rapid-transit railway is usually the abbreviation of interurban train; occasionally also of rapid-transit railway or in rare cases also of metropolitan railway. It is a railway of the regional traffic, those in densely populated areas the suburban traffic of the cities and the suburbsserves.
It differs from the railway through:
- a clock timetable with more closely Zugfolge
- a special price system (rapid-transit railway tariff/late group tariff)
- pronounced cross-linking with the remaining means of transport in the suburban traffic
- special rapid-transit railway courses for fast passenger change, high transport capacity, strong acceleration
- to a large extent of the remainingEisenbahnverkehr separate, efficient city and suburb track
the term rapid-transit railway became for the first time at the 1. December 1930 in Berlin, after the electrification of the city, ring and Vorortbahnen starting from 1924, when short term for interurban trains uses. There was a uniform tariff here alreadysince 1890/91.Hamburg took over the term rapid-transit railway starting from 1934 for its city and Vorortbahn. The remaining, not with electrical motor coaches, but with steam courses, claimant Vorortstrecken were integrated into the net and the tariff of the rapid-transit railways and electrified later partial. Todaythe rapid-transit railway tariffs are replaced by group tariffs with the other suburban traffic means. Only starting from the 1960er years further rapid-transit railway systems developed in Germany.
Registration number (symbol/Logo) in Germany is white S on green circle. In Austria there is a white Sin different forms on blue reason. In Switzerland there is no common registration number.
A rapid-transit railway net is usually operated by only one enterprise. Exceptions are here the rapid-transit railway Rhine Ruhr, the rapid-transit railway Salzburg, as well as most rapid-transit railwaysin Switzerland.
Table of contents
rapid-transit railways in Germany
major item: Rapid-transit railways in GermanyHamburg, developed first, could fall back to well developed suburb tracks from the steam course time. With thatElectrification was selected the direct current supply with supply over the lateral bus bar, because larger changes could be saved by passages (bridge, tunnel), which lowered the costs. The common use of the tracks by railways with steam and/or. Diesel locomotives and direct current rapid-transit railway courses came herejust as forwards, as with the rapid-transit railways developed later.
The rapid-transit railway Berlin and rapid-transit railway Hamburg gave this mixing process up with the remaining railway traffic gradually. The alternating current supply over overhead line for the “usual” railway, established only later, is at the same trackwith direct current technically so complex that a complete separation of the plants was most meaningful in rapid-transit railway and remote course tracks also for verkehrlichen reasons. Thus the suburbs could be supplied further well and from the outside troublefree with rapid-transit railway connections.
All other rapid-transit railways inGermany are supplied exactly the same as the railway with alternating current via overhead line. These nets could be opened fast in large expansion, without which they had to wait for the extensive building of special tracks. Thus many courses operate for example the resident of Munich rapid-transit railway upthe external branches on regular railroad lines. However rapid-transit railway traffic is hardly to be consolidated with late regional or main line trains trouble-prone and its clock timetable. Therefore also the alternating current rapid-transit railway nets are later supplemented around special rapid-transit railway tracks. There are rarely rapid-transit railways also not electrified, those usuallywith Diesel motor coaches - like the Desiro - to be operated.
In Germany rapid-transit railway lines usually operate at least every 20 minutes in the peak hours in the core range. From the parallel run of several lines on same distance sections so Zugfolgen result up to about3 minutes. To the line terminator points in the surrounding countryside the offer dünnt itself out. Entrance-offered one reaches a better here mostly only by its own subgrade.
today gives it in Germany the following rapid-transit railway nets:
- Rapid-transit railway Berlin
- rapid-transit railway Dresden
- rapid-transit railway Hamburg
- Rapid-transit railway Hanover
- rapid-transit railway Leipzig-resounds
- rapid-transit railway Magdeburg
- rapid-transit railway Munich
- rapid-transit railway Nuremberg
- rapid-transit railway Rhine Main (Frankfurt/Main)
- rapid-transit railway Rhine Neckar (Ludwigshafen / Mannheim / Heidelberg / Karlsruhe)
- rapid-transit railway Rhine Ruhr/Rhine victory (Ruhr district / Cologne)
- rapid-transit railway Rostock
- Rapid-transit railway Stuttgart
The provincial town course Karlsruhe used the advertising-effective green S-course-Logo, because the U-metropolitan railway-Logo would be hardly appropriate because of the absence of underground stages, uses however in network plansand other publications the more correct term metropolitan railway.
