|surface||2,568, 65 km ² (13.)|
|Inhabitant||1.051.546 (15.) (30. September 2005)|
|Population density||of 409 inhabitants for each km ² (5.)|
|System of government|| liberal democracy and|
social constitutional state
|debts||7.705 €per inhabitant (at the end of of 2005)|
|debts entirely||7.4 billion € (2004)|
|Prime Minister||Peter Müller (CDU)|
|a governing party||CDU|
| allocation of seats in the federal state parliament|
| CDU 27|
alliance 90/Die the Green 3
|last choice||5. September 2004|
|voices in the Upper House of Parliament:||3|
the Saarland is a Land of the Federal Republic in the southwest of the Federal Republic of Germany. Adjacent the Land of the Federal Republic Rhineland-Palatinate as well as the States of France and Luxembourg lie.
the Saarland lies in the southwest of the Federal Republic of Germany. A third of the surface of the Saarland is covered with summer-green mixed woodland. Thus the Saarland has together also Hessen and Baden-Wuerttemberg the proportionally largest forest surface of Germany. Beyond that here the hardwood forest takes the largest portion of the total forest surface compared with all other Lands of the Federal Republic. The Saarland extends over parts of the Hunsrücks with black forests the timber forest, of the lothringischen layer stage country and the Saar close mountain country. In addition the Ausläufer of the Pfälzer of forest penetrates far into the country. The highest collection is the Dollberg (695 m), north of Nonnweiler in the Dollbergen; the mould head ( 694.8 m) is more second highest in Black forests timber forest. Further important areas are the blowing gau and the Saargau with their fruitful limestone soils. The longest river is the Saar, which has its central and underflow in the Saarland and to which country lent the name. Further importantRivers are blew, Prims, Nied and close ones. The climate is moderately oceanic. The precipitation is on the average about 800 litres per square meter. The Saarland belongs besides to the warmest regions of Germany.
structure of state
the condition of the Saarland became to 16. September 1947 discharges. According to condition the Saarland is a liberal democracy and a social constitutional state in the Federal Republic of Germany. The national Gewalten is as usual in all western conditionsseparated into legislation, executive and Judikative. All power proceeds from the people.
See also: Condition of Saarland
federal state parliament
the federal state parliament of the Saarland consists of 51 delegates, in direct, secret, general, free and same elections on the basis of proportional representationfrom the people are selected. At present 27 seats, to the SPD of 18 seats, are allotted to 3 seats likewise to alliance 90/Die the Green 3 seats and to the FDP to the CDU. The delegates are representatives of the whole people and only their consciencesubjected and at orders and instructions do not bind. Each voter that is selectable 18. Lebensjahr completed. The federal state parliament exercises the legislative force according to condition, as far as it is not directly reserved the people. In addition itself the federal state parliament can its order not entäussern. In the further one control of the implementing force is incumbent on the federal state parliament. The elections of the federal parliament usually take place every 5 years.
See also: Elections in the Saarland
for federal state government
the federal state government sets itself according to the article 86the condition from the Prime Minister, the Ministers and undersecretaries of state together. Only in the year 2001 undersecretaries of state became also cabinet members. The Prime Minister is selected with the majority of the legal number of members by the federal state parliament. The choice is valid for the entire legislative period. He appoints and dismisses with agreement of the federal state parliament the Ministers. The number of the further members of the federal state government may not exceed however a third of the number of the Ministers. The Prime Minister presides the federal state government and leads its business. The countrywith the federation by an authorized person one represents.
See also: Saarland federal state government
constitutional court yard
the Judikative is represented by the constitutional court yard as well as by further courts of the country. The constitutional court yard consists those of eight members, with two-thirds majority of the federal state parliament selectedbecome. It has its seat condition in accordance with in Saarbruecken.
See also: Constitutional court yard of Saarland
law collecting mains by the Prime Minister on behalf of the federal state government, by a member of the federal state parliament or a parliamentary group brought in laws containing a constitutional amendment require the agreement oftwo thirds of the members of the federal state parliament. The condition can be changed however only by a law, that their wording expressly changes or supplements. In addition the change may not contradict the principles of the democratic and social right state. With discrepancies that decidesConstitutional court yard.
