Sank Petersburg

of these articles treats the city in Russia, other meanings under sank Petersburg (term clarifying)
Coat of arms map
Wappen St. Petersburg in Europa
base data
state: Russia
federation circle: Northwest Russia
kind of municipality: City with subject status
surface: 2,000 km ²
inhabitants: 4.600.000 (1. January 2005)
Population density: 2,300 inhabitants for each km ²
height: 3 meter and. NN
postal zip codes: 190000-199406
telephone preselection: 7812
geographical location:
Coordinates: 59° 56 ' N, 30° 16 ' O
59° 56 ' N, 30° 16 ' O
Kfz characteristics: 78, afterwards 98
city arrangement: 20 Rajony
address
of the city administration:
Russia,
pc. Petersburg,
191060, Smolny
official Website: spb.ru
E-Mail address: info@ www.spb.ru
politics
mayor: Walentina Iwanowna
Matwijenko
list of the cities in Russia

sank Petersburg (Russian Санкт Петербург, sinking Peter castle), based 1703 as sink Pieterburch, shortly thereafter in sank Petersburg renamed, from 1914 to 1924 as “Petrograd” (Петроград), and from 1924 to 1991 as “Leningrad” (Ленинград) designation, is with 4,6 million inhabitants to Moscow the second largest city of Russia and one of the largest cities of Europe. The city is in the northwest of the country, because of the delta of the Newa at the east end of the Finnish sea bosom. Pc. Petersburg is the northernmost town with millions of inhabitants of the world.

The city was of 18. to in 20. Century the capital of the Russian realm, is a European-wide important cultural center and accommodates the most important Russian Baltic Sea - port. The city center is world inheritance of the UNESCO; the city, which was over 200 years long the political and cultural center of Russia, possesses to today an impressive culture landscape.

Table of contents

the name of the city

Peter-Pauls-Festung. In der Mitte die beiden vergoldeten Türme der Peter-Pauls-Kathedrale
Peter Pauls fortress. In the center the two gilded towers of the Peter Pauls cathedral
Lenin-Statue gebaut in Leningrad. Das Gebäude im Hintergrund sollte ursprünglich als Sitz der Stadtverwaltung dienen, zum Größenvergleich: rechts unten sind Menschen
Lenin statue built in Leningrad. The building in the background should originally serve as seat the city administration, for the size comparison: on the right of down humans are

differently than are often accepted, Peter the large one the city not designated, but after its Schutzheiligen, the Apostel Simon Petrus. After the fortress carried briefly the Dutch name sink Pieterburch, it was renamed already early into German sinking Peter castle. After outbreak of the First World War the German name was russifiziert to Petrograd. After Lenin death 1924 it was renamed in Leningrad ( Russian Ленинград). This happened upon the request of the Petrograder at that time party leadership and according to their data when desired the worker, Lenin death entrusting ores.

The renewed name changes of the city by the central committee with the fact it was justified that in it the October Revolution led by Lenin had taken place. On the level of the symbol politics there were however deeper reasons: Sank Petersburg stood for tsarist Russia and the presenting city of the Zarenreichs had been. Sank Petersburg was already at that time the second largest city of the country and the meant large prestige for the new name giver. Renaming in Leningrad symbolized the change of the social like political system in an emphasized place. As such he was also noticed.

In addition, in the vernacular after renaming the abbreviation Pieter (Russian Питер) was often used as Kosename.

The Dichterin Anna Achmatowa wrote 1963 in its Poem without hero, obviously their good friend and from it as „a twin “designated Ossip Mandelstam arranged, which became victim of the stalinistischen cleanings: In Petersburg we will again see ourselves…, Literature Nobelpreisträger Joseph Brodsky wrote 1987 in memories of Leningrad:

„Leningrad, so much I this names for the city abhors. ... This city is experienced of the nation decided as Leningrad; with the increasing Vulgarität its that covers her, it more and more becomes Leningrad. In addition “Leningrad” sounds already as neutral to the Russian ear as word as “building” or “sausage”. And legend I rather “Pieter”, because I remembers nevertheless this city in a time, where it did not look yet like “Leningrad”. “

- Joseph Brodsky: , 1987 after the collapse

of the Soviet Union a popular vote led memories of Leningrad 1991 to a limited majority in favor of the back designation in sank Petersburg. At the same time also roads, bridges, Metro stations and parks were again backdesignated. In connection with historical events to the event “suitable” name is still used, e.g. „Hero city Leningrad “when intending to the Second World War.

The surrounding administrative territory kept likewise after a popular vote the name Oblast Leningrad.

geography

Satellitenaufnahme von Petersburg und Umgebung: Von links nach rechts Finnischer Meerbusen, Sankt Petersburg, Ladogasee. Links oben die Landesgrenze zu Finnland, in der Bucht vor Petersburg die Inselfestung Kronstadt und davon ausgehend der Damm vor Petersburg
Satellitenaufnahme of Petersburg and environment: From left to right Finnish sea bosom, sank Petersburg, Ladogasee. On the left of above the national border to Finland, in the bay before Petersburg the island fortress crowning city and of it outgoing the dam before Petersburg
historical map (around 1888)
Gribojedow-Kanal. Einer der vielen Kanäle in St. Petersburg
Gribojedow channel. One of the many channels in pc. Petersburg
Industrie- und Hafenanlagen an der Newa
industrie and harbor facilities to the Newa

the city originally built in a Sumpfgebiet is because of the delta of the Newa in the Finnish sea bosoms. The city covers about 606 km ² (about 2000 km ² including that administratively too sank Petersburg of belonging suburbs Peter yard and Puschkin), of it approx. 10% water. The city consists of 42 islands. There was original more, numerous channels between them was however meanwhile filled up. The city had to be highly built two to four meters. The Newa delta is approximately on sea level, and the first building workers discovered depth in few centimeters groundwaters. The banks were fastened already early with granite rock, which sank Petersburg against the water does not only protect, but also much to the specific townscape contribute. Alexander Puschkin described it as: The city dresses in granite.

By its situation the city is always threatened few meters over the sea level by floods. In the proximity crowning city lain is one point of reference for Normalnull - the point is appropriate for about 15 cm below than the Amsterdamer level valid in Germany and is in large parts of Eastern Europe and was in the new Lands of the Federal Republic to 1993 point of reference for levellings. The city became often a victim of inundations. The official statistics counts 295 inundations (conditions since the town foundation: 2003), of it alone 44 since 1980. The worst tides were 1824 (depending upon statistics 200 to 500 dead ones) and 1924.

