the term „SS “was formed as a roof federation of different principal offices and their subsections and formed for at the latest 1942 with the following 12 principal offices proper a state in the state.
the 12 principal offices, which developed from the widely distributed organisational structure of the SS:
the SS-principal office (SS-HA) under SS-Obergruppenführer God praise Berger was originally the guidance organ and head office place of the entire SS. When the party organization continued to increase, the SS-HA could not master the tasks arising now any longer. Thus new principal offices were created, which gradually the tasks of the SS-HA took over. Finally approximately 70% of the tasks were delivered to the other offices, why the influence of the SS-HA on the SS was minimal finally. However further the “SS-Ergänzungsamt” was subordinate to the SS-principal office, which was continued to develop under Berger. Like that this office was responsible for the support and administration of the personnel documents of the SS-crews and the NCOs. The SS-principal office been subordinate the offices for command of the general and of the weapon SS.
1939 guessed Berger Adolf Hitler among other things to permit Theodor Eicke the list of its own front federation. This should be formed exclusively from Freiwilligen of the kinds of dead head restraint and. Furthermore Berger suggested, the offices for command of the combat support force and the awake federations in a new office for command combining the “office for command of the weapon SS”. The auxiliary office been subordinate also the recruiting offices of the weapon SS in the subjected countries.
the SS-Führungshauptamt (SS-FHA) was the actual operational headquarter (headquarters) of the protection relay. It stood since 1942 under the guidance of the SS-Obergruppenführer Hans Jüttner and led and/or. administered the transportation procedures, wage payments and equipment. Were subordinate furthermore to it the office for command of the general SS (homeland or blackeat), the office for command of the SS-combat support force and the office for command of the SS-Wachverbände. The offices for command had been created 1935 and were considered as switching centers of the armed SS-federations. Furthermore been subordinate the SS-FHA also the SS-Junkerschulen (military academy of the weapon SS), which was responsible for the officer training. 1942 was folded up the once independent offices for command of the SS-VT and the SS-TV to the new office for command of the weapon SS and for the germanischstämmigen federationfederation federations within the weapon SS its own “office for command of the general ones/germanic SS” was introduced. 1944 had the SS-Führungshauptamt of 45,000 coworkers.
personal staff realm leader SS
the personal staff RFSS was subordinate to the SS-Obergruppenführer Karl Wolff. „The personal staff Reichsführer SS “was intended one the citizen of Berlin of principal offices and for all Himmler interests, which did not fall into the range of a SS-principal office. It been subordinate above all the private organizations “life fount “,” friend circle Reichsführer SS “and” promoting members of the SS “.
race and settlement principal office
the race and settlement principal office (RuSHA) were subordinate to the SS-Obergruppenführer smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Hildebrandt. The race and settlement principal office RuSHA were one of the three oldest SS - principal offices. The RuSHA was already created at the end of of December 1931. It was responsible for race investigations and marriage permission of the SS as well as for the race selection of so-called “in-Germanable people Germans” and other peoples belonging humans.
the name contained the task also simultaneously:
- Race: “Keeping clean of the arischen race “and “Aufnordung” of the German people
- settlement: Production of habitat and Germanisierung of the conquered areas
this referred particularly to member of the SS. The race purity of the SS-men (and also their wives) should be supervised and led be ensured and the settlement of dismissed SS-men in the east.
- SS-group leader Smelling pool of broadcasting corporations roll ago Darré ( 1931 - 1938)
- SS-Brigadeführer Günther Pancke (1. September 1939 - 9. July 1940)
- SS-group leader Otto Hofmann (9. July 1940 - 20. April 1943)
- SS-Obergruppenführer smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Hildebrandt (20. April 1943 - 25. December 1943)
- SS-group leader Dr. Harald Turner (25. December 1943 -? 1944)
- SS-Obergruppenführer smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Hildebrandt (? 1944 - 31. July 1944)
- SS-Standartenführer Albert Uhlih (31. July 1944 -? 1944)
- SS-Obergruppenführer smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Hildebrandt (? 1944 - ? 1945)
principal office agency SS-Obergruppenführer Heissmeyer
the principal office agency SS-Obergruppenführer Heissmeyer been subordinate the nationalpolitical educational establishments (NPEA). Thus this agency had a large influence on the training of the German children and young people. Heissmeyer had attained control of the national schools to 1940 and meant for transferring the most talented pupils on the NPEA. There they should be consulted consciously for the leader oh stature for the SA and SS.