With the enterprises mash gau rapid-transit railway (in Freiburg in mash gau) and local from course (in open castle) the word rapid-transit railway is only a name component for advertising purposes, here however actually concerns it regional courses.
rapid-transit railways in Austria
major items: Rapid-transit railways in Austriaof Austria - until 2005 usually the designation rapid-transit railway was usual - one established in the 60's in Vienna. As symbol to a large extent a white sharp edged “S” serves upblue background. The form of S is to stylize thereby the process of the original route by Vienna. Since this old symbol is inclined however to wake with some humans inglorious associations is in the meantime increases a swung variant. The Viennese rapid-transit railway placesagainst Berlin and Hamburg used to a large extent normal railroad lines do not separate an independent system apart from the original route in the city center. To before short the rapid-transit railway rubbing cars were attained by their own blue colour clearly recognizably, meanwhile (similar to Germany) the entireSuburban traffic a uniform colour mainly in red. The rapid-transit railway in Vienna operates 7,5min interval on the original route in the 3 -.The rapid-transit railway Salzburg was partly opened in the year 2004 (maximum configuration is not reached yet). It becomes the first Euregio rapid-transit railwayAustria, thus a transnational rapid-transit railway, whatever will refer the salt citizens of suburbs on German page. The distances are operated by two different enterprises. The ÖBB - Lines use the conventional Eisenbahnnetz and drive exclusively aboveground. Two further lines become from that Salt citizens local railway operated. The local railway lines reach the main station in the tunnel. As common symbol a geschwunges white “S” is used here on light blue background.
S-Bahnen/RER in Switzerland
major items: Rapid-transit railways in Switzerland
in that German-language Switzerland as into Germany and Austria the term rapid-transit railway is used and translated when bilingual publications in the French with RER; Example line plan rapid-transit railway Berne . In timetables the rapid-transit railway lines appear languageindependent with S and the line number.The rapid-transit railway Berne is the oldest rapid-transit railway in Switzerland and 1987 was opened. It is the only rapid-transit railway in Switzerland, some S as Logo upPublications uses.
The rapid-transit railway Zurich is the secondaryoldest rapid-transit railway, has however the largest net and most lines. After the course 2000 - further rapid-transit railway nets in pc. developed for initiative. Gallen (rapid-transit railway pc. Gallen), in central Switzerland (common net that Rapid-transit railway Luzern and the metropolitan railway course) and in the Tessin (rapid-transit railway Tessin).the European region Basel as Regio rapid-transit railway Basel also to Germany and France. A town center tunnel (“heart”) is as original route the two BaslerStations SBB and station of Baden in Zukuft connect.
To Geneva lake (fr. Lac Léman) is the rapid-transit railway Léman in the structure, which at present already operates express Vaudois in Lausanne with seven lines as Réseau. In Geneva is second centers of this net develop, which integrates then also the former RER connection again.
At the Bodensee with the adjacent Lands of the Federal Republic Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bavaria and Vorarlberg as well as Swiss cantons Thurgau and pc. Gallen and in the alpine Rhine Valley between Chur and Bregenz are transnational rapid-transit railway connections in discussion. Suggestions for a Bodensee rapid-transit railway are made * and a alpine Rhine course *.
Swiss rapid-transit railways are usually operated by different societies and to operate usually in the peak hours in the core range at least every 30 minutes.
rapid-transit railways and similar systems in other countries
world-wide give it the rapid-transit railways in the German-speaking countries similar suburb course systems, which can differ however in their organization from the German rapid-transit railway nets. The term rapid-transit railway becomes in the German language forSuburb traction networks applied, which correspond to the rapid-transit railway characteristics. Abroad the respective national language uses other designations and also the criteria is different in each country.
S-tog in DenmarkCopenhagen (Denmark) it gives S-tog (too German:S-course or rapid-transit railway) following the rapid-transit railway Berlin - S stands for “stiv køreplan” (firm timetable). The lines are marked by letters.
Linee S in ItalyMilan (Italy) become since 2005 the linesthe Servizio ferroviario suburbano di Milano (rapid-transit railway Milan) also with the letter “S” and the line number marked and designates the rapid-transit railway therefore also as Linee S - S stands here for “Suburbano” (suburb). One of the lines becomes ofthe same course company operated, as the rapid-transit railway in the Tessin.