Sank Petersburg is on the same degree of latitude as the south part of Alaska and the south point of Greenland. It has a typical maritime climate, the weather is changeful and can within short time change. The summers are comparatively mildly with average temperatures from 19 to 22 °C, in the winter sink the average temperatures however up - 4 to - 8 °C. Due to the situation it becomes at present the summer solstice not completely also at night dark (so-called. “white nights”).

The Newa is very shorter at 74 km, in addition, one of the water-richest rivers of Europe. It becomes broad up to 600 m and has a strong current. The river lies over half of its distance in the city sank Petersburg.

In 19. Century inside was sufficient biology for that relatively flattens bay of the Newa alone, around the waste water from pc. To clean Petersburg. Even today the waste water that constitutes nearly 5 million inhabitant counting industrial city only 2% of the total quantity of water of the Newa. Center 19. Century however first water-bound epidemic diseases broke out such as Cholera and typhoid fever . However during the typhoid fever epidemic disease of 1908 about 9,000 humans died. By a change of the introduction conditions could be remedied to the problem starting from for the time being 1910. In the 1950ern and 1960ern the strong rise of the population numbers provided again for an escalation of the waste water problem. In addition the stronger contamination of the Newa at their river course came - it drained the Ladogasee, because of whose bank numerous factories are and which takes up feeder the waste water of numerous Russian cities even over its. A purification plant was built, however reach the river and the bay to today 25 to 30% of the urban waste water inexplicably. In the bay above all fresh water, in addition, live some brackish water inhabitants. The biological system is highly variable and suffers from human interferences. Together with Moscow Petersburg is considered as one of the most strongly dirty cities of Russia. According to Greenpeace about 200,000 inhabitants of the city in the Health Protection zones in such a way specified live, in which the life for health reasons is actually forbidden.

Since 1978 left the Soviet government a dam across the Newa bay to build, in order to protect the city against inundations. Contrary to most floodings by rivers the inundations not therefore agitate to the Newa that the river of its upper run more water bring along, but therefore that west wind presses into the Finnish sea bosom and prevents the discharge of the water or turns around in extreme cases the direction of flow. The construction was broken off end of the 1980er for reasons of environmental protection: The dam disturbed the circulation of the coastal water, large parts of the water stood still, the water quality sank substantially. Fears go by that the entire bay could transform into a sump. The dam is to be further built since 1990 with Netherlands assistance and support of the European Investitionsbank. Since the environmental protection reasons are further present against the dam however, the topic is very disputed in the city.

urban districts (Rayons)

Rajon Russian name inhabitant
1. January of 2004
inhabitants
1. January 2005
admiralty Адмиралтейскийрайон 184,400 181,704
Frunze Фрунзенскийрайон 402,700 398,994
Kalinin Калининскийрайон 467,200 464,570
Kirow Кировскийрайон 336,100 332,413
Kolpino Колпинскийрайон 174,800 176,213
Krasnoje Selo Красносельскийрайон 304,300 302,890
crowning city Кронштадтскийрайон 43,100 42,992
health resort Курортныйрайон 67,100 67,235
Lomonossow Ломоносовскийрайон 37,300 37,420
Moscow Московскийрайон 272,400 268,873
Newa Невскийрайон 434,500 435,097
Pawlowsk Павловскийрайон 16,100 16,006
Petrodworez Петродворцовыйрайон 76,800 77,574
Petrograd Петроградскийрайон 131,500 128,469
Primorsk Приморскийрайон 397,500 401,609
Puschkin Пушкинскийрайон 101,000 103,009
Krasnogwardejsk Красногвардейскийрайон 330,200 327,484
Wassili island Василеостровскийрайон 198,700 196,815
Wyborg Выборгскийрайон 417,300 414,812
center Центральныйрайон 231,100 225,821

history

a city develops from that nothing

Peters Sommerresidenz Peterhof: Große Kaskade, im Hintergrund der finnische Meerbusen
Peter's summer residence Peter yard: Large cascade, in the background the Finnish sea bosom

the history of pc. Petersburg begins 16 with that. May 1703. On this day the foundation-stone for the Peter Paul fortress is put. Only at the beginning of the same monthly the Russians advanced under Scheremetjew up to the Newamündung and the fortress Nyenschanz conquered. At this only place inhabited by some Finnish farmers Peter the large one lets the city, which he designates after his name patron develop. (In old documents and maps pc. Petersburg also the Dutch is sank to Piter Bourgh or St.Petersburch) apart from the German designation.

The city was planned on the drawing board and rammed in the sumps of the Newa - delta within shortest time from the soil. The area was actually conceivablly unsuitable for a town foundation. The Newa delta was afflicted frequently by inundations, the area was not suitable even for the agriculture. Only some were Fischer here in the summer months.

Later it should come due to the unfavorable situation again and again to inundations, with which innumerable inhabitants left their life. While the city in its foundation walls rose, Zar Peter forbade the establishment of stone buildings in completely Russia outside sank Petersburg - each available stone-cutter should work on building the new Russian capital. The escape of workers from the city and of the often deadly building project was punished with hard punishments.

1706 was obligation-recruited 30,000 body-own in the Russian realm, 1707 was it 40.000. Approximately half of them created it to flee on the way after northwest. Already during the establishment of the city ten thousands of forced laborers and body-own probably died . They died at sump fever, scurvy, at the Ruhr or simply at hunger and weakening. Large parts of the city are established of the fact on stakes in the soil, due to the large number of dead ones with the building speak many people that them actually rest on skeletons. Besides Russia found until 1721 in the war against Sweden, several engagements took place itself in the proximity the straight created Zarenresidenz. Only after those are struck with Poltawa Sweden 1709 in the battle, the city can be regarded to a large extent as secured.

