|shuttle name:||Endeavour (OV-105)|
|starting point:||Cape Canaveral, launch pad 39-B|
|start to:||19. May 1996, 10:30 UTC|
|landing to:||29. May 1996, 11:09 UTC|
|landing strip:||Cape Canaveral, runway 33|
|duration:||10 days, 00 h, 40 min|
|course height:||xxx km|
|flight path angle:||39 degrees|
|of orbits around the earth:||161|
|put back distance:||approx. 11 million km|
v.l.n.r. Daniel W. Bursch, Curtis L. Brown, Mario Runco, Mark of Garneau, John H. Casper, Andrew S. W. Thomas's
| previous mission:|| the following mission:|
STS-77 (English. Space Transportation system) is the mission designation for a flight of the US-American space shuttle Endeavour (OV -105) of NASA. The start takes place to 19. May 1996. It was the 77. Space shuttle mission and the 11. Flight of the space shuttle Endeavour.
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- John H. Casper (4. Flight), commander
- Curtis L. Brown (3. Flight), pilot
- Daniel W. Bursch (3. Flight), mission specialist
- Mark of Garneau (2. Flight), mission specialist (CSA/Canada)
- Mario Runco (3. Flight), mission specialist
- Andrew S. W. Thomas (1. ), Description of mission of four
tackled flight to mission specialist [ work on] during the Endeavour mission. For the first time blowing a larger structure up in space and the Selbststabilisation of the situation of a small satellite without the use of propulsion gases or gyroscopes were tested. In space-have a number of commercial investigations within the ranges biotechnology, electronics and material science as well as polymer research and agriculture one employed, while in the load bay several technological experiments ran off to a large extent automatically.
To 2. Flight day was suspended a SPARTAN satellite, on which an inflatable parabolic antenna (IAE) was installed. Briefly after suspending the mechanism was activated for unfolding and the antenna was brought on a size of 26 x of 14 meters. That corresponds about the size of a tennis court. The antenna had only a mass of 66 kilograms. After 90 minutes the antenna was separated from the satellite. It glowed few days later in the terrestrial atmosphere. SPARTAN was stowed away with the manipulator arm again in the pay load bay of the shuttle. It was the respected employment of a such satellite. For the first time for the data storage no magnetic tapes were used to separate EEPROMs. Inflatable structures are to be used in the future with experiments, with which no large mechanical loads arise. Thus place and mass but also substantial costs are not only saved.
On the fourth flight day the small technology satellite PAMS (passive Aerodynamically stabilized Magnetically damped Satellite) from the load bay was catapulted. It was brought intentionally in wobbling. It should stabilize within fewer days alone by the Masserverteilung and the effect of the earth's magnetic field in a certain flight attitude. In addition the Endeavour approached altogether three times up to approximately 700 meters to the satellite and measured the situation with the help of a laser system (attitude Measurement system). Occasionally the distance grew temporarily up to 150 kilometers. The satellite stabilized more slowly than predicted, after 4 days it the intended situation however with an accuracy of 0,05° had achieved.
That space-have is a commercial space laboratory, which is built into the pay load bay of the shuttle and place for various experiments offers. It is used mostly by industrial enterprises, in order to test new technologies or to manufacture new materials and suitable substances.
In the medicine it is often necessary to isolate certain cell types. In addition the appropriate cells must be identified and separated from the others. With Advanced Separation Process for Organic of material (ADSEP) is to be improved the understanding of gravitation-conditioned effects with the production of hemoglobin products. On the basis of hemoglobin new blood transfusion preparations are to be developed. The equipment Commercial gene Eric bio processing Apparatus contained 272 small containers in four temperature zones. The research concerned chemical substances, cell and Gewebekulturen as well as small animals and plants. Among other things the effectiveness of different experimental pharmaceuticals examined, which crystallization of RNA examines, in order to win realizations over the three-dimensional structure of certain Oligonukleotide, chemicals for the acceleration of differentiation by macro phages in the marrow was tested and, tested cell growth inhibitors for the cancer research.