RER in FranceParis (France) for the term is used Réseau express Régional (RER), thus literally express regional net. The term was coined/shaped in the 70's in Paris, becomes however meanwhile also in other large cities of France and frankophonen Switzerland for rapid-transit railway-similar Eisenbahnnetze used.
The use of the term RER is in Paris and the province however very different. Many also exclusively use the term for that Paris nets and speak in the province of “RER similar” nets. Only in Paris there are underground regional stationscomparably with the tunnel stations of the underground or rapid-transit railway. Only for years other French large cities their network of regional connections develop the 1990er, which is limited first and for foreseeable time however still to improvement of the offer to existing lines. Nowherethere are concrete plans for tunnels.
In Toulouse the line C of the Métro de Toulouse is called occasionally also RER toulousain, since it is operated with courses of the SNCF. The line has six stations on seven kilometers of length,thus a station distance of 1,4 km, comparably with rapid-transit railways.
Cercanías in Spain
major item: CercaníasSpain are designated the rapid-transit railways Cercanías. Itgives in eleven cities nets from to 12 lines, which become claimant by the national railway company Renfe in each case.
In some regions, particularly in the Basque country, in Kantabrien and Asturien exist also still rapid-transit railway-well-behaved operate the FEVE and EuskoTren up Schmalspur, which form the high-speed traffic net together with the Cercanías. In Barcelona 2 lines are operated of the Ferrocarrils de la generals de Catalunya.
Pendeltåg in SwedenSweden gives it since the 60's that Pendeltåg (Stockholm), which in Stockholm as well as the different local railways and the underground (Tunnelbana) an efficient net forms, and with the rapid-transit railways in the German-speaking countries is comparable.
The term Pendeltåg is used also as translation of rapid-transit railway,thus the rapid-transit railway Berlin on Swedish is called Berlin pendeltåg. Also for other similar mechanisms of the public local passenger traffic in Sweden the term is used, even if these do not fulfill the usual criteria of a rapid-transit railway.
In care a regional traction network connects named Pågatåg Malmö with the other southSwedish cities. It is often called in the Swedish mark MOS Pendeltåg. But so long in Malmö of the town center tunnels not yet finished and thatRoll material is not modernized, can one hardly of its own rapid-transit railway speak here, but must Pendeltåg in the case with a Nahverkehrszug equate.
further one similar systems in other countries
in the Slowakei Rýchlodráha, in Poland SzybkaKolej Miejska (SKM) and in Russia Elektritschka. Also on the British islands there are S-course-änliche systems: in Liverpool (Great Britain) the Merseyrail, in Dublin (Ireland) Dublin AREA rapidly transit (DART).
Also outside of Europe there were comparableDevelopments of a separate suburb traction network, e.g. in New York (new jersey transit, Long Iceland Railroad, Metro North), Philadelphia (SEPTA regionally Rail) and Chicago (Metra).
development and systems
of beginnings with steam
the increasing short-distance traffic also steam-covered courses on the railways into and around the increasing young German capital the Prussian state railways arranged Berlin to the building of own, of long-distance traffic separated, tracks for the Vorortverkehr. Exemplary concerning town construction 1882 developed the citizens of Berlin metropolitan railway with separate pairs of tracks forthe suburb and long-distance traffic as original route, which collects the Vorortverkehr from different directions until today. Already before the ring course taken in enterprise received exactly the same as the railroad lines to the citizen of Berlin suburbs etappenweise likewise separate suburb tracks.
1891 led the railway onespecial tariff for the steam dampfvorortzüge of the citizens of Berlin city, ring and Vorortbahn, like the system from now on one called. This suburban traffic tariff was not certified for the use of the main line trains, so that itself the Vorortbahnen also verkehrlich, by an increasing compressionthe Zugfolge, increasingly from long-distance traffic took off.
Similarly the development of Hamburg ran. Under the designation Hamburg Altonaer city and Vorortbahn opened the Prussian railway management Altona 1906 the passenger traffic with steam-covered courses between the cities Blankenese, Altona (Elbe) and Hamburg.
