Sachalin (on Japanese: Karafuto 樺太 for the southern part starting from 50 degrees of N: 1905-1945) are an island belonging to to Russia in the north Pacific (north of Japan). It lies in the Oblast Sachalin, capital is Juschno Sachalinsk. The north south expansion is approx.700 km. On the island are the most important Erdgasvorkommen of Russia.

Up to the year 1855 there was no international appointment over the sovereignty of the island. In the year Japan and Russia closed a handels and a peace treaty, but the island remained a mixed area, inthe Japanese, Russian, Ainu and Uilta lived.

1875 closed Japan and Russia sank Peter citizen contract. The contract specified the sovereignty of Russia on Sachalin and the sovereignty of Japan on the whole Kurilen to Kamtschatka .

As consequence of the Russian-Japanese war both states closed thatPeace of Portsmouth. Japan won the area south of 50 degrees northern latitude.

To 8. August 1945 explained the Soviet Union Japan the war (see also: Japanese-Soviet neutrality pact). Although the Japanese army already to 15. August 1945 before the allied ones capitulated, stopped the Soviet Union thatFight up to 5. September and did not occupy the whole island and the Kurilen. In the fights for occupation Südsachalins and the Kurilen were over 8.000 Soviet soldiers and officers please.

Due to the peace treaty of San Francisco Japan did without to 28. May 1952 upthe sovereignty over Sachalin and a large part of the Kurilen. The contract did not specify however the sovereignty over the part, without which did to Japan had.

During 2. World war develop the Japanese the up to now existing infrastructure in the south of the island. This very daythe railway of the narrower Japanese track width drives.

Until 1991 the island military restricted area was to be entered and only with special permission. Today this is to a large extent waived, whereby one needs a registration and a permission theoretically for the areas outside of the capital further. Photographing airportsand others than militarily defined objects is strictly forbidden.

Starting from that 19. Century was the island a penal colony for Russian prisoners. Of this prisoners and their descendants the population of the island consists mainly.

1983 came the island into the messages, as Soviet fighter planesat the night to the 1. Septembers a Korean Boeing 747 (KAL 007) over the island shot, which - in such a way the Soviet leadership took on assigned by the Americans is to spy the military plants on the island. While after 1991 many Soviet documents became accessible,remain further the crucial documents of the US secret services under catch. Since December 2003 international air lanes over Sachalin run, similarly that of the erring flight of KAL 007.

To 28. May 1995 shook an earthquake of the strength 7.5 the city Neftegorsk, died approx. 2,000 humans.

Sachalin winssince 1996 meaning with the promotion of and with the trade with fossil fuels. On 20.000 km ² coastal region become 700 million t oil and 2500 billion m ³ natural gas expects, about just as large reserves as in the North Sea.

Russia is at investments of Japan and the USAin the far east highly interests.2004 were locked with Japan a contract over the supply of 1,5 million tons LNG (liquid gas). At the south end of the island Sachalin at present one - ecologically disputed - develops for LNG plant, of from also starting from 2008 to the USA liquid gas suppliedbecomes.

to literature

see also

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coordinates: 50° 17 ′ n. Break, 142° 58 ′ o. L.


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