Kupferstich: Sankt Petersburg und Newa (1761)
Copper pass: There did not sink Petersburg and Newa (1761

) also the Russian aristocracy was ready to pull into the city Peter it beorderte after likewise sank Petersburg. They had to draw their style and size with their entire household into the city, into houses exactly fixed were natural - at own expense. 1714 stood in sank for Petersburg of about 50,000 inhabited houses, the city was first in Russia, which had an official police as well as an effectively functioning fire-brigade. The city center was stopped in the evening and at night artificially lit up, the inhabitants to plant trees. The fact that Peter the large one nevertheless selects this place for his new capital is to be due to the fact that excellently a port can be put on here and in addition the connection is given to the within-Russian river system. The moreover the proximity is decisive to Western Europe, goes it Peter the large one around it, like Alexander Puschkin it expresses later nevertheless opening „a window to Europe “.

pc. Petersburg will capital

the schedule of work of the Zaren can only with drastic measures be accomplished. Building materials are to the Newamündung a rare property. Thus 1710 a decree are published, after which each inhabitant of the city must deliver annually 100 stones or pay however a high fine. A decree of 1714 means that buildings of stones may be only built in pc. Petersburg (this decree was again waived only 1741). The drakonischen decrees of the Zaren show success: 1712 Peter the large one already explains sank to Petersburg in place of Moscow as the capital of the Russian empire. At the aristocracy the measure pushes on little enthusiasm, gives up one the comfortable domiciles only reluctantly in Moscow .

the bloom time of the city

Katherinenhof, Gartenansicht
Katherinenhof, garden opinion

Peter, one of the pioneers of the industrial espionage, left craftsmen and engineers from completely Europe, in particular from the Netherlands, comes, which should make the city from the outset a center of European technology and science. 1712 became the city official capital of Russia. Up to a small Intermezzo in the years 1728 to 1732, when the yard stayed in Moscow, should remain the city until 1918 capital.

After Peter the large one deceased 1725, the enthusiasm of the Russian rulers for the window put to the west. Moscow became again capital. Only Zarin Anna turned again after sank Petersburg back. The city became again capital, Anna's stadtplanerische decisions coins/shapes the city this very day. It shifted both the city centre from today then Petrograder mentioned the side on the admiralty side of the Newa, on the other hand put on it to today most important main streets, the new ski folder, the Gorochowaja Uliza and the Wosnessenski the folder . Nevertheless it further rather and more frequently resided in Moscow.

Die "Zwölf Kollegien", unter Peter I. Sitz der russischen Ministerien
The “twelve Kollegien”, under Peter I. Above all seat of the Russian

Ministries Zarin Elizabeth (1741-62) and Katharina the large one (1762-92) set a strengthened opening of the realm to the west, by it artists and architects after pc. Petersburg got. In the time the Elizabeth developed most of the buildings of splendors, which determine to today the townscape, it let among other things the winter palace, the Smolny monastery build. It let the Katharinenpalast transform in honours of its nut/mother, the style Francesco Rastrellis began the city to coin/shape.

The shape in the history of the city, probably most important beside Peter, is Katharina II. (“the large one”), which mounted 1762 the throne. She saw herself obligated - at least to the French revolution broke out - to the spirit of the clearing-up and set on education and art. Katharina II. the first national Russian school for girls created 25 academic mechanisms in its time as well as with the Smolny institute. The rider fixed image of Peter of the large one, a landmark of the city, originates likewise from this time.

Winter palace (today the Eremitage accommodates) of the Newa out taken up

end 18. and in the first half 19. Century experienced the city a bloom time, for the time being particularly in cultural, later also in scientific-technologic area. The first Russian ballet school developed 1738 in the city. 1757 opened the academy of the arts, in which to today painters, sculptors and architects are trained. Theatres and museums, higher schools and libraries developed. 1783 opened the Mariinsky theatre, in which the large national operas Mikhail Iwanowitsch Glinkas should be specified later. 1819 developed from educational Institut the Peter citizens university.

The abolition of the body characteristic in Russia by Zar Alexander II. it ensured starting from 1861 for the fact that numerous humans immigrated to the city. The total population snapped within fewer years up.

Writers and intellectual ones united in literary circles and publication dictionaries and magazines. Among the most important magazines for instance the polar star of Rylejew and Bestuschew or Puschkins Sowremennik ( the contemporary) ranks.

rebellions, assassination attempts, revolutions

Grabmal der letzten Zarenfamilie in der Peter-Paul-Kathedrale
tomb of the last Zarenfamilie in the Peter Paul cathedral

in the soldier and government city sank Petersburg took place to 1918 all important revolts and revolutions of Russian history, the Dekabristenaufstand 1825 just like the events, which led on a long-term basis to the establishment of the Soviet Union. In pc. Took Petersburg end 19. Century unrests and smaller rebellions too. The city was scene of numerous assassination attempts against members of the Zarenhofs and the Russian administration; among other things Alexander became II. here murders 1881.

Revolutionary parties and combinations were based, which were bloodily pursued by the police. In sank Petersburg began with the Peter citizen Blutsonntag the revolution from 1905 to 1907. As consequence the second Duma of Russian history in the city was opened, it remained politically however influenceless. Also the February revolution 1917 found particularly in pc. Petersburg instead of. The starting signal for the October Revolution 1917 gave a shot of the tank cruiser Aurora in the Petrograder port. The close convenient port of crowning city formed the center of an anarchist and advice-communist inspired sailor rebellion against the dictatorship of the Bolsheviks, which by Leo Trotzki bloodily one struck down. Lenin explained Moscow (again) as the Soviet and Russian capital. The population of the city sank within fewer years by civil war and the hunger emergency caused thereby just like secondarily by the status loss and the removal of the entire government and administration to Moscow substantial.

Leningrad

tank cruiser Aurora, that today before the cadet academy lies

after the death of Lenin the former city of the Zaren in Leningrad was renamed. The center of power of the USSR shifted nevertheless ever more to Moscow. If the functionaries of the CPSU in Leningrad had at the beginning of still national influence, with the development of personal power Stalins changed. 1934 were murdered in the context of the Stalin cleanings the popular Lenin grader party chief Sergej Kirow in its office, which fell former chairmen of the Petrograder Soviet Grigori Sinowjew a looking process the victim, another former chairman of the Petrograder Soviet Leo Trotzki became 1940 in the Mexican exile murdered.

During 2. World war the city was besieged nearly 900 days long by German troops under general field marshal Wilhelm knight of Leeb. In the time of the Lenin graders blockade of 8. September 1941 up to 27. January 1944, in which the armed forces on instruction of Hitler did not try a conquest of Lenin degree, but instead the city systematically of any supply cut off, died over one million civilians. A secret instruction of the supreme command of the armed forces of 23. September 1941 read: The leader is decided to let the city disappear Petersburg of the ground. It does not exist after thrashing Soviet Russia any interest to continued this large housing estate. With enclosed thereby the Genozid was express to that about three million inhabitants, it in in accordance with the master planner the east to creative German settled Ingermanland no more place would have had again.