The short term rapid-transit railway was still not at all present at that time, although these Vorortbahnen had already functions of our current interurban trains.
as the electric drive still in the child shoes put, still was the Eisenbahn-Netze from the steam enterprisedominated. The electrical Eisenbahnverkehr with 15.000V alternating current from the overhead line occurred in the time around the First World War still rarely. Berlin stood at that time still completely under steam. One wanted however the citizen of Berlin Vorortverkehr more economically, more modern and also more pollution freearrange, because the load of the city was felt by the steam engines increasingly as disturbing.
The results of numerous attempts with alternating current as well as direct current, which found rather with streetcars and undergrounds application, fell for the close and long-distance traffic of the railwaysdue to the technical conditions at that time differently out. The German National Railroad decided finally - because the entire Wagenpark had to be renewed anyway - with the electrification of the citizens of Berlin city, ring and Vorortbahn for direct current, that over one laterally at the trackattached bus bar the new Triebwagenzügen is supplied.
Thus the first electrified distance went into rule enterprise into Berlin 1924. To Hamburg a similar system was introduced according to the principle of the citizens of Berlin rapid-transit railway only 1940, since 1907 here already existed inoriginally as attempt meant - suburb railway company with alternating current overhead line.
In order the modernity of the new suburb traction network in Berlin, which competed with the underground, to underline, received it starting from 1930 the designation rapid-transit railway. Starting from 1934 also the Hamburg Altonaer used city and Vorortbahnthe name rapid-transit railway.
since 1933 existed the electrical Stuttgart Vorortverkehr, and the suburb tracks Esslingen - Ludwigsburg with the electrification of the remote course of Munich over Ulm and the Geislinger Steige to Stuttgart an alternating current overhead line received.Only the alternating current motor coaches procured again for Stuttgart 1933 accomplished an enterprise with many rapid-transit railway characteristics, got however because of the missing special suburban traffic tariff not this designation. On the suburban route between Esslingen, Stuttgart and Ludwigsburg the red Heuler operated in the 20-minute interval. InStuttgart main station turned the motor coaches until 1978 within three minutes their driving direction, in order to continue their journey to the line terminator points.
In the time after the Second World War first the Stuttgart mayor at that time Arnulf Klett for the building one sat downRailway tunnel, in order to tie up the city center and the southern quarters beyond Stuttgart main station, which is put on as head station, to the Vorortverkehr. To a fast conversion of the plans it did not come however only once. Only in the 60'sone planned to insert in further German large cities and densely populated areas beside Berlin and Hamburg rapid-transit railway systems. On direct current systems as in Berlin or Hamburg, which developed on distances of the steam railway, one had to do without and convert a solution, with that the rapid-transit railway courses thatin the meantime to a large extent with alternating current - overhead line electrified Eisenbahn-Netz to share could.
new rapid-transit railway impulse courses
one developed for this a obstruct-fair motor coach with stepless entrance, which is suitable also for the employment in town center tunnel: The ET 420. One had planned,in some cities of systems to insert, however it came only once only in Munich, Stuttgart, Frankfurt and the Rhine Ruhr - region to the building of rapid-transit railway systems. Since Munich became the venue of the olympic plays, became the building Munich nets overa few years preferred. The nets in Frankfurt and Stuttgart opened nearly at the same time end of the 70's. In the Ruhr district the rapid-transit railway net resulted starting from 1967 from the modernization of the Ruhr high-speed traffic (a kind rapid-transit railway similar advance enterprise).
finallyfour systems were created, which are technically to each other compatible. A practical difference consists however of the fact that it concerns with the nets in Frankfurt, Stuttgart and Munich monocentric systems. All three cities have a head station, whereby a tunnel forthe rapid-transit railway serves to lead the Vorortverkehr on a common original route by the city center. In the Ruhr district one has however a polyzentrisches net with the purpose to connect several large cities with their suburbs. One did nevertheless not completely without tunnel sections.While it gives here in the city centers no rapid-transit railway tunnel, in outlying districts of Cologne and Dortmund tunnels were built, which are criticized frequently as bad planning. The tunnel stations are at less lucrative positions in outlying districts, to a large extent hardly are used and are in the condition keep-drawn. As a result of the polyzentrischen enterprise here still further problems arose. The lines in the Rhine Ruhr district are clearly longer and the passenger numbers on the individual sections very different compared with the remaining nets. With the ET 420 becamehowever a motor coach assigned, with which one did consciously without toilets (because the Plumpsklos at that time is not suitable for tunnels in the courses) and had a motor coach, which consisted no dynamic course lengths of three inseparable cars and thus permitted. In additionthe problem in addition, came the fact that the motor coaches are hochflurig appropriate and one for the rapid-transit railway higher platforms than for the conventional courses uses. In order to become fair the problems, one developed a hochflurigen passenger vehicle in the ET420-Design, in that ithowever and is possible a passage gives toilets: The X-cars. Gradually now the motor coaches were replaced by locomotive-covered courses. The ET420-Triebwagen was however occasionally to today also with the rapid-transit railway Rhine Ruhr in the use.