In weightlessness the metabolism of the plants changes. These changes investigated in plans gene Eric bio processing Apparatus for example at Artimisia annua. This plant produces an active substance, which is used against malaria. Further investigations applied for Cataranthus rosens, the effects of a space flight on strength, sugar and fatty acids of special spinach plants as well as the lignins production of Pinien and clover. During the experiment of fluid gene Eric bio processing Apparatus 2 the possibility was examined, the substantial components of soft drinks, i.e. water, of mixing carbon dioxide and flavour syrup only at the consumption place. Thus the quality of the beverage should be improved and the foaming power be minimized. In addition the change of the taste perception in weightlessness was investigated. On the central deck of the Endeavour in the framework of immune one was examined 3 whether a insulin-similar growth factor can reduce the harmful effects of a space flight to immune and bone system. Realizations in this area could be also on earth from use, e.g. to the Linderung of damages, which were caused by irradiation or a chemotherapy. Equivalent three devices for the production of pure protein crystals were used with the Endeavour flight. Thus with Commercial protein Crystal Growth a new insulin form one crystallized, whose structure on earth was analyzed exactly by x-ray. In addition proteins were produced, which are used on earth against different diseases.
With gas Permeable polymer diaphragm went it around the development of gas-permeable contact contacts. This is to serve for to a better stretcher comfort, a longer durability and simpler production. In the experiment Handheld diffusion test Cell was tested in four test cells a kind of the crystallization, which does not function on earth. Two liquids run into one another, without mixing itself. Increasing the concentration of the second liquid leads to the fact that first solidifies. Biologically relevant substances were used such as Lysozyme, Katalase, Myoglobin, Taumatin and Ferritin. Also the crystallization of certain proteins of the tobacco mosaic virus and the yellow carrot mosaic virus was studied. The plant Commercial float zone Furnace became common from Germany, which develops the USA and Canada. A goal of their employment was the production of large, very pure mixing semiconductor and metallic oxide crystals for electronic elements and infrared detectors. For example gallium arsenide and Galliumantimonid were used. The regularity of the crystal growth is supported thereby by a liquid covering around the actual crystallization zone.
Mercury chloride is used as electrooptical material in the spectral photography. With the space experiment Facility should be made through sinters of liquid phase a mercury chloride crystal. However a irreparable defect arose. Sinters calls one a connecting of powder-like materials under large heat. With the experiments in space a high regularity is reached, whereby the study of the characteristics of such alloys is simplified. The national institutes for health of the USA investigate the fabric loss in weightlessness for years. The investigation complex C7 busy itself with damage on cellular level. For it Konochen and muscle cells of chicken embryos were used. During this flight particularly the accumulation by lime with to mature cartilage cells and the damage of muscle fibers were examined. The plant used for it was in the central deck of the shuttle.
Beyond the commercial research also technological and scientific experiments of NASA were accomplished. Thus the shock cooling of infrared sensors was tested by hydrogen evaporation (Brilliant Eyes Ten Kelvin sorption Cryocooler experiment). Thus it could be shown that this effective cooling method functions also in space. It gets along without mechanical-mobile parts and is therefore vibration-free. In the small aquarium ARF (Aquatic Research Facility) Embryonalentwicklung, changes in fabric structures and the orientation ability of sea-stars, shells and sea-hedgehogs were studied. In particular the development from kalkhaltigem fabric is here from interest. The fodder behavior of the animals in addition, was examined. In addition the synthesis of muscle-forming proteins was investigated with the tobacco horn worm during its Methamorphose (Biological Research in A Canister). On the basis of blood and muscle cell samples the endokrine system of the Wurms was examined. In the load bay of the Endeavour three further experiments were installed. Thus a position and a determining position system on the basis were tested by government inspection department (global Positioning system attitude and navigation experiment), which examines efficiency of a heat pump, which with liquid metal works (liquid Metal Thermal experiment) as well as a new (re)fueling system tests (Vented tank Resupply experiment). An additional hole is for exhaust in the tank beside the charging hole. A number of flat panels collects the liquid at the filler neck and prevents with the fact that the liquid escapes from the second opening again. Further experiments in containers (GET Away Specials) partly concerned themselves with the study liquid gases frozen by gamma radiation rushing breaks, the evaporation of mercury iodide and the following flow rate of steam, the production of nano-crystals and organic semiconductor materials, glowing fires in porous materials, the heat transport when simmering and pressure control in tanks filled with. In addition different plant samples were carried, which were examined afterwards by pupils of American schools.
The Endeavour landed according to plan to 29. May at the Kennedy space center.
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