Central Reich Security Office
the Central Reich Security Office (RSHA) was led successively by SS-Obergruppenführer pure hard Heydrich, Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler and starting from February 1943 by SS-Obergruppenführer Ernst Kaltenbrunner.
The Central Reich Security Office was the central place for the practice of the police functions of the protection relay (SS). The state police was subordinated in addition, to it, which exercised the supervision over crime film-aluminum , border and secret state police ( shortened Gestapo). The state police been subordinate also the notorious groups of employments of the state police and the SD (shortened groups of employments), which committed the mass murders in the eastern areas. Furthermore the RSHA also the security agency of the Reichsführers SS ( shortened SD ) was attached, which was active outside as secret service for fight like internal opponent as well as for spying on the population. Many desk authors from Adolf of calibration man paper IV B 4 in the RSHA, which made the final solution possible organizational, originated from the SD.
In the judgement of the international military court yard against the main war criminals (Nürnberger process) SD, SS and Gestapo as criminal combinations were explained.
principal office SS-court
the principal office SS-court went out out of the SS-Disziplinaramt and the SS-Rechtsamt, those had already longer before existed and at the 1. June 1939 in the new principal office came up. Its field was first the treatment of “discipline acre and complaint things for the Reichsführer SS”. It was subordinate successively to the SS-Obergruppenführern Paul sharp one and Franz broad head. It was the central and Ministerialinstanz of the entire SS and police court nature with seat in Munich. The principal office was responsible - equally beside the court-martial barness the armed forces - as special court barness in criminal actions for the entire range of the SS and the police. Later the competence expanded since German and foreign civilians because of all in the area of operations committed criminal offences, starting from January 1945 even on all prisoners of war.
basis of the work of the special court barness of the SS and police were the code of military justice and the military meeting rules of the court, from which however in a row from cases one deviated.
first principal office boss was from the 1. June 1939 up to its death to 29. July 1942 SS-Obergruppenführer and general of the weapon SS Paul sharp one. Successor and last principal office boss became to 15. August 1942 SS-Obergruppenführer and general of the weapon SS Franz broad head. For the service start of broad head Himmler ordered that a lawyer was allowed to never step to the point of the principal office SS-court.
SS and police courts
in the principal office in Munich a highest SS and police court furnished for all cases of high and Landesverrat, espionage, for all criminal offences of SS and police officers in general rank as well as for criminal offences of special importance. The highest SS and police court was no superordinate court in the sense of a redress instance. In all criminal procedures of the SS and police each court, according to the courts-martial of the armed forces, decided without appointment possibility in first and last instance. However frequently that Himmler , which an enormous number of judgements was personally spoken or submitted corrected judgements personally, are increasing the penalty or on the grace way of death sentences weakening it by transfer to “probation units” so mentioned from condemned one occurred (see below).
The principal office SS-court been subordinate up to 38 regional SS and police courts. They were furnished in each case at the service seat higher SS and police leader, which functioned in the procedures also as a court gentleman. At the SS and police courts SS-leaders with the capability were active to the justiceship as SS-judges so mentioned, who the weapon SS had to belong. With a chronic lack of qualified lawyers there were 605 the principal office SS-court subordinated SS-judges in the summer 1944 nevertheless: a clear reference to the high number of criminal actions in the numbers of the SS and police.