ofTriebzug to the locomotive/car course
the plans, which should supply further cities with rapid-transit railways, were once not converted only. Beginning of the 90's went however the rapid-transit railway Nuremberg with only one line without tunnel section to the net, also only much draggingone extends. As roll material X-cars were used here likewise . The ET420-Triebwagen comes slowly into the years and a following rubbing car is developed, its introduction however due to technical breakdowns around years retarded. First two variants were developed: ET 423 and ET 424. While the ET 423 is designed for the special platform heights of the described systems, it concerns with the ET 424 a variant, which can use platforms in conventional height. When the ET 420 was developed, was ittechnically not possible to accommodate the drive unit into a motor coach with normal Bodenhöhe. The ET 424 comes with the rapid-transit railway Hanover to the employment, those to the Expo in the year 2000 was opened and is intended for the rapid-transit railway Leipzig.
in the year 2003 was introduced also in the Rhine Neckar - area a rapid-transit railway system with polyzentrischer interpretation. In order not to repeat the same errors as with the rapid-transit railway Rhine Ruhr, another motor coach with the designation ET 425 is used here, inalso toilets are present and the spatial organization even for longer travels are designed. The same motor coach series is used also on individual regional express lines.
In Baden-Wuerttemberg some regions decided to develop rapid-transit railway of systems in self-direction whereby nets inFor mash gau, as well as in the local outer and the Bodensee region developed, which are however mostly operated by private offerers, with Diesel motor coaches. The difference to the regional course lies here at best in clocking. However the term becomes rapid-transit railway here as marketing designation for simple local trainsoff the large cities uses. A sharply definable technical or legal designation does not give it for the term to rapid-transit railway, however an extensive collection of the requirements to a correct rapid-transit railway.
special case Karlsruhe
a special case is however the rapid-transit railway and/or. Metropolitan railway Karlsruhe. As also Karlsruhe decided to modernize many other German large cities in addition, by the structure of a metropolitan railway net the streetcar, instead of developing an adequate underground. However one continued in Karlsruhe still another step and left a two-system metropolitan railwaydevelop, which can drive also on conventional railroad lines. With the rapid-transit railway Karlsruhe acts it around a metropolitan railway net with lines, which end by joint use of the traction network outside of the city center far outside of the city. The Karlsruher model similar a system becamewith the Saarbahn in Saarbruecken provides completely again.
the difference in principle between rapid-transit railway and underground exists in the appropriate legal basis, the building and enterprise regulates. With the rapid-transit railway this is in Germanythe EBO, and with the underground is binding the BOStrab. Thus the system is to be assigned to rapid-transit railway of the classical railway and the underground of the streetcar.
Rapid-transit railways developed as special type of firm from the classical railway. This shows upalso to the fact that they are operated frequently by the national railways or by their subsidiaries. Contrary to the underground rapid-transit railway distances have usually a multiplicity of line bypasses. The lines of different branches run here (in a monocentric net!) on one orseveral original routes together, where a close Zugfolge forms.
In the comparison to the regional course the rapid-transit railway exhibits a higher efficiency, in addition, shorter station distances. It is led often independently of remaining operating on own tracks, but on the outsideRapid-transit railway courses drive to sections also together with the remaining Eisenbahnverkehr on the same tracks.
Is actualbut the transition to the regional course, to the underground or even to the metropolitan railway/streetcar flowing. Originally as name for the urban high-speed traffic for the first time used, the rapid-transit railway in Germany serves ever more strongly for some time also the regional transport service. Become internationalthe rapid-transit railway systems those predominantly operate within one closed cultivated area complete (Hamburg, Berlin) often among the Metros ranked.
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