To memorial place to the FE storage of the city

food for the supply of the town with millions of inhabitants could be brought only under large dangers by airplane or in the winter over the frozen-over Ladogasee by course and truck to Leningrad. The route over the lake lay in the field of fire of the armed forces, on average arrived from three started trucks of one in Leningrad. The situation was particularly dramatic in the year 1941. A majority of the Nahrungsmittelvorräte was destroyed by air raids, besides the winter broke in unusually early. The release of falsified food reference lights from airplanes of the armed forces did a remaining. The rations sank in October on 400 gram bread for worker, 200 gram for children and women. To 20. November 1941 they became on 250 gram, reduces respectively 125 gram. Besides temperatures of up to prevailed - 40 degrees Celsius in a city, in the heating materials was extremely scarce. However in December 1941 about 53,000 humans, many of them died fell down simply before weakening on the road. The Dichterin Anna Achmatowa described 1941 the tendency in the city:

Death birds are not located in air
to Leningrad around assistance call there
are noisy, nor it can raise breathing
hears itself: still everything is alive
on the Baltic Sea deep reason
groans themselves the sons in the sleep wund
“bread!” - from internal terrestrial agonies
this call does not penetrate to the sky bowls
the sky has bread and
from the windows looks nevertheless death

during the FE storage about 150,000 artillery projectiles on the city was shot, about 100,000 aerial bombs fell.

With attempts of the Red Army the FE storage to blow up, to it about 500,000 Soviet soldiers died. Attempts 1941 and 1942 failed, only with the income of key castle to 18. January 1943 succeeded it to establish again a supplying line into the city. The offensive, which should release the city, began to 14. January 1944 and could do to 27. January 1944 to the conclusion to be brought.

(See also: Web on the left of: A quiet genocide)
Wiederaufbau unter sowjetischen Vorzeichen: Monumentales Siegesdenkmal der Roten Armee und typische Bauten für die 1970er im Hintergrund
reconstruction under Soviet signs: Monumental victory monument of the Red Army and typical buildings for the 1970er in the background
Englischer Innenstadtplan Leningrads von 1978
English city center plan of Lenin degree of 1978

the treatment of Lenin degree after the Great Patriotic War, how the Second World War in the Soviet Union was called, were contradictory. On the one hand the city had become the Soviet symbol of resistance will and suffering in the war - on the other hand struggles for power still raved between Lenin graders and Muscovite functionaries into the 1950er-Jahre inside. The reconstruction of Lenin degree became the affair of prestige of the Soviet Union. Within shortest time millions workers were drawn into the city, which they rebuilt - the restoration of the culture thinking marks possessed thereby a special priority. Already 1945 kept the city additional the honor as hero city.

Likewise in the postwar years numerous new quarters were built - 1963 were the year in that more new dwelling in the city were created as ever before or afterwards. On the other hand the 250-jährige city anniversary had to be shifted: 1953 were the struggle for power still under way and each positive mention unwanted - besides straight Stalin was died, a ceremony, all the same from which cause, appeared not attached. The celebration had to be retrieved 1957 under Nikita Khrushchev - without the mention that it actually the 254. Birthday was. In the subsequent years the city held its call as large industrial city and one of the scientific centers of the Soviet Union. The political-cultural center of Russia and the Soviet Union lay at this time however clearly in Moscow. The population had been likewise exchanged by the events of the war and post-war period to a majority - the solidarity with Petersburg in the city became increasingly weaker.

1988 became with a fire in the Academy of Sciences approximately one million library volumes a victim of the flames. 1989 were placed the city center under monument protection.

after the collapse of the Soviet Union

Stadtbild Sankt Petersburg 2004
townscape sank Petersburg 2004

after a popular vote, in 1991 the 54% the population for the acceptance of the historical name discussions, took care of the city again their original names. The surrounding administrative unit remained however likewise after a popular vote further the Oblast Leningrad.

With the Putschversuch against Boris Yel'tsin in October 1993 collected the mayor at that time Anatoli Sobtschak the trailers of the democracy around itself, it came to a large demonstration before the winter palace against the Putschisten.

To 27. May 2003 was committed the 300-jährige anniversary of the city. In the course its were reorganized in the apron of parts of the old part of town and different palaces, as well as reconstructed the legendary amber room. The Russian state spent on the reconstruction to two billion euro, which German company Ruhrgas have themselves substantially by a donation of 3.5 million dollar in the costs taken part. To 31. May of the yearly Vladimir Putin and Gerhard Schröder weihten officially the reconstruction of the amber room. The city stood the first time since long time again in the center of the attention of the world public. Since a majority of the renovations concentrated however on the fronts and the special pieces of splendor, critics spoke of the fact that it acts here over - historically anyway closely with Petersburg connected - Potjomkin villages. In the meantime (2004/05) the critical assumptions are, all work only for the holiday guests to the 300-jährigen anniversary were accomplished and thereafter adjusted, grew silent. The renovations of the city concerned also after the ceremonies further and to last.

politics

within Russia are the city their own administrative subject. The point of the executive forms for four years the directly selected governor of the city. The legislation, the Duma, consists of 50 full-time members, that are likewise selected for four years. The chairman of the chamber is protokollarisch on an equal footing with the governor.

Der Sitz der Sankt Petersburger Duma im Stadtzentrum
The seat sank Peter citizen Duma in the city centre

present Amtsträgerin is for October 2003 Walentina Matwijenko, which followed Vladimir Yakovlev. Matwijenko was the Favoritin of the Russian government. While that hard choice became several times reproaches contested loud, which Russian government would intervene directly and indirectly in the choice. On the one hand Matwijenko is the only one, which is particularly introduced regularly in the media and on the television, on the other hand the other candidates and their aids substantial by the police troubled and obstructed.

1996 were it Vladimir Yakovlev, who replaced Anatoli Sobtschak. Yakovlev did not begin 2003 no more to the new election. Sobtschak was a strict Reformer following university tables of the era, which due to its radically free market course many Animositäten in the city produced. Sobtschak refused several times the dismissal Vladimir PUT in due to corruption reproaches, when this worked still in the city government. Putin organized the unsuccessful 1996er-Wahlkampf von Sobtschak.

