SIL international (in former times ummer I admits nstitute OF L inguistics " as “The S) is a scientific non-governmental organization with the principal purpose to study above all unknown languages to develop and document, regarding the extension of the linguistic knowledge, promotion of the Alphabetisierung and assistance for the development of minority languages. Their results are published under ethnologue.com. This project was begun 1951 as an introduction in forty languages by the Missionar smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Pittman.
To be actively in the destruction of indigener cultures involved critics accuse SIL to be a evangelikale mission organization since it is closely connected with the Wycliffe Bibelübersetzern and - as those new impulse mission, with which SIL co-operates as required -.
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SIL international (before times buzzer School OF Linguistics) decreases/goes back on a small study group from the year 1934 in Arkansas, which near-brought mission arene fundamental linguistic and anthropologische theories and prepared it for translation activities. From this went and. A. 1942 the Wycliff Bible translator (likewise based of Townsend) out. Founder of SIL was a linguist William Cameron Townsend (1896 - 1982), that and. A. as Protestant Missionar in Guatemala was active, whereby it the importance of Bible translations became conscious into indigene languages.
One of the most important personalities within that SIL international was Kenneth L. Pike (1912-2000), which was from 1942 to 1979 their president. At present Carly is P. Miller president of SIL, it works on the Houghton college as Dozentin for linguistics.
From 1950 to 1987 SIL was accommodated in the university of Oklahoma in Norman. In accordance with an argument around the missionary activities and the close relationship from SIL Aktivisten to military dictatorships in Latin America SIL was referred of the university and is now in the University OF Texas in Arlington.
SIL international celebrated in June 2004 its 70jähriges existence.
SIL international is considered to have removed also as Protestant mission organization, to which one accuses, in the interest of from international oil companies indigene peoples in Latin America from its traditional territory - by conviction and unfair methods -, in order to make place for development projects of these companies. SIL international is at that time partially. also financed by the Rockefeller Foundation, which has close connections to oil companies.
The Anthropologe Mark of Becker writes over the SIL Missionare: “Place native cultures to protect, is the result of their work frequently the transmission of western culture values and clothes, followed of the destruction of traditional restaurant ways. ”
The short descriptions of the languages on Ethonologue.org, which always contain referring to Bible translations, offer a referring to the evangelikalen background of SIL international, even if otherwise hardly information about the appropriate language is noted.
The proceeding of SIL international seems to follow a certain sample: “Which happens, is in Pastaza in Ekuador a typical process in the rain forests of Latin America. First European or North American companies discover valuable Bodenschätze on indianischem country. Afterwards buzzer of institutes OF Linguistics holds introduction at the Indio municipalities locally around the culture of the Indigenen to undermine. Finally roads are built and the substantial exploitation of resources and a rapid settling begin. To guarantee the military assigned over that everything runs smoothly and contradiction is suffocated in the germ. “
a case, which excited special attention, were the Huaorani in Ekuador, which persuaded from SIL Missionaren among other things under the guidance of Rachel Saint, partly, by fraud and force were partly resettled. Their brother, Nathan “Nate” Saint, was killed together with four other mission arene with an establishment of contact me Huaoranis 1956.
The mission airs Rachel Saint should be taken off on operation of James Yost from SIL international due to the incidents, which demanded several victims, from Ekuador. Rachel Saint decided, instead of whose SIL too abandoned and in the direct order of the oil companies of the region “continue to work”.
The arrival of Europeans caused devastating epidemic diseases under the native population such as flu and masers, as well as alcohol abuse and sex diseases. SIL Missionare explained the Huaorani that the epidemic diseases were a “göttliche punishment” for the killing of the five mission acres in the year 1956. John Perkins writes from reports that food the thrown off airplanes exhausting means were buried, in order to then later attain by administration of remedies the confidence of the Indios.