By decree Himmlers of 16. May 1944 e.g. became with the principal office SS-court a SS and a police court. V. (to the special use) furnished, which was entrusted exclusively with the clearing-up and pursuit of some crimes, in particular by suppressions and corruption, committed in concentration camps. To death the two KZ-commanders Karl Otto cook ( KZ beech forest) and Hermann Florstedt ( KZ beech forest and KZ Majdanek) were condemned. Cook was shot in beech forest, Florstedts fate is not not completely clarified. Were arrested and condemned at least three further set off KZ-commanders. Preliminary investigation gave it among other things against SS-Oberführer Johannes Loritz (KZ DAK-strike and KZ Saxonia living), to Rudolf Höss (KZ Auschwitz), even against the boss of the SS-Wirtschaftsverwaltungshauptamtes Oswald Pohl and its representative August franc. These determinations were stopped as expected to direct instruction Himmlers.
execution of sentences
to time-meet condemned into the execution of sentences camp Danzig Matzkau of the SS and police in Danzig Matzkau was instructed, which the weapon SS was subordinate. The storage conditions corresponded to the diseased ideology and people menschenverachtung of the SS and police and agreeing as extreme were described. Because of a wrong statement to a half year in Matzkau of condemned members of the SS-Sonderkommandos Sobibor with its return due to its physical condition of its comrades hardly more was recognized.
A punishing completion was possible also as front probation so mentioned in the notorious punishing unit “Dirlewanger”, which was kommandiert by condemned SS and police officers and as “Ascension Day command” applied, which many not survived.
for the illustration of the thinking and proceeding of the highest SS and police court here excerpts become from the field judgement in the name of the German people of 24. May 1943 against the weapon SS - member SS-Untersturmführer max of T. because of shooting of 510 Ukrainian Jews (men, women and children) and other crimes shown:
- 1.) Because of the Jew actions as such the accused is not to be punished. The Jews must be destroyed, it are around none of the killed Jews unfortunate. Even if the accused had had itself to say the fact that the destruction of the Jews is task particularly for this furnished commands is to be granted to it that he may itself thereby however authorized held participate also for his part in the destruction of the Judentums. Real Jew hate was the driving motive for the accused. It could be hinreissen thereby however in Alexandria to cruelties, which are unworthy of a German man and SS-leader. These encroachments cannot be justified also, as the accused wants, thus that they are only fair retaliations for the wrong, which the Jews did to the German people. It is not German kind of using with a necessary destruction of the worst enemy of our people bolschewistische methods. On such the way of acting of the accused borders precariously. The accused let it come to a so bad brutalization of his men that they specified themselves under its Vorantritt like a wild horde/hurdle. The man breed was risked by the accused in a way, as it is more badly hardly conceivable. Even if the accused may have provided otherwise for its men, then he verabsäumt nevertheless by its behavior its service control duty gröblichst, to which after SS-moderate view also it belongs that he does not let men come its mentally. The accused made itself punishable after § 147 MStGB therefore to that extent. Since this penalty clause plans however only prison or fortress up to 15 years as punishing framework, the application § of the ä of the war special criminal law regulation is required, since a such dissolution of the man breed a heavier punishment erheischt.
- 2.) As far as the accused took photographs of the procedures or make let, in photo business to develop left and its wife and acquaintance showed, the accused of a disobedience made myself guilty. Such pictures can cause the largest dangers for the security of the realm, if they come into wrong hands. (...) The disobedience is to be regarded therefore as particularly heavy case. (...) The accused is to be punished after all that because of this act after § 92 MStGB. (...)
- 3.) Shooting the Ukrainian Milizkommandanten is to be punished after § 115 MStGB. The accused caused Untergebene to shoot Chamrai and is therefore as an author to be punished. The highest SS and police court can call the accused in addition, in this case not murderers. The accused let itself be led with this act of the thought that Chamrai with communist gangs in connection of conditions. He knew however completely exactly that he was not allowed to shoot Chamrai (...). 212 RStGB concern with this act therefore a homicide in the sense §. (...)
- 4.) The accused made itself guilty finally for causing a tried abortion. (...) The accused is to that extent after § 218 to punish 48 RStGB. (...)
- 6.) (...) The highest SS and police court condemned the accused to altogether 10 years penintentiary. Thus the accused was to be discharged inevitably from the SS and explained for unworthy to bear arms. The behavior of the Angeklageten is unworthy in of highest degrees of a honour-loving and decent German man. It was therefore recognized after § 32 RStGB in addition on ten years honouring loss. (...)
