as Sakrament one designates in Christian theology a rite as for example the baptism, which as visible indication and/or as visible action to invisible reality of God refer, it to realise and to its portion give is.
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Etymologisch comes the term of church latin sacramentum (religious secret), this from late latin sacramentum (consecration [to the war service]), from Latin res sacra (holy thing) or res sacrans (sanctifying thing); in the Vulgata is sacramentum the translation of the Greek mysterion (hidden, mysterious). Sacramentum designates the oath of allegiance and the oath in the Roman everyday literature generally. In the Roman legal terminology is sacramentum the pledge deposited in the templearguing parties.
authentication of the Sakramentsspendung
in practical application goes the meaning of the Sakramentsspendung more deeply, by it apart from the Verkündigung of the göttlichen word the substantial order of church and thus substantial reason of their right of existence as institutionalized organizationabsolutely is. To the formal Darreichung of a Sakramentes one is attached göttlicherseits assured, or - promoting, mental effect welfare-bringing. Depending upon different faith direction the authentication for the Sakramentsspendung is made dependent on from the own rows appointing, up to everyone,is recognition like a Christian baptized. Mutual acknowledgment of the validity and effectiveness of the Sakramente donated in each case usually only partly take place.
the nature of the Sakramentes
the number of the Sakramente and their understanding are in the orthodoxand the Roman-catholic church on the one hand and in the churches come out from the reformation on the other hand differently. Within the reformatorischen branch there are however strong differences, which were felt for many centuries as church-separating.
Sakramente in the orthodox church
in that orthodox church the Sakramente is called holy Mysterien (of Greek secret). There is seven Sakramente, which however nowhere as if filter-tell are concretely held, there the orthodox church beside it also the entire church and all church actions as “sakramental” andas Mysterium sees; a clear demarcation of the Sakramente of the Sakramentalien does not exist. These thoughts likewise became generally accepted in the catholic church in the last decades.
(Legal) „the validity “of Sakramenten is with the orthodox ones only a subordinated thoughtin relation to (material) „the effectiveness “. Western discussions over the validity or invalidity of Sakramenten can be often only heavily reconstructed by orthodox ones therefore.
The seven Mysterien:
- baptizes - Salbung (directly on the baptism following and equal the Firmung in thatSakramente in
- the Roman-catholic
- the Roman-catholic church it teaches
Beichte marriage Sakrament of the consecration
Krankensalbung [works on ] that all seven Sakramente of the new federation were used directly and personally by Jesus Christ. Holy Thomas seesthe purpose of the Sakramente in deputatio ad cultum divinum, i.e. in the agency to Christian cult actions. The Sakramente is constituent therefore for the church.
The sharing at the Sakrament can be active or passive, depending upon whether thatSakrament is donated or received. The entire Christian cult is seen as a participation in the Priestertum Christi. There Jesus Christ the substance (form and subject) the Sakramente did not specify, has the church right it to change. Beside on more göttlicherArrangement being based substantial rites of the Sakramente in the course of the time by church arrangement akzidentelle rites, ceremonies and prayers, were set, the purpose to have the sakramentale grace effect descriptive to represent and those experiencable the Sakraments would make.
The effect of theSakraments is a substantially supernatural. The primary donor of the Sakramente is the God human being Jesus Chistus, which by one by Christ or the church authorized secondary donor acts. But the special is except with the Sakramenten of the baptism and the marriage,by the consecration lent priesterliche or bischöfliche agency necessarily. Donors and receivers of the Sakraments must be excluded, the Eucharistie, different persons. The validity and effectiveness of the Sakramente are independent of the Rechtgläubikeit and grace conditions of the donating.
To valid donatingthe Sakramente is necessary it that the authorized donors the sakramentale indication carries out in the right way. In addition it must the substantial subject (e.g. with the baptism water) and the substantial form (with the baptism I baptize you in the namethe father and the son and the holy spirit) use and both to a uniform sakramentalen indication connect. The donor must in addition at least the intention to have do, what does the church. It is not necessary that the donorintended, which intends the church, i.e. the effect of the Sakraments, the donor does not even need to intend, a specifically catholic rite to carry out. The intention is sufficient of carrying out a religious action usual among Christians.