referenda can be directed to issue laws to change or waive. A referendum is permissible only in areas, which are subject to the legislation of the country. Over financialeffective laws, in particular laws over deliveries, paying, state achievementsand the national budget, referenda do not take place generally. A prepared and bill provided with reasons must be appropriate for the referendum to reason. It is to be introduced, if five thousand voters request it. The referendum came to conditions, if it of at least oneFifth of the voters is supported. On validity and coming off the referendum the federal state government decides. Against its decisions the constitutional court yard can be called. The referendum must be submitted then to the federal state parliament immediately. The federal state parliament does not correspond to the referendum within three months,so a popular vote is to be caused within further three months. That the people for decision submitted bill is to be accompanied with a statement of the federal state government, those concise and essentially both the reason of the applicants and the view of the federal state government overthe article states. The federal state parliament can submit its own bill to the people for decision also. The law is decided by popular vote, if it more than half of the voters agrees. Over a referendum, which is directed toward change of the condition,a popular vote does not take place.
the national emblems of the Saarland are regulated by that Saarland national emblem law (SHzG) of 7. November 2001 (law No. 1483, Official Journal of the Saarland, 18. March 2002, S. 566–576). They exist in this formhowever already since the laws over the coat of arms and the flag of the Saarland (laws No. 508 and 509) of 9. July 1956 (Amtsbl. S. 1213).
Landeswappen of the Saarland that consists Landeswappen those of a gevierten semicircular sign,Sign pictures of the national gentlemen at present the old German one of Reich shows: in the right upperhit a corner in blue field gold-crowned, gold-reinforced and rotgezungten silver double swan goats a lion (county wet outer Saarbruecken), covered by nine silver foot pointed crosses, in the left upperhit a corner in silver field a redpolished cross (cure principality Trier), in the right Untereck in golden field a red diagonal bar, occupied with three silver gestümmelten eagles (duchy Lorraine), and in the left Untereck in black field a red-crowned, red-reinforced and rotgezungten golden lion (more wittelsbacher Duchy Pfalz Zweibrücken). (Indications of direction of the point of view of the supporter out seen.)
Landeswappen may be led only by Land authorities and entitled persons. Private people know their solidarity with the Saarland by the Saarland symbol (representative modified Landeswappen embedded into the representative Saarschleife, Proclamation of 21. January 1998, Amtsbl. S. 290) express.
the national flag of the Saarland consists Landeswappen, those of the federal flag, on it in the center, spreading in the black and the goldfarbenen strips,right side (from view of the viewer the left side) turned to the mast (being called flag). It can be implemented also as banner flag, then the strips are arranged perpendicularly, the coat of arms stand upright, the right side (from view of the viewer the left side)turned to the black strip.
After the entry of the Saarland to the Federal Republic of Germany this combination was selected as national flag, in order to refer demonstratively to the affiliation of the Saarland to Germany. At times of independence after the Second World War the flag existedthe Saargebiets from a silver (white) Scandinavian cross, the underground to the mast blue, to the other side red (thus the colors of France on reproduction of the same).
Although the flag contains Landeswappen, the national flag may be used by each national citizen(contrary to other national flags with coats of arms, e.g.Berlin or Baden-Wuerttemberg).
the largest population centre in the Saarland are the axles Saarlouis - Saarbruecken and Saarbruecken Neunkirchen/Saar; they become in the school teaching because of their form occasionally alsounder the term V-area in summary. The population density is smaller in the north, southwest and the west of the country. In the Saarland above all Rhine and moselfränkische dialects are spoken (see: Saarland dialect). The widespread opinion partial in other parts of Germany, all Saarländercould flowing French speak and/or. even if native speakers would be, does not apply under any circumstances; from at home know most not one word French. However at school as the first foreign language French and not English are usually taught. The Saarland is in addition thatonly Land of the Federal Republic, which prescribes English and French and obligation foreign language at High Schools both. Das Saarland hat bundesweit die höchste Eigentumsrate beim Grundbesitz. 74% of the population are catholic and 21% per cent Evangelist; the Saarland has thus proportionally the largestcatholic population portion in Germany.
major items: History of the Saarland
the Saargebiet was usually German in its history, stood however again and again occasionally under French influence. In 20. Century became it after that The First World War to the Völkerbund subordinates and after the Second World War autonomously, remained however economically at France tied up, returned however both marks to popular vote again to Germany. Since 1957 it is the tenth country of the Federal Republic of Germany (without Berlin (west),none „genuine “Land of the Federal Republic was).