(Note: This document was the basis 1981 a process in Heilbronn against Untergebene max of T.s. T., which had been already condemned 1943 by the highest SS and police court validly, appeared beside its still living judges at that time themselves only as a witness before court.)
- Bernd Wegner: The special court barness of SS and police. Military law or foundation of one SS-gemässen legal order? In: Ursula Büttner (Hrsg.): The injustice regime. International research over the national socialism, Bd. I, Hamburg 1986. S. 243-259, ISBN 3767209624.
- Hans's book home: The SS - the instrument of domination. Appraisal of the institute for contemporary history. In: Anatomy of the SS-state, Bd. I, German paperbacks publishing house No. 2915, Munich 1967, S. 153-160, ISBN 3423029153.
the SS-Personalhauptamt was subordinate successively to the SS-Obergruppenführern walter Schmitt and Maximilian of Herff. The principal office was considered quasi as “personnel department” the SS and was beschäfigt with the support of the SS-leaders. The SS-Personalhauptamt published the length of service lists of the protection relay of the NSDAP, whose last edition appeared to 1944 and SS-Führerkorps highest in those initially lower, since 1934 middle and were listed. Against end of war only the middle and upper SS-Führerkorps was specified.
principal office order police
the principal office order police was subordinate successively to the SS-Obergruppenführern briefly Daluege (finally the SS-Oberstgruppenführer one appointed) and Alfred Wünnenberg.
SS-economy and administrative principal office
SS-restaurants and administrative principal office (SS-WVHA) resulted from „the SS-Verwaltungshauptamt “and in March 1942 from SS-Obergruppenführer Oswald Pohl was based. It administered the SS-own industries, trades and enterprises in the concentration camps and united these to own companies . Thus the WVHA worked closely with the SS-principal office together and starting from 1942/43 the entire concentration camp nature was alone subordinated to it.
It consisted of the following five groups of office:
- 1. Office A: Troop administration under SS-Brigadeführer Fanslau
- 2. Office B: Troop economy among SS-group leaders Lörner
- 3. Office C: Building industry among SS-group leaders Kammler
- 4. Office D: Concentration camp nature under SS-group leaders Glücks
- 5. Office W: Restaurant economics under the direct line Pohls.
The former administrative office of the SS-Führungshauptamtes was finally responsible for control of the general SS regarding the five ranges. In reality however with outbreak of war 1939 the meaning of the general SS had sunk due to introduction of their members into the field troops (main armed forces) enormously. Rather the restaurant office began to finally support at the beginning of the SS-combat support force and the weapon SS economically; however the administration of 38 SS-front-divisions (1945) represented already a considerable venture. Furthermore starting from 1942 all dead head federations including their KZ-Wachsturmbanne were subordinated the WVHA. These were summarized now in the inspection concentration camp and strengthened SS-Totenkopf-banners in the group of office D.
In January 1944 the administrative centre of the “principal office order police” came in addition and to its destruction by allied bomb attacks its tasks now also in fact by the economics and administrative principal office was still formally taken over.
After that the weapon SS as a whole as a state institution was regarded, was more than complicated their financing. The funds of the weapon SS were supervised by the Reichsfinanzministium, while however general-eat as part of the NSDAP applied. Those general-eats received its funds by the realm treasurer of the party, Franz Xaver black, which was many more generous with its means. Thus it came to the following strange thing the fact that the funds for the weapon SS were strictly controlled, while the insignificant general-eats as such and also their SS-SD, one of the absolute power instruments of the national socialists, any financial restrictions was not subjected.
The WVHA had its own administration school (“SS-administration school DAK-strike “), in which the own administrative new generation was trained.
Together with the SS-Führungshauptamt the economic and administrative principal office were responsible for the SS-own utility system: While the SS-FHA was responsible for weapons and ammunition, the WVHA had to provide for the uniforms and personal equipment of the troops.