Yakovlev, former colleague connected by Putin under Sobtschak and Putin in mutual dislike, presented itself as ideologically free Pragmatiker. Whether itself the long-term goal of the pc. Peter citizen politics to become a “free one and a Hanseatic city” carry out in view of the always existing and under Putin again forced centralism of Russia leaves, is however doubtful.

Internationally and in Germany became the city admits Peter citizens politically among other things by the Peter citizen dialogue - the regular GermanRussian discussions in the city - and the committee of the soldier mothers, which protest regularly against the war in Chechnya and against the Dedowschtschina. In addition sank Petersburg is administrative seat of the Oblast Leningrad and the federation circle northwest Russia.

population

sound the result of the last census of 9. October 2002 has sank Petersburg of 4.159.635 inhabitants. Those are about 3 per cent of the entire number of inhabitants of Russia. The average monthly income amounted to 2003 according to official data of 6179 roubles (about 176 euro).

Pc. Petersburg was since its establishment a city of large social contrasts. Since the Perestroika and the fall of the Soviet Union these break open again intensified. Humans, who beg or on the road their the latter have and property to sell, are since the city anniversary from the city center driven out, belong somewhat outside of however to the everyday streetscape. About 15% of the population live only one room in Kommunalkas so mentioned, community dwellings, in which many families a dwelling, a kitchen and a WC must divide, usually possess each family.

In pc. Petersburg applies an influx barrier - right of residence in the city receives only, who can prove dwelling and work or is married with an inhabitant. The international Labour Organization estimates that in the city in the year 2000 about 16,000 road children lived.

Formerly the multi-culturally coined/shaped city is today outweighing, according to official statistics to 89.1 per cent, by Russians inhabited. In addition 2.1 per cent of Jews , 1.9 per cent of Ukrainer , 1.9 per cent of white Russians as well as smaller groups of act arene , Kaukasiern, Usbeken , Wepsen and Finn come.

Despite the religion enmity nationally ordered at Soviet times 2004 are according to estimations only 10 per cent of the population Atheisten. The majority is Russian-orthodox, whereby there are violent arguments between Traditionalisten and Reformern in the city however. The church buildings belong predominantly to the Russian state. Peter the large one forbidden the building of bulb towers. This is the reason that in the whole city only one such tower is - it is in the place, where Zar Alexander II. was murdered and the Auferstehungskirche for him was established. 1914 were established by the tatarischen municipality on the north bank of the Newa the far away visible Peter citizens mosque.


population trend

the following overview shows the numbers of inhabitants after the respective area conditions. Until 1944 it concerns usually around estimations, from 1959 to 2002 around census results and 2005 a computation.

Diagram: Population trend
Year Inhabitant
1725 75,000
1750 150,000
1800 300,000
1846 336,000
1852 485,000
1858 520,100
1864 539,100
1867 667,000
1873 842,900
1881 876,600
1886 928,600
1891 1.035.400
1897 1.264.900
1901 1.439.400
year inhabitant
1908 1.678.000
1910 1.962.000
1915 2.318.600
1920 722,000
1926 1.616.100
1936 2.739.800
1939 3.191.300
1944 2.559.000
15. January 1959 2.888.000
15. January 1970 3.512.974
17. January 1979 4.072.528
12. January 1989 4.460.424
9. October 2002 4.159.635
1. January 2005 4.039.751

culture

Alexandra theatre at the Ostrowski place

sank Petersburg is a city, which has world validity in the literature, music and the theatre.

theatres

in the city are still 40 different theatres. The Mariinski theatre is one of the most well-known opera houses of the world. It is the homeland of the Kirow Balletts.

In the city and worked the composers Mikhail Glinka, Modest mash ensuring ski, Nikolaj Andrejewitsch Rimski Korsakow, Pjotr Iljitsch Tschaikowski, Igor Strawinsky and Dmitri Schostakowitsch lived. Particularly connected with the city among other things Schostakowitschs is sieved or Lenin grader Symphonie; developed during the FE storage by the Germans, it was an expression of the holding out will and the Russian culture. The premiere took place in Moscow likewise under mortal danger for specifying and listener, to 8. August 1942 the orchestra scores were created by the German blockade through into the city, which transfer concert in the entire Soviet broadcast.

Grabmal Rimski-Korsakows auf dem Gelände des Alexander-Newski-Klosters
Tomb Rimski Korsakows on the area of the Alexander Newski monastery

see also:

  • Hofoper_Sankt_Petersburg

ballet

the city is likewise one of the most important places for the development of the Balletts. Sergej Pawlowitsch Diaghilew, Marius Petipa, Wazlaw Nischinski, Mathilda Maria Kschessinskaja and Anna Pawlowa were considerably involved in this development. Here also the probably most famous ballet school of the world - Waganowa - is ballet academy, based in the year 1738.

chess

to the inhabitants of sank Petersburg counted also some outstanding chess players: Mikhail Botwinnik (world champion of many years and repeated between 1948 and 1963), Boris Spasski (world champion from 1969 to 1972 and admits 1972 in Reykjavík, which excited world-wide interest because of the east west conflict existing at that time by the match with Bobby Fischer (the USA)), as well as Viktor Kortschnoi (today Switzerland), vice-world champion and emigrant of many years from the USSR. Kortschnoi attained international admittingness because of the duels with Anatoli Karpow around the world championship 1978 in Baguijo and 1981 in Meran, which large political explosiveness was inherent in. Karpow lived long years in Leningrad, where he also studied. The title chess - large master became for the first time of Zar Nikolaus II. after a tournament invented and lent 1914 in the city.

literature

the city possesses several impressive libraries. The 1795 built Saltykow Schtschedrin library once as Russian national library and is today with an existence of 30 million works after the Lenin library in Moscow the second largest of Russia was created. In their existence are books in 85 languages. The collection contains also first dated in the ostslawischen area handwriting developed, the kirchenslawische east Rome IR gospel from the year 1057. The 1714 built library of the Academy of Sciences possesses likewise an existence of 17 million volumes. The Puschkin library is clearly smaller with 5000 works, possesses for it however an impressive existence of works from the private library of the poet.