(Note: Concerning the assumption that the Saarland „“was French occupied: After the First World War this applies conditionally; legally however was the Saargebiet, which at that time still some parts of the today's districts Merzig Wadern and pc. Spiralwere missing, to the Völkerbund subordinated. Starting from 1947 the term was „French crew “purely formally unfounded, since the Saarland was politically autonomously and economically tied up at France, on basis of its own condition. However was the acceptance of this condition rather the pressure of theFrench governors Gilbert Grandval to owe as the elections of 5. October 1947, which of the Federal Republic not when freely and independently were recognized (S. the German White Paper to the Saarfrage of 1950). Because of the large proximity to France and alsoas reminiscence to „the French “time at most Saarland schools French is still taught as the first foreign language before English.)
- blowing gau
- of black forests timber forest
- pc. Ingbert Kirkeler forest area
- sank spiral
- Illingen (Saar)
with the election of the federal parliament to 5. September 1999 took place to the Saar a change of government. The SPD lead government was replaced by the CDU, which could achieve the absolute majority with 26 seats.
Since the last election of the federal parliament of 5. September 2004 is again the Greens (5.6% of the voices, 3 seats in the state parliament) and the FDP/DPS (5.2%, likewise 3 seats) in the Saarland federal state parliament represent. The CDU (47.5%) could remove their projection/lead around a seat, the SPD (30,8) had 7 places to deliver.
On local level the free voters could draw into circle and local councils.
the government of the Saarland consists of following Ministers and ministers, who belong all to the CDU:
- Prime Minister: Peter Müller
- Minister of finances: Peter Jacoby (deputy of the Prime Minister)
- Minister for federation and European affairs and boss of the state chancellery: Karl robber
- minister for inside, family, women and sport: Annegret Kramp Karrenbauer
- Minister for law, health and social: Josef hedges
- Ministers for education, culture and science: Jürgen Schreier
- Minister for economics and work: Dr. Hanspeter Georgi
- Minister for environment: Stefan Mörsdorf
see also: List of Saarland Prime Ministers
education and research
the Saarland has the 1948 under the French the university of the Saarland,Administration was created, with the locations Saarbruecken and Homburg/Saar. In Saarbruecken the administration sits, as well as in Saarbruecken also most courses of studies are settled. The jurisprudential faculty and computer science have Germany far a very good reputation. The Campus in Homburg/Saaris seat of the medical faculty. The medical research in Homburg is one the prominent in Germany.
The French-German university, based 1999, offers courses of studies, which lock with a double or a three-fold diploma (German, French, of Luxembourg). The teachings become thereby ofthe university of the Saarland, the Université Henri Poincaré transferred in Nancy and the Centre Universitaire to Lëtzebuerg to Luxembourg/ Luxembourg.
In addition there is the École Européenne d'Ingénieurs EN Génie of the Materiaux (EEIGM), those the course of studies materials sciences as EuropeanCourse of studies by the university of the Saarland, Institut national Polytechnique de Lorraine in Nancy/France, the University of Polytècnica de Catalunya and the Escola Tècnica Superior d'Engenyers Industrials Barcelona in Barcelona/Katalonien (Spain) and those Luleå Tekniska Universitet in Luleå/Sweden offers.
Besides there is the university of the forming arts Saar, been basing to 1989, as well as the university for music Saar, based 1947 as national conservatoire. After mechanism of an institute for catholic church music andan institute for school music it was converted 1957 into a national university for music and transferred 1971 into the working group of the Saarland.
In addition there are four professional schools:
The university for technology and economics of the Saarland, based 1971 throughUnion of the higher restaurant school, the national school of engineering and the national work art school, received it to 1991 their current names. The course of studies industrial engineer nature has a good reputation. There are French-German co-operation also here (e.g. with the Grenoble École de Management).
Those Professional school for mining industry Saar was created 1807 under napoleonischer occupation and renamed 1816 into royal-Prussian mountain school. She was called only mountain school to Saarbruecken, then mining engineer school and 1990 later finally received her their current designation.
The catholic university for social work became1971 based and are located in working group of the diocese Trier.
At the university of the Saarland the following research institutes under private law are settled:
- the institute for Max-Planck for computer science, based1988, and
- the institute for Max-Planck for software systems, based 2004,
- the institute for Fraunhofer for non destructive testing methods (IzfP) and
- the institute for Fraunhofer for biomedical technology (IBMT) (in pc. Ingbert)
- that German research center for artificial intelligence (DFKI);
- that Korean of institutes OF Science and Technology Europe, the 1996 created European folders one the largest Korean Forschungsinistitute.
The 1970 created working premises for Austrian literature and culture (AfÖLK) /Robert Musil research within the Germanistik at the university of the Saarland has an own library(over 12.000 volumes with Austria purchase) and archives (several deductions). Of Professor. Dr. Pierre Béhar led research establishment was lent to scientific Austria library Robert Musil in the year 2004 by the Republic of Austria of the titles of one „“.