Already before beginning of the war the SS had begun to buy up (Arisierung) and even create smaller business enterprises mostly Jewish businessmen. This been subordinate then after times upper group leader Pohl, who was used as directors/conductors of the SS-Verwaltungshauptamtes. With the war in the east nearly all intact companies in the occupied areas arrived into the hand Pohls and with the development of the KZ at enormous industrial enterprises were almost unermässlich its influence. However in the German Reich 500 enterprises belonged to the economics and administrative principal office. Its influence of the land and building industry extended over the construction of vehicles up to the beverage range. With the assumption of “Coca Cola Germany “came still one of the largest lemonade manufacturers to the business enterprise Pohls; the label name “Fanta” comes from Pohl themselves.
1945 ordered z. B. the office “W” economics and administrative principal office alone over the following offices:
- 1. Office I - To excavations and quarries was subordinate as “German ground connection and block factories GmbH” the SS-Obersturmbannführer Mummenthey. This office knows still numerous Unterämter in the KZs beech forest, Neuengamme, Saxonia living, Stuthof, large roses, duty living and Natzweiler up.
- 2. Office II - The SS-Obersturmbannführer Bobermin was subordinate to building materials as “building material work and Zementfabriken”. Also this office disintegrated into numerous Unterämter, which were distributed on floats, Bielitz, Zichenau and above all Auschwitz.
- 3. Office III - Food was to be regarded as union of the foodstuffs industry. Companies like “Sudetenquell”, “Apollinaris” and “Coca Cola Germany” were here attached. The Schlachtereien of the KZs Auschwitz, DAK-strike and to Saxonia living were likewise subordinated to this office. In addition, the baker's shops of the camps Auschwitz, DAK-strike, to duke shrubs, Lubin, Plasnow and Saxonia living were here represented.
- 4. Office IV - German equipment was responsible for the clothing and equipment of the front divisions of the weapon SS.
- 5. Office V - Land and forestry, fishery was responsible for breeding and kind preservation of plants and animal races. This office had large reputation with Heinrich Himmler, which was even a hobby farmer and wanted in this office its verquasten race theories to have carried out.
- 6. Office VI - Textile and leather utilization were responsible for the re-writing of leather goods and uniforms; also the leather SS-Sonderbekleidung originated from this office.
- 7.Office VII - Books and pictures were the publishing house “north country” (SS-own book publishing house) and the Kunstrestautationsbetriebe subordinates. This office was responsible for the works of art, with which Himmler equipped its “medal castle ” Wewelsburg.
- 8. Office VIII - Buildings of cultures was responsible for the preservation and renewal of old and destroyed monuments.
- North country publishing house
- Porzellanmanufaktur alloh
- process economics and administrative principal office of the SS Germans of ground connection and block factories
principal office people-German central place
the principal office people-German central place (V o M i) was responsible for “people Germans “living outside of the German Reich and was subordinate to the SS-Obergruppenführer Werner Lorenz. Major task of this principal office was the resettlement of German groups of peoples, which took place between 1939 and 1940 with the password home in the realm. The VoMi settled Wartheland (floats) and Danzig Westpreussen (Danzig) until 1940 of approximately 1 million people German in the realm over and there particularly in the realm gaus.
staff principal office of the realm commissioner for strengthening the German nationality
the staff principal office of the realm commissioner for strengthening German nationality stood under the direction of SS-Obergruppenführer Ulrich grab ELT and co-operated closely with the VoMi. Major task of this office was the so-called RH-Germanisierung of German groups of peoples, which were come up despite “German descent in the fremdvölkischen surrounding field”. In addition, for the “Eindeutschung” good-found slawische Volksteile were seized in this principal office. VoMi and staff principal office were responsible for the collection of the people Germans and the so-called “German blood” in different “German people lists”. On the basis these people lists the status of the owner was specified within the “German community”:
- List 1 and 2 contained persons of “German nationality, who had retained as can be prove their Deutschtum”. These person's groups received automatically the German nationality and were intended for the belongingness in the NSDAP.
- List 3 contained persons of German nationality, who had already accepted “connections to the Polentum”. Furthermore also the members of the Masuren and Kaschuben were specified in this list, which one regarded as “in Germanable”. These list members got the provisional German nationality lent.
- List 4 contained the “clearly polonisierten Germans”, which give their nationality up despite German descent and which Polish language and culture had accepted. This Listenabgehörigen got the German nationality on revocation and had “the final German nationality to erdienen itself”.