Numerous ones of the most well-known Russian artists have Petersburg in sank lived and worked, among them man of letters such as Alexander Puschkin, Fjodor Dostojewski, Anna Achmatowa, Alexander Blok and Joseph Brodsky.

the “Peter citizen text”

Petersburg, when Zarenstadt tightened cultural center of Russia, also a large number of writers, who perpetuated the city literarily over centuries. After in the first decades according to the building of the city praising Auftragslyrik the picture determined the Zaren, 1833 with Alexander Puschkins poem began to become the eherne rider another kind of the literature dominance. The poem brings up for discussion the Russian official Jewgeni, who at the rider fixed image of Peter of the large one, for who landmark of the city sets, to the Zarenbeschimpfung. But it excites the anger of the statue.

And on the Hengstes bright back
with the up-stretched hand
it forward floating with views
brew transmit-spraying the giant
the poor err hastet
where it also always turns,
the eherne, enraged rider
follows everywhere on its horse
Grabmal Waldimir Stassows, bedeutendster Petersburger Literaturkritiker des 19. Jahrhunderts
tomb Waldimir Stassows, most important Peter citizen literary critic 19. Century

these later texts have an astonishing similarity, which often concerns motives, language, atmosphere, in addition, the sense - as much similarity that the literature science for it coined/shaped the term Peter citizen text. General-gene-wait the power of the Zaren like the Russian state apparatus, the official and cantonment town, are likewise a constantly returning topic, like the insanity, flood and inundation, destruction, fall, fever illusion and (Alp) dream city. Many man of letters certify a certain unreality, an aura its to the city that them are not completely material. That begins already with the myth, the city in air was built and only thereafter on earth sunk, because one cannot actually at all build on this area. Literature Nobelpreisträger Joseph Brodsky certifies: There is no place in Russia, where the imagination becomes detached with such ease of the reality. Nikolai Gogol says already 1835 about the new ski folder: Here all deceit, all dream, is everything not what it seems.

However the plan to build a large city at the end of the world in the midst of from sumps to gives pc. Petersburg this establishment myth also, which determines the literary tendency up to the October Revolution. Even Giacomo Casanova could be affected by the tendency of the city. it wrote 1764: Everything appeared to me, as if one would have already built it as ruin. One paved the roads and knew that one would have to pave her six months later again.

Grabmal Dostojewskis in Sankt Petersburg. Auf dem unteren Stein sind die ersten Zeilen von "Die Brüder Karamasow" zu lesen.
Tomb Dostojewskis in sank Petersburg. On the lower stone the first lines of “the brothers Karamasow” are to be read.

Particularly well-known successors Puschkins were in this tradition Nikolaj Gogol with its Peter citizens narrations as well as the probably most famous writer of the city, Fjodor Dostojewski, its novels white nights, arms of people, the double, the idiot and crime and punishment in the city play. Dostojewskis a character Raskolnikow was close to the city: It blew it from it always a puzzling cold weather on, this magnificent panorama was fulfilled for it with a mute, dull/musty spirit.

With the symbolistic novel Petersburg (1913) wrote Andrei Bely one of the masterpieces of the Russian literature. It stands at the beginning of the number of the large city novels of the modern trend and with James Joyces Ulysses and Alfred Döblins Berlin Alexanderplatz was so often compared.

With the October Revolution and the misalignment of the capital developed further literary works of high meaning, which did not reflect however no more the typical Peter citizen text. Alexander Bloks narration the twelve of 1918 described the march of twelve Red Army soldiers by the city. Finally Jesus at the point of the group appears. Daniil Charms, one of the last representatives of the early Russian avant-garde, wrote also numerous short pieces apart from the comedy of the city Petersburg. One, to the Quaimauer, takes up again the classical motives Peter citizens of the text:

At the quay wall of our river
a very large crowd had itself met
into the river pleases was the Regimentskom
mandeur Sepunow. It swallowed itself in
one away, jumped up to the belly out of the water.

...

“It goes down”, said to Kusma
“clear goes down it”, confirmed a man with
a garrison cap.
And actually, the regiment commander
went under
the quantity began itself to run.

The native Peter citizen Vladimir Nabokov always returns in his books the place of its childhood. Anna Achmatowa, Marina Zwetajewa, Ossip Mandelstam, Welimir Chlebnikow, Sergei Jessenin and Joseph Brodsky perpetuated the city by her lyric poetry. Just like as city of the literature the city always appeared as one the pursued literature. Already Dostojewski and Puschkin by the Zar pursued, after which October Revolution numerous man of letters became murdered, got professional disqualification or, if it was possible for them, emigrated. Ossip Mandelstam noticed: No other country does not take poetry as importantly as Russia, anywhere otherwise ihretwegen so many humans killed.

the Eremitage

Einer der tausend Räume der Eremitage
of one of the thousand areas of the Eremitage

major items see Eremitage (pc. Petersburg).

From that approximately 250 museums of the city is most meaning probably internationally the Eremitage with 3 to 4 million visitors in the year bestbesuchte and. The Eremitage is one of the most important art museums of the world. It accommodates an immensely large collection of the European forming art to 1917 as well as the world-wide largest jewel collection.

The winter palace, in which a majority of the collection is accommodated (altogether the museum takes 5 buildings in requirement, is with total exhibition surface of 57.475 m ² and storage space of 45.000 m ²), thereby its own object of interest. In its archives the Eremitage accommodates more than 2.7 million exhibits. In the 350 showrooms of it 65,000 is organized issued in six collections. There is collections over Prähistori culture, art and culture of the antique ones, art and culture of the peoples of the east to see Western European art and Russian art as well as over jewel treasures and numismatische exhibits. Since the largest part of the Russian art was paged out meanwhile into the Russian museum, the Western European art and culture are the most important part of the collection.

In it among other things works of Leonardo da Vinci ( 2 world-wide twelve originals admitted to that) are, Raffael, Tizian, Paolo Veronese, El Greco, Goya, Lucas Cranach the older one, more than 40 pictures of Rubens, 25 works of rem Brandt and various its pupil, Vincent van Gogh, 37 pictures of Henri Matisse, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Paul Gauguin, 31 pictures of Pablo Picasso, as well as pictures of Édouard Manet and Wassily Kandinsky.