On the part of the receiver is the Pilgerstand necessarily for the receipt of a Sakraments. The dead ones cannot receive Sakrament. Apart from the Busssakrament the Rechtgläubigkeit still another moral arrangement are necessary on the part of the receiver for the validity of the receipt neither. The Busssakrament is here oneException, because the moral document of the Pönitenten as quasi-subject vital part of the sakramentalen indication are. For the validity of the Sakramente receiver is however the intention necessary to receive the Sakrament with the adult. Without intention the received or against the will of the receiverup-forced Sakrament is invalid therefore. To the worthy receipt receiver is however, necessary depending upon Sakrament different, moral arrangement with the adult. Thus the church requires the previous receipt of the Busssakraments for the worthy receipt of the Eucharistie with the presence of a heavy sin,since the unworthy receipt of the Sakraments of the Eucharistie themselves is a heavy sin. The Sakramente of the baptism, which Firmung and the consecration live, if they became to receive valid, but unworthily, if the moral Indisposition were eliminated, i.e.the sakramentale grace effect later occurs.
Permitted is the receipt of a Sakraments however only, if donating of the Sakraments is safe, i.e., if approximately concerning the agency of the donor no objective doubts exist. If donating a Sakraments outthis or another reason, is bad the receipt is uncertain.
- baptizes (also: Penalty, reconciliation)
- Krankensalbung (in former times:last oiling)
- consecration/surgery - in the three stages the deacon, priest and Bischofsweihe
Sakramente in the anglikanischen churches
the anglikanischen churches recognize, similarly as the Evangelist churches in reformatorischer tradition, only the two Sakramente of the baptismand the Eucharistie as Sakrament on. The other five Sakramente of the Roman-catholic church, Firmung, Beichte, Krankensalbung, Priesterweihe and marriage, are understood than “rites with a sakramentalen character”, because them the characteristics outside and visible indications with an inside and a mentalGrace verkoppeln, not however by Christ for all Christians are not arranged. The baptizing understanding is the same as in the Roman-catholic and Evangelist churches; to the Eucharistieverständnis see the appropriate section in the article communion.
Sakramente in the EvangelistChurches
after reformatorischer view are considered as criteria to a Sakrament:
- it must of Jesus Christ by an express donation and/or. Promise word its it
- must be connected with a visible indication
the first criterion becomes assigned after Evangelist understanding for marriage,Salbung, Firmung and consecration do not fulfill. The Beichte counted Martin Luther because of the installation and promise word Jesu (Joh. 20,22f) first to the Sakramenten, separated it then however because of the absence of a visible indication.
As Sakramente are considered therefore only:
a Sakrament adds the Verkündigung of the word and the decision to the faith nothing substantial, but illustrates it only. (In the Sakramentstheologie are there however internal-Evangelist differences, S. Communion). Contrary to the catholic church a Sakrament does not workhowever by its execution, but by the faith of the Sakramentsempfängers. In the free-church context occasionally also (donatistische) the view meets that the effectiveness of a Sakramentes depends on the faith of the donor.
Sakramente in the Neuapostoli church
In the Neuapostoli church there are three Sakramente. „Three are, which witness there: the spirit and the water and the blood; and the three are together “(1. Johannes 5, 7 and 8).
- Holy water baptism (a component of the Wiedergeburt and washing offder Erbsünde)
- Heiliges Abendmahl (zu de Böse de los das de Kräfte um del göttlicher de Empfangnahme del und del DES de Einverleibung Wesens Jesu überwinden ((Johannes 6, 51-58; (see. Revealing 12, 11)).
- Holy sealing (acceptance of the holy spirit by hand presenting of a Apostels, completion of the Wiedergeburt (Apostelgeschichte 8, 14-17;19, 6; 2. Timotheus 1, 6; Epheser 1, 13, 14; 4, 30; Romans 8, 9; 2. Korinther 5, 17; 1. Petrus 1, 23; Jakobus 1, 18; see. likewise Ezechiel 9, 2-6, revealing 7.3 and 2. Korinther 3, 6,8)).
Sakramente in the church Christi, scientist
the communion in the Christian Science church is “mental coming union with a GOD ". Exterior indication with the twice annually taking place services is a changed God serving order with kneel-ends gebeteten father ours toEnd services and singing the Doxologie.
Bread and wine, baptism and communion are mentally interpreted and received. “Our bread, „of the sky comes “, is TRUTH. Our cup is the cross. Our wine is the inspirationthe LOVE, the drink, which our master drank and recommended to its successors. “Mary Baker Eddy in the text book of the religion writes.
- Leonardo Boff: Small Sakramentenlehre. Patmos, Duesseldorf 2003, ISBN 3491770548
- Theodor Schnitzler: Which the Sakramente means.Assistance to a new experience. Herder, Freiburg 1983, ISBN 3451195593]