of salts are chemical compounds (frequent from a metal in the form of cations and a nonmetal in the form of anions), which have a crystal structure consisting of ions. Salts are indispensable for humans. The most important salt is the common salt(Sodium chloride). In the Middle Ages also „the white gold was called ". Salt was always an important merchandise. It received even repeated mention in the Bible. Many cities carry the word salt (or the celtic word resound) in the name. Examples are resound, Realm-resound, Hallein, resound in Tirol, Swabian resound, to Salzburg, salt lattice, Bad Salzuflen, salt December ford and bath Salzschlirf.
Humans win salt either by seawater desalination, from salt plugs or from brines. Cities, those in the Middle Ages overSalt deposits ordered, were usually rich thereby very.
Use of salts: Common salt, soda (for Seifensiedereien, glassworks), wash material, chlorine production (bleaching and disinfectant, for the PVC production), thawing salt
characteristic characteristics of salts:
- Salts are from ions constructed
- salt melts and aqueous solutions leadthe electric current (over freely mobile ions as charge carrier)
- salt crystals do not lead the electric current!
- Salts are at ambient temperature solids. They have a high melting point
- of salt crystals are hard and inflexibly
- you to consist mostly of one or more Metallion andafter one or more
- Säurerestion „outside “salts are unchargedly
- salts possess usually a high bloom and boiling temperature, usually a small thermal expansion and compressibility.
possibilities of the Salzbildung inNature and in the laboratory
Acid + cousin → salt + water.
- Example 1:
HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) →NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l)
- example 2:
H 2 SO 4 (aq) + Ba (OH) 2 (aq) → BaSO 4 (s) + 2 H 2 O (l)
2. Salzbildung from metallic oxide andAcid
Production of fresh Kalkwasser
calcium oxide is mixed with water (and afterwards filtered)
CaO + H 2 O → Approx. (OH) 2
3. Salzbildung from nonmetallic oxide and caustic solution
according to the above reaction connect themselves nonmetals with caustic solution to salts
approx. (OH)2 + CO 2 → CaCO 3 + H 2 O + E
Note: In the reason correspond second and third possibility first, since nonmetallic oxides with water acids let develop metallic oxides with water caustic solutions form and.
4. Salzbildung from thatReact
to elements of metals and nonmetals partly violently with one another and form thereby salt.
- Example: Mg + I 2 → MgI 2
5. Salzbildung made of metal and acid
of metals and acids react partially to a salt solution and a hydrogen.
Example:Mg +2HCl → MgCl 2 + H 2
types of salts
of salts always consist of metal ions and acid residue ions. Therefore one can classify it according to the metal ions or the acid residues. The latter is colloquially more frequent, if e.g. ofPhosphates the speech is. Here an overview of different salts arranged according to their acid residues:
- Halogen salts
- of salts of inorganic acids
- of azides
- of carbonates
- of chlorates
- of cyanides
- of hydrogencarbonates
- of hydraulic gene phosphates
- of Hydrogensulfate
- of Hydrogensulfide
- of Hydrogensulfite
- of Hypochlorite
- of isocyanates
- of nitrate
- of Perchlorate
- of phosphates
- of sulfates
- of sulfides
- of disulphides
- of sulfites
- Thiocyanate (Rhodanide)
- salts of organic acids
- other salts