The museum developed as private collection of the Zaren, since 1852 was publicly accessible it. After the October Revolution numerous private collections were transferred of expropriated Russian noble into the Eremitage. The existence got over the FE storage of the city without prejudice to in the cellar of the museum, the most valuable pieces had been to a large extent paged out. 1948 the art existence supplemented by a large part of the collection of the museum for new western culture in Moscow. From the many tourist goals of the city the Eremitage is probable the most important thing. There is a long-term co-operation with the Guggenheim museum.

architecture

see also: Objects of interest in Petersburg

Die Auferstehungskirche nach Moskauer Vorbild
the Auferstehungskirche after Muscovite model

building condition and monument protection

sank Petersburg was long time the seat of the Russian Zaren. In the city they unfolded the whole splendour of their immense wealth, from which to today numerous certifications are to be seen. Regarding the 300-Jahr-Feier in the year 2003 numerous of the objects of interest were aufwändig restored. The city possesses also approximately 4000 protected culture, historical or architectural monuments beside the 250 museums. 15% of the buildings in sank Petersburg - 2400 buildings - of the UNESCO as monuments of architectural history were classified. Thus Petersburg in this regard is only exceeded by Venice. The city has however problems to apply the costs for the preservation of these architectural monuments. Apart from the almost quantity there are also different problems: The houses are partial after the Soviet time in the branch roses a building condition and would have accordingly aufwändig to be restored. On the other hand the industry and strong traffic in the city provide for a strong air pollution, which adds in particular to the fronts. Although since 2004 efforts are undertaken to denationalize at least some architectural monuments still about 80% all Peter citizen real estates belong to the Russian state.

prevailing style directions

Frontseite der Isaakskathedrale - vom gleichnamigen Platz aus fotografiert
front side of the Isaakskathedrale - from the place of the same name photographs
  • the city is comparatively young and architecturally strongly from Western European influences coined/shaped. Particularly buildings of a reserved-representative early baroque, a fully minted baroque, are the classicism, historicism, art nouveau and some buildings of the early modern trend, like e.g. in the townscape. (imperially) the German message of Peter Behrens and Mies van the raw one.
  • The buildings to Zar Peter times (for example the Peter Pauls fortress the twelve the Kollegien, the Menshikov palace, the kinking in palace of Andreas Schlüter, the summer palace of Peter of the large one (with Terrakottareliefs likewise of Andreas Schlüter), the art chamber and the palace of Peter II) are affected from the European baroque.
  • The klassizistischen buildings are again more dezenter and less playful. The forms proceed from simple geometrical basic forms. As prime example the Rossi road is considered: It is 220 meters long, 22 meters wide, it seam-ends buildings is 22 meters highly, their windows per 2.20 meters large. In this time whole ensembles develop like the lock place or the entire quarter around the Alexandratheater. Most important architect of this time is the Italian Carlo Rossi. A rather Russian variant of the style is coined/shaped particularly by Wassili Petrowitsch Stassow.
  • In art nouveau architecture is very playful like z. B. „cathedral the Knigi “, the Jelissejew delicatessen store, post-office building, the Witebsker station, the Grand Europe hotel, the Astoria hotel as well as the buildings of the Kamenostrovski folder and the Austrian Patzes and the residential buildings around the entire city.
  • In the Peter citizens modern trend - a later variant of the classicism - further buildings of splendors of the architect Frederik eyelid whale e.g. establishes the Don Asov bank.
  • After the October Revolution into the 30ern many constructionalistic projects are carried out like e.g. the city halls of the Kirov Regieon and the Muscovite region or the Kirov commercial centre.
  • Later particularly in the reconstruction after 1945 the old buildings were restored, which become new buildings in the best tradition of Soviet architecture established. Very beautiful examples are the Metro and the Moskowski folder.

city round course

most salient building of the Skyline and highest building of the city is the TV tower sank Petersburg. It is however outside of the city center. This is particularly on the admiralty side in such a way specified of the Newa. The new ski folder, the main street of the city, extends from the admiralty and/or the Eremitage together with “Dworzowaja Ploschtschad” - the parade and lock place - up to the Alexander Newski monastery, the so-called Lawra. The latter is designated after after the Russian people hero Alexander Jaroslawitsch new ski, the folder however the Newa. Among the objects of interest which were because of the new ski folder the Kasaner cathedral and the department store Gostini Dwor ranks. The folder discovers the place of the Dekabristenaufstands of 1825 the “Ploschtschad Wosstania. The new ski folder is cut by the following channels:

Die Admiralität. Die Spitze ist vom größten Teil des Newski-Prospekts aus gut zu erkennen.
The admiralty. The point is out good from the largest part of the new ski folder to recognize.
  1. The channel Moika at height of the Kasaner cathedral. On the left side, thus opposite the cathedral, one sees the Christi Auferstehungskirche, which resembles outward the cathedral at Red Square in Moscow much on the bank of the Moika at small distance. On the bank of the Moika is likewise the house, in which the Russian national poet Puschkin lived and also deceased after a heavy Verwundung in a duel with the Frenchman Dantes.
  2. The channel Gribojedowa. Left (east) of it the Mars field , the summer garden with that extends summer palace and the Vladimir palace.
  3. The channel Fontanka, which the Anitschkow bridge spans. Here also the palace of the same name is, in that the well-known chess coach Zak among other things with the later world champion Spasski worked.

Nearby the new ski folder further objects of interest lie. These are the Russian museum, which is beside the Auferstehungskirche, which anreiht themselves directly Isaakskathedrale to the admiralty and the Eremitage, which Peter and Pauls fortress - a fastened island, also hare island mentioned, on which the folder facing side of the Newa, with associated cathedral, in which Zaren and large princes were buried. In a chapel of the cathedral also the last Zar Nikolaus II. became. with its family and its servant shank buried. In the fortress finally also numerous prominent ones of Russian history (for example the Dekabristen, Mikhail Bakunin and Peter Kropotkin) were held. The tank cruiser Aurora can be visited on the same Newa side northwest the fortress.

Aufnahme von der Newa aus: Reiterstandbild Peter des Großen ("Der eherne Reiter"), Isaakspark und Isaakskathedrale
Admission of the Newa out: Rider fixed image Peter of the large one (“the eherne rider”), Isaakspark and Isaakskathedrale

the eherne rider, the Smolnyj, the Rossistrasse, the summer garden and the Christi Auferstehungskirche are all on the southern Newa side. A walk is particularly worthwhile by the city during the white nights in the summer.

