finds from earlier time.

The inhabitants of the area belonged to Algonkin Sprachfamilie (Pamunkey, Shawnee ) to the language families of the Sioux ( Quapaw, Biloxi ), Irokesi languages (Cherokee, Tuscarora, Westos), Caddo (Hasinai), Kadohadacho, Natchitoches), the gulf languages (Atakapa, Chitimacha, Natchez, Tunica) and Timucuan (Apalachen, Choctaw, Oristas, Cusabos, Chickasaw, Guales, Alabama, Muskogee).

colonial time

first Spanish expeditions1527 /28 von Pánfilo de Naváez and Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca as well as 1539 /40 von Hernando de Soto 1539, who penetrated far into the interior, were accomplished. Although it is historically still disputed, the fall of the Mississippi culture began far before the expeditions of the Spaniards,these however shift a further serious impact with their weapons and particularly with brought in diseases the natives.

In the year 1585 walter Raleigh created the first English settlement on the soil of the today's USA. It was created on Roanoke Iceland (North Carolina),was not however from duration. Only in the year 1607 it succeeded to the Englishmen to create in Virginia the first permanent settlement Jamestown.

As new England was settled also the south first by English Protestanten. Later also different religious communities were added.

admission into thoseUnion

1776 ranked from the 13 establishment states of the USA six among the Southern States slave-holding: Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. Also as slave states 1792 Kentucky , 1796 threshing floor lake , became 1812 Louis IANA, 1817 Mississippi and 1819 Alabama taken up to the union. As well as since 1845 Florida and Texas as Southern States Arkansas, which joined 1836 of the union , continue to be considered to Missouri, which joined 1821 of the union . All these states permitted the slavery.

Cotton Kingdom

between the 1790ern alsothe invention of the Cotton Gins by Eli Whitney and the American civil war cotton became generally accepted as primary agrarian property. It contributed in this time considerably to supply the British textile industry. Several millions hectare earlier wilderness were opened; the process of one was accompaniedintensive modernization. The same number of workers, which could work on a hectare of cotton around 1800, worked on around 1850 twelve hectares, supplemental around corn fields and other fruits for self-sufficiency. The development of the wheel steamer falls just like the propagation of the railway to transport and the introduction of the telegraphinto this time. Humans were in the largest part of the Southern States around 1800 still self-supports, existed 1860 intensive trade relations to the north states and as well as all consumer goods and machines were imported. Center of the cotton industry was here particularly the State of Mississippi and the southern areaof Vicksburg along Mississippi the River with the urban center Natchez.

slavery

the slaves in the Southern States were born there as slaves or came up to its prohibition 1808 by the Atlantic slave trade into the country.

The slave work on the tobacco andCotton farms and Plantagen of the Southern States differed from the slave work established in former times on the Caribbean sugar piping plan days. Cultivation of cotton and tobacco were less strength intensive than sugar tubing cultivation - the slave owners could afford it to possess approximately for the half of women. They in most cases supported family connections,since these did not only provide for (monetary values) new generation, but also the danger of rebellions drastically reduced, since potenziell substantially more took part to lose had than in the Karibik. A danger, which was reduced also by the fact that the slaves never, as in the Karibik, the largestPart placed to the population.

The slave work was carried out either after the Gang-System or after the task system. In the Gang-System the slaves worked under (usually also enslaved) a custodian, in the task system all day long got them a certain task posed and had freely, if them these forwardsExpiration of the set time created.

Apart from the majority of the slaves, who worked on the Plantagen and farms, there were also to house slaves and skilled workers. The latters often became in the time, in which there was no work on the farm, at craftsmen in the obvious citiesit rents whereby the slaves a relatively large Freiheitspotenzial had.

The chances officially freely to come, were small. Traditionally the owners possessed the right their slaves into the liberty to dismiss, usually turned them however only with their own (did not recognize) children with female house slaveson. In the last years before the secession the fear began to grow that releasing would cause the slaves unrest, the right of the release partly alone on the governor of the individual states was shifted.

Naturally also slaves tried to flee. With the help of sympathizing personsand Abolitionisten succeeded this for example by the Underground Railroad. While rebellions were rare, sabotage occurred more frequently. The straight relating to crafts trained slaves had both the technical understanding and the possibilities of causing at the machines of their owners larger damage without their own actbecame obvious.

establishment of the Konföderation

ways of the fear, which will proceed new republican government under Abraham Lincoln against the slavery, avowed South Carolina in December 1860, still before the assumption of office of the newly selected president, its withdrawal from the union. Stillacting president James Buchanan was the opinion, this withdrawal is illegal, it gives however on the other hand also no legal basis for preventing it by force; it remained dormant therefore although Lincoln requested it for acting. Nearly everything followed this step by April 1861States of the deep south:Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas. After the attack South Carolina on on its national territory which was, but under federal administration the standing away Sumter, which the beginning of the civil war marked, stepped also Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina and Tennessee from the union. The border states in such a way specified -- Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware and Missouri -- remained against it in the union; the western part Virginias split itself off for his part Virginia and remained as new State of west Virginia in thatUnion.

after the civil war

also after the Southern States had lost the civil war, are racial segregation, racingism and subjectively noticed race differences there to today an important social and political topic. Racial segregation (segregation) applied there officially into the 1970er year. The Ku-Klux-clan enjoyed largeSupport both in the white population and under (excluding white) the social elite. Only the civil rights movement of the 1960er and the social change, which begin by increased influx, could weaken the problems at least somewhat.

characteristics of the south

common was at that time all Southern Statesa strong agricultural adjustment - contrary to the already to a large extent industrialized north. Particularly in the coastal plains the plan day economy was far common. Therefore there was “peculiar the institution” in these states, the special mechanism, how the US condition called the slavery. Between the owners of plan day in thatThere were even ones and the Kleinbauern in the mountain regions of the Appalachen substantial, economically caused contrasts. Therefore it came during the civil war to the “secession in the secession”, to the splitting off west Virginias from Virginia and the tried splitting off of east threshing floor lake from threshing floor lake.

Despite the reunification with the northafter the lost war of secession it gives to today noticeable differences between both regions. The sozio cultural contrasts draw themselves by all social classes and parties and coin/shape - expressed or unexpressed - since the phase of the Reconstruction the policy between the member states and the federation. Isolated personsthe population of the Southern States (so-called Rednecks) feel also today still another dislike opposite the “Yankees “(inhabitants of the north states) due to the lost war of secession.

In the Southern States developed Gospel, Blues and Country - for music. New Orleans was and is an important center for Blues and jazz, Memphis one for Blues and Soul. Nashville, threshing floor lake is the center of the commercial Country music. As “birth” skirt “n” of the roll is often called the first admission of the Elvis Presley in Memphis, originating from Mississippi. The Dixieland - jazz and that Southern skirt are designated directly to the Southern States.

Admit are the Southern State kitchen and its characteristics, Cajun Food, Soul Food and Tex Mex.

A common synonym for the Southern States is Dixie. The name is either from the term Mason Dixon line or derived from the French word “DIX” (ten)its, which was to be found in former times in the Southern States on the dollar notes. The land surveyors Mason and Dixon had measured the boundary line, which marked the separation between the American states, south those the slavery permitted and north those it was forbidden.

datathe secession


 

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