Sahaba, (Arab: صحابة ṣaḥāba], the comprehensive term for the companions and companions of the prophet Mohammed is. the individual calls one ṣaḥābī or ṣāḥib rasūli ʾllāh, d.i. Companion /Weggef ährte the envoy of God. The meaning of the Sahaba in the organization of the early Islam at present the prophet and after its death is undisputed. The Islamic Schrifftum created private lives over it, over their descent, and over their acts at present the Prophetie and afterwards an extensive biographic literature.
according to Islamic definition (z. B. with aluminum book air) “ that is from the Muslims, which accompanies the prophet (sahiba) or it saw, is one of its companions ". According to further definitions the following conditions are to be fulfilled, in order to apply in the Islamic Traditionalismus than Prophetengefährte:
- a longer contact to the prophet than Muslim
- excessive quantity of its statements and acts (see hadith)
- participation in its campaigns
the Islam are even sahaba in classes divided for categorization defiance of the maintained egalitären convicition: they are also in the Koran the specified sabiqun (Sure 9.100 and Sure 56.10-11), i.e. the early Muslims, whose Bekehrung falls to the Islam still into the mekkanische time of the Prophetie. The “first emigrants” are those of sahaba, which moved with Mohammed to Medina. The Ansar, the so-called forms a group for itself. “Aids” and supporters of the troop of early Muslims, emigrated with the prophet from Mekka after Medina (Yathrib). Further groups are defined in accordance with their participation in the campaigns of the prophet. This classification of the contemporaries of the prophet used then the second Kalif Umar ibn aluminium-Chattab with the distribution of the donations (diwan) after the war courses.
- G. R. Puin: The Diwan of 'Umar b. Aluminium-Hattab. Thesis, Bonn 1970
- M. Muranyi: The Prophetengenossen in earlyIslamic history. Thesis, Bonn 1973
- E. Kohl mountain: Some Imami Shi'i views on the Sahaba. In: Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam. 5/1984 (kind. in EGG)