A central approach place for everythingapproximately around the topic education is the SaarLernNetz. This regional Saarland education market place is, under leadership of the German research center for artificial intelligence, 2006 from a project of the learning regions, which of the European union (European social fund) and the Federal Ministry forEducation and research promoted one came out.
economics and traffic
enterprise and economics
of meaning economic range to the Saar is the automobile (e.g. Ford in Saarlouis) and automobile supplier industry (e.g. Bosch and Michelinin Homburg).
With the Saarstahl AG and the AG of the Dillinger of metallurgical plants equivalent two large steel enterprises are here resident.
An important an economical role played the mining industry (mine Ensdorf, mine Warndt (closed), mine Luisenthal (likewise closed)).
Up-to-date impressesthe Saarland by the highest economic growth rates with the gross domestic product. It lay in the 1. Half-year 2005 material around 2,8% over the period last year, while in the Federal average only 0.6% growth were reached. The moreover one the Saarland won several times the Dynamikrankingthe initiative new one social free-market economy, which evaluates the changes in the Lands of the Federal Republic. Prime Minister Peter Müller evaluates this as success of his reform politics, which leads to the settlement of new industrie and branches of service.
by its early industrialization exists inSaarland a very good infrastructure. Thus six well removed motorways cross the country. Also the railway system is very close. Thus a direct connection exists by motorway and course into the metropolis Paris. In addition there is an international airport in Saarbruecken Ensheim.Despite the visible surface there is 1 in the Saarland only since that. August 2005 a traffic group. On 1.000 inhabitants on the average 704 motor vehicles come. Thus the Saarland has an extremely high vehicle density.
Claimant railroad lines:
- Saarbruecken - Homburg (Saar) - Kaiserslautern - Mannheim
- Pirmasens - two-bridges - tubing brook (Saar) - Saarbruecken
- Frankfurt (Main)/Koblenz/Mainz - door gravel mill - Pc. Spiral - nine-churches (Saar) - Saarbruecken - Forbach (France) - Metz (France) - of Paris (France)
- Saarbruecken - Saarlouis - Trier - Cologne
- Saarbruecken - Illingen - live oh
- Homburg/Saar - BEX brook - Illingen
- Saarlouis - Thionville (France)
- Saarbruecken - Sarreguemines (France) - Strasbourg (France)
- Trier - Perl - Apach (France) (starting from Perl only goods traffic)
as well as the Saarbahnstrecke
|circle||administrative seat||KFZ characteristic||surface in km ²|
|(1) District Merzig Wadern||Merzig||MZG||555.12|
|(2) district nine-churches||Ottweiler||numerical control (in former times OTW)||249.21|
|(3) greater Saarbruecken||Saarbruecken||SELF-SERVICE and VK||410.62|
|(4) district Saarlouis||Saarlouis||SLS||459.08|
|(5) Saarpfalz circle||Homburg||HOM and IGB||418.52|
|(6) district pc. Spiral||Pc. Spiral||WND||476.09|
the distribution of the license numbers is somewhat more complicated than common in Germany otherwise, since in the Saarland not only a Kfz characteristic is assigned to each circle, but also the medium-sized towns. Therefore only those haveIf Merzig Wadern (MZG
) circles, to nine-churches (
numerical control), sank spiral (
WND) and Saarlouis (
SLS) a uniform characteristic; in the greater Saarbruecken however gives it the characteristic
to VK for the city volume blade and
SELF-SERVICE for the remainingGreater, in the Saarpfalz circle gives it
to IGB for the city pc. Ingbert and
HOM (after the principal place Homburg) for the remaining circle. No more not to be assigned the characteristics
OTW for Ottweiler in the circle nine-churches and
WAD for the earlier circle Wadern,with those however still some old timers on the way are. In addition there is the characteristic
SAL for authorities of the country.
administrative arrangement before the circle reform
- circle-free city Saarbruecken (
- district Homburg (
- District Merzig (
- district Ottweiler (
OTW) with medium-sized town nine-churches (
- district Saarbruecken (
SELF-SERVICE) with medium-sized town volume blade (
- district Saarlouis (
- district resank Ingbert (
IGB) -1974 still medium-sized town
- district sank spiral (
nine-churches possesses since 1968 an own KFZ characteristic (
numerical control, before
OTW), likewise volume blade (
administrative arrangement after the circle reform
- district Merzig Wadern (
- District nine-churches (
- district Saarlouis (
- Saarpfalz circle (
HOM) with medium-sized town pc. Ingbert (
IGB), first formed as Saar Pfalz circle
- district pc. Spiral (
- greater Saarbruecken (
SELF-SERVICE) alsoMedium-sized town volume blade (
largest cities and municipalities
31. December of 2000
30. June 2005
|volume blade||greater Saarbruecken||42.990||41.078|
|sank Ingbert||Saarpfalz circle||39,971||38,624|
|sank spiral||sank spiral||27,303||27,142|
the original Saarland kitchen is quite simple: Pot, potatoes, sauerkraut, sausage and meat from house slaughtering. Only few meals and beverages are considered as typically Saarland:
- Dibbelabbes and flat
- Lyoner (Fleischwurst) in the ring
- Gefillde (filled Kartoffelklösse)
- Geheirade (, combination of Mehlklössen and potatoes) Schwenker (typical
- swiveling steak ) “ married”
- Bettsaiersalat (dandelion salad)
- acquaintance Saarland beers and came for example from the breweries Becker (pc. come.Ingbert), break (Saarbruecken), thunder (Saarlouis), large forest (Heusweiler Eiweiler), Karl mountain (Homburg), Ottweiler brewery, Paqué (pc. Spiral), Saarfürst (Merzig), shepherd (you min gene), lock (nine-churches) and whale home (whale home). Karl mountain dominates today (2004) the beverage market in the Saarland.
- The Saar wines (cultivation area Mosel Saar Ruwer) do not comefrom the Saarland, but of the underflow of the Saar in Rhineland-Palatinate. Saarland wines become at the short MOS lab cut named Obermosel (to the wine marketing also: „Southern Weinmosel “) cultivated, the border between the Saarland and Luxembourg.
- Mainly in the Merziger area and in Saargau gives it to the Viez (apple wine).
- Fruit liquors are burned in particular on the Saargau (for example squeeze (Zwetschge), Mirabelle, Trester or also the rare speciality dog ass a Mispel - Brannt).
thoseBorder situation and century for a long time foreign rule, are now German it (Prussian or Bavarian) or French, the Saarland mentality strongly affected. Those century for a long time experience to be able to lose everything by war and conquest led to the attitude, everything which onehas to enjoy in „here and now “.
Changing gentlemen led the gentlemen from that, regarded as unwanted Besatzer, again and again to the tendency, newcomers too „embrace “and to integrate to accept appearing favourable innovations or however with more stubborn, sometimes irrational co-operation kooperationsverweigerungTo float country. This tactics worked in the long term until today.
The extreme smallness of the Saarland is benediction and curse at the same time and leads to one „everyone knows everyone “- mentality. Two strange Saarländer become inevitable (still) in the discussion a commonAcquaintance make. That means on side sometimes painfully which is missing anonymity, produces a strong we feeling on the other side. This makes again first the integration (particularly it on the basis the missing dialect easily to recognize is) to the not Saarländer more difficult, butif he made friends himself only once with or other Saarländer, it goes the faster.
literature over the Saarland
- Dieter strengthen (Hrsg.): The Saarland book. Minerva publishing house, Saarbruecken, 1981. ISBN 3477000668
- Dietrich Soyez(Hrsg.):The Saarland. Bd. 1 persistence and change in a peripheral border area. Saarbruecken, 1989. ISBN 3924525366
- Dietrich Soyez (Hrsg.): The Saarland. Bd. 2 the Saar - a river landscape changes its face. Saarbruecken, 1989. ISBN 3924525374
- Jürgen Hartmann (Hrsg.): Manual of the German Lands of the Federal Republic. Bonn, 1997. ISBN 3893310835
the Saarland in the literature
- Johann Michael Moscherosch: Soldier life. Hrsg. and treatment. of walter E. Shepherd under the title among robbers. Brown, Karlsruhe, 1996. ISBN 3765081701
- Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Seal and truth, 2. Part, 10. Book
- Ludwig Harig: The Saarland joy - to live and think a reader of the good kind. dtv, 1979. ISBN 3446123377
- Holger Willi Monday: Journeys with Pippo. Mandarin publishing house, 2003. To ISBN 3980932508
- Roman excavations in the Saarland
- Saarland round moving way
- Saarland one legends and legends
- tourism in the Saarland
- university of the Saarland
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coordinates: 49° 22 ' 37.7 " N, 6° 52 ' 42.2 " O