the efforts of SIL international to classify and list the languages of the world uniformly, encounter in academic circles broad acceptance. Some critics mean however that SIL classifications of languages and dialects partly partly contradict the international consent of linguists and the self understanding of the majority of the speakers of the languages concerned. Examples of it are the classification Flämi, Swedish dialects (SIL codes dlc and scy) and “Yinglish” (yib) - a form of the English, which is to be spoken of some Jews in the USA - as own languages. In Guatemala, a marching-up area of the SIL Missionare, the Ethnologue counts 54 living languages; other linguists, under it native speakers of the languages concerned, speak of less than twenty languages. These classifications offend partly also against the official principles of SIL international for the identification of languages (see. The problem of OF LANGUAGE identification) and lead to an artificial blister of the number of the living “languages” of the world on 6.912 single languages. From expenditure to expenditure of the Ethnologue the number of the seized “languages” constantly rises, although linguists determine a rapid becoming extinct of languages with small speaker numbers.
with the appearance of the 15. Edition of the Ethnologue in April 2005 was adapted the SIL code to THIS 639-3 the standard. Thus new designators consisting of three smallwritten letters surrender for a great many languages. From this it resulted further that now also languages, which already became extinct received a SIL code.
Some well-known SIL codes are here aforementioned (in clammy ones up to 14 is. Edition valid code).
- cmn (CHN) high-Chinese
- (HND) Hindi
- closely (CLOSELY) English
- spa (SPN) Spanish
- nld (DUT) Netherlands
- swe (SWD) Swedish
- gsg (GSG) German bearing language
the complete list can be downloaded here.
literature and sources
- Ruth Margaret Brend, Kenneth Lee Pike (Hg.): The buzzer of institutes OF Linguistics: Its Works and Contributions (walter De Gruyter 1977), ISBN 9-02793-355-3.
- Gerard Colby, Charlotte Dennett: Thy wants Done: The Conquest OF the Amazon: Nelson Rockefeller and Evangelism into the Age OF oil (Harper Collins 1995), ISBN 0-06016-764-5. The authors of this book describe the connection between Rockefeller and US-American mission arene - in particular SIL - at the time of execution of earth telling missions, in the case of the transport of CIA - agents and indirect support of the genocide at Indigenen in the Amazon area.
- John Perkins: Confessions OF at Economic hit one (Berrett charcoal burner Publishers 2004), ISBN 1-57675-301-8. Several referring to the mission activity of SIL and the resettlement of Indigenen in Latin America contains.
- W. A Willibrand: Oklahoma Indians and the “buzzers of institutes OF Linguistics” (1953).
- Is God at American? At Anthropological Perspective on the Missionary Work OF the buzzers of institutes OF Linguistics (A Survival internationally document, internationally Workgroup for Indigenous Affairs, Copenhagen 1981), ISBN 8-79807-172-6.
- Eni Pucinelli Orlandi: Language, faith, power: Ethics and language politics/ LANGUAGE, Faith, power: Ethics and LANGUAGE Policy. In: Brigitte Schlieben long one (OD.): Magazine for literature science and linguistics 116, Katechese, language, writing (University of victories/J.B. Metzler 1999). Discourse analysis to the work of SIL.
- Laurie K. Hard: The story OF the Wycliffe of translator: Pacifying the load Frontiers. In: NACLA's Latin America & Empire report, volume. VII, No. 10 (1973). This article describes the co-operation of SIL with US-American oil companies and military dictatorships in Latin America in the 1950er and 1960er years.
- Michael Erard: How Linguists and Missionaries Share A Bible OF 6.912 LANGUAGEs. In: New York Time, 19. July 2005.
Web on the left of
- SIL internationally
- Doulos SIL is the character set with a considerable range at supported Glyphen, IPA and diacritical indications, developed by SIL.
criticism at SIL
- Carmelo Ruiz: Nelson Rockefeller and Evangelism into the Age OF oil book review Thy wants Done, The Conquest OF the Amazon of Gerard Colby and Charlotte Dennett (Harper Collins 1995, ISBN 0-06016-764-5). Background information to the work of SIL in the Amazon area
- oil Companies Threaten Indian Communities & Amazon
- Cedric Muhammad: On The CIA and Christian Missionaries (BlackElectorate, 13. May 2001)
- Evangelicals in Venezuela Robertson Only the Latest Controversy in A Long and Bizarre History (Council on Hemispheric Affairs, 19. September 2005)
reaction of SIL
- Facts on file SIL Response ton of errors in “Confessions OF at Economic hit one”