In the southern and/or southwest environment sank Petersburg are the Peter yard, Pawlowsk and the city Puschkin popular trip goals. In the latter one can admire the legendary amber room in the Katharinenpalast. The Peter yard is direct one at the sea far lock plant with palace, castle church, Orangerie, small desire locks like “Mont Plaisir”, “Marly” and a particularly beautiful Fontänen plant in Hanglage, the so-called cascade, with wonderful gilded wasserspeienden bronze sculptures, lain. The Peter yard, which became lock Pawlowsk, as well as the Katharinenpalast in the process of the Second World War devastated from the German Besatzern to large parts, and after that war in laborious detailed work again developed and restores. By the Witebsker out Pawlowsk and Puschkin leave themselves station easy with the course, which reaches “Elektritshka”. At this railroad line is the stop “21 km”, which was built at the southern FE storage line of the city in the Second World War. Beside the tracks southward arranged cannons at that time remind of the German FE storage.

Der Komplex der Eremitage. Von links nach rechts: Eremitage-Theater – Alte Eremitage – Kleine Eremitage – Winterpalast (die "Neue Eremitage" liegt nicht sichtbar hinter der Alten Eremitage)
The complex of the Eremitage. From left to right: Eremitage theatre - old person Eremitage - small Eremitage - winter palace (the “new Eremitage” visibly does not lie behind the old person Eremitage)

Petersburg in the film

the end of the cultural bloom time sank Petersburg coincided temporally with the arising of the film industry. While the Soviet cinema brought out hardly films of international importance, it was not possible for productions from other countries to arrive into the city. With remarkable films until 1990 it concerns to a majority filmings of classical Russian literature. There are dozens filmings of Anna Karenina (first a Russian and a French ever of 1911, the first western, those locally one turned of 1997) or some versions of Dostojewskis the idiot (first Russia is, 1910).

Some films refer to the urban history. Beside a large number of Soviet propaganda films there are so far however only few works: In its kind independent is the film Noi Vivi (Italy, 1942), a filming of the book of Ayn edge we, playing in the city, lives, which tries a criticism of fascist Italy before the background of the Soviet October Revolution. History around the daughter of the last Zaren Anastasia was filmed several times. Particularly are the versions of 1956 with Ingrid Bergman admit and the indication trick musical (the USA, 1997) of Don Bluth, former chief draughtsman of roll Disney. Particularly the indication trick musical refers both to the urban history and it also their optical Opulenz, verfremdet both however so strongly that it is hardly to be recognized. The Italian specialist for films over Russian history Giuseppe Tornatore plans a film for 2005 over the FE storage of the city in the Second World War. For most international resonance so far from all Peter citizen films Russian Ark provided into the Eremitage turned 300 years Russian history on only one average revue to happen leaves. The film the fall was turned in the city, since the historical city center in parts exhibits large similarities to the Berlin of the yearly 1945.

In Petersburg (at that time still Leningrad) plays also the cult film Intergirl of Pjotr Todorowskij, the last large cinema success of the USSR before their fall, with impressive photographs in particular the city.

The city is only rarely action of perfectly fictitious films without literary purchase. These use Petersburg particularly as impressive optical background. The James bond - film Goldeneye (1995) shows the city in already nearly a condition which can be called postapokalyptisch. Another act ion film, Midnight in pc. However Petersburg (UK, 1996) tries to adjust its cinematic deficits with opulenten photographs of the Peter citizens objects of interest. The film Onegin (1999 among other things with live Tyler) in addition, takes the existence of the Puschkin poem as starting point, bends in addition the action in relation to opulenten photographs of the city into the background step to let.

education

the art chamber, establishes 1719 curiosity collection put on by the Deutschbalten George Johann Mattarnivi for the 1716/17 by Peter to the large one. It is thus the oldest museum of Russia.

Sank Petersburg was historically the center of the Russian science and is beside Moscow still the most important education and science location. In the city reside over 120 universities, universities and professional schools. Of it 43 is national-civilian, 22 military and about 50 privately is operated, is however nationally licensed. To the more well-known universities the national university sank to Petersburg, “the sinking Peter citizens university for economics and finances, the technical university, belong the electrotechnical university, the academy of art and the navigation s-Tech niche university. To the military institutions for example the military academy for rear services and transportation belongs.

In the city about 600,000 inhabitants in education and science are busy, among them are approximately 340,000 studying.

Details see list of resuming educational facilities in pc. Petersburg.

The city accommodated numerous Nobelpreisträger, among them as last Schores Iwanowitsch Alfjorow, the Nobelpreisträger for physics of the yearly 2000.

economics and traffic

economics

Industrie und Straßenverkehr am Obwodni-Kanal, Nähe Baltischer Bahnhof. (Auf dem Foto nicht zu bemerken ist der dort vorhandene Gestank von Autoabgasen)
industry and traffic at the Obwodni channel, proximity Baltic station. (In the photo to notice is not the Gestank of exhaust gas)

sank Petersburg is accommodated corresponding a traffic junction and a center of Russian research and development and a large Potenzial at enterprises from this range. Also after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the Russian rouble crisis of 1998 the city could save large parts of their Potenzials.

In sank Petersburg are enterprises of nearly all branches of the processing industry, a special emphasis is however on the ship and mechanical engineering. Among other things all Russian nuclear-powered ice-breakers in the city are manufactured. Further emphasis of the industriellen of sector in the city is radio electronics (particularly in air and space travel), new building materials (one of the priority growth branches), energy mechanical engineering (industry enterprises are world-wide competitive), medical tool-making, medicinemedicine medicine and health service as well as ecological engineering. In addition the city possesses furniture industry, food industry (for example the well-known brewery Baltika) and oil-processing industry. In the last years the information technology begins to take a larger role.

In the city at foreign enterprises among other things Wrigley, Gillette, Rothmans, Unilever, Japan Tobacco, Coca-Cola and Ford transacted considerable investments. Ford focus one manufactures here. Most important foreign trade partner of the city is Germany.

At raw materials are gravel, sandstone, clay/tone and peat. The agriculture does not play a role in the local economy.

80 km of sank Petersburg far away stands in Sosnowy boron a large atomic power plant, which is called often also Lenin grader atomic power plant. 50% of requirements of electric current of the region are fed from this.

In the Soviet Union was pc. Petersburg the main fleet base, this very day is the majority of the former battle ships and submarines into the Peter citizen military ports. The first diesel ship of the world, the Vandal, ran from Rybinsk coming starting from 1903 according to plan pc. Petersburg on. Before the Perestroika the arms rüstungsindustrielle complex formed 80 per cent of the Lenin graders economics.

Tourism becomes an increasingly important restaurant factor in the city. According to the UNESCO belongs the city to the