Seeing era

of these articles is concerned with the desert seeing era; for further meanings see to seeing era (term clarifying)
Satellitenaufnahme of the seeing era
Satellitenaufnahme der nördlichen Sahara
Satellitenaufnahme of the northern seeing era
Oase in der Sahara (Libyen)
oasis in the seeing era (Libya)
Sanddünen in the seeing era
Luftbildaufnahme der Sahara
aerial photograph admission of the seeing era
Saharastaub über Kufstein/Tirol am 22. Februar 2004
seeing era dust over Kufstein/Tirolto 22. February 2004

the seeing era is with nine million km ² the largest drying desert of the earth. That corresponds to size of Germany in approximately the size of the entire USA or the 26-fachen. It extends from the Atlantic coast to the coastand approximately a trapezoid forms 1.500-2.000 km of northsouthern expansion more westeast of the Red Sea of 4.500-5.500 km and.

The seeing era is to a large extent a stone desert (Hammada) or rock desert (Serir), or turning circle desert, or also rubble desert; the plateful sand desert (Suppl.) constitutes only a rather small part.

Table of contents

Etymologie

the designation seeing era comes from the Arab Translation Sahhra صحراء the Tuareg - word Tenere, which means desert or sand. According to a further theory leads itself the term of sahraa and/or. it-ssah-RA off, whereby that is prefix it an article and those became to mean on German.With Ländereien one can translate the word also with desert, empty, nothing or unfruchtbar.

The old Romans called the country south of Karthago Terra Deserta for uninhabited/abandoned country. In the Middle Ages one called the seeing era simply large ones desert. Onlyin 19. Century became generally accepted the designation seeing era.

The Arabs call the seeing era Bahr bela mA for sea without water (see. Sahel for banks).

situation

the seeing era lies in the north of Africa. It extends ofand approximately a trapezoid of 4.500 km - 5,500 km more westeast and 1,500 - forms 2,000 km of northsouthern expansion for the Atlantic coast up to the coast of the Red Sea. In Egypt it is interrupted by the river oasis of the Nile. In the north rulesthe Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria, Tunesien) and Libya, in the south the Sahel lies itself. Seeing era states are (totally or partly): Ägypen, Libyien, Mali, the Niger, Chad, the Sudan, Mauritania, west seeing era, Morocco, Algeria and Tunesien.

In the west of the seeing erathere is a state of same name (occasionally also west seeing era called), whose official designation is democratic-Arab republic seeing era. This state is in fact occupied by Morocco and so far by few, usually African, states was only recognized.

geography

thatClimate is extremely drying and hot. The trade wind during the whole yearly, which brings little precipitation mostly, blows. The only permanent flux is the Nile. The extreme variations in temperature from during the day to 58 °C - at night up to 30°C smaller - carry among other things to the Wüstenbildung. In the winter are to be measured at night up to -10 °C. The average amount of precipitation in the seeing era amounts to approx. 45.5 mm. Some years does not rain it however at all. The seeing era points some mountain chainsup, as for instance the Hoggargebirge and the Tibestigebirge. Highest collection is the Emi Koussi in the Tibesti with 3415 m ü.NN. There are also some large Meteroiteneinschlagkrater in the seeing era. The largest found Krater is the Kebira - Krater, ithas a diameter of 31 km.

researchers

it conclude geology from the situation of different rock formations that in this desert in the course of several millions of years several times dry and damp phases alternated . By datings of fossils the scientists could prove in soil samples from the Chad basin that the seeing era was at least occasional already seven million years ago a desert. Even still under these analyzed Bodenschichten were still further and older sandstone layers, which resulted only from wind blowing on desert conditionsto be could. In the Pluvialzeiten the seeing era was more water-rich and begrünt, as also numerous rock painting from the later periods and, often the Trockenflussbetten (Wadis), long outer-carrying from the mountains, over 1.000 km, proved. Newest research of the university ofIllinois in Chicago from the year 2004 resulted in that the groundwater under Egypt and Libya up to one million is years old. It flows slowly in an underground system from Nubien with a speed of only totwo meters per year to the north. In addition the desert is in the subtropical high pressure belt, it is thus a turning circle desert, since the descending air movements for dissolution of cloud and take place thus an unhindered in and radiant emittance can provide.

Bodenschätze

in thatSeeing era are to be found also Bodenschätze. In the Algerian and Libyan seeing era hands oil - and gas fields discovered. Far Bodenschätze are: Salt, coal, copper, manganese, iron, uranium, lead, tungsten, titanium, Tin and phosphate.

history

the neolithische revolution seized the area of the seeing era, at that time more water-rich and greener than today, almost at the same time as the advanced cultures at Nile, Euphrates and Tigris. Approximately in 6. Milleniumv. Chr. the inhabitants of the region began with the agriculture. They however never trained a city culture as in the areas mentioned of the advanced cultures.

In 20. Century v. Chr.if the horse time begins, so designated, because starting from this time of horses inthe motives of the cave painting prevail. Just like in Egypt, Anatolien and the Ägäis became in 16. Century the “miracle weapon” of the Bronzezeit, the chariot, imported. Pharao Ramses III. chariot as well as 184 horses list 92 as booty of its Libya campaign.

Beginning of the 1. Millenium v. Chr. the drainage of the seeing era begins and thus the slow fall of agriculture and cattle breeding. By the assyrische conquest of Egypt in 7. Century v. Chr. the camel comes to Africa and loosens the horse asmost important load animal off. At the latest since the Ptolemäerzeit it is used in the larger measure.

In the center of the seeing era 5 develops starting from that. Century before Christ the realm of the Garamanten, which is based on the one hand on successful oasis economy, its large wealth howeverfrom the trade between Africa and the Mediterranean area first with the Greeks over Cyrene then with the Romans over Leptis Magna is based. The fall of the westRoman realm stopped this trade to a large extent and the exhaustion of groundwater supplies limited the oasis economy.The end came however only with conquest by the Muslim Arabs.

population

the small native population consists mainly of Arabs, Berbern and Mauren. Besides there are small groups like the Tubu (also Tibbu)and Tuareg. Apart from the aminal husbandry was to in 19. Century of the Transsaharahandel a substantial base of life for these subpopulations also as Yallas admits is. In terms of figures largest seeing era peoples are the Tuareg. 60% the seeing era inhabitant are established oasis farmers, 40% Nomadenand Halbnomaden. Larger settlements are particularly at the northern edge of the Algerian seeing era. New settlements formed in oil and for natural gas-promoting areas of Algeria and Zentrallibyiens. In the west and in the Libyan desert far parts are deserted.

Literature

  • Barbara E. Barich: People, more water, and grain. The beginnings OF domestication into the seeing era and the Nile valley, Rome 1998. ISBN 88-8265-017-0 (English)
  • Rohlfs, Gerhard: Across Africa. The Erstdurchquerung of the seeing era from the Mediterranean to the gulf ofGuinea 1865-1867, Stuttgart 1984. ISBN 3-522-60580-2
  • Fabrizio Mori: The great civilisations OF the ancient seeing era, Rome 1998. ISBN 88-7062-971-6 (English)
  • Heinrich of boat operator: The seeing era. Developments in a desert continent, Kiel 1980. ISBN 3-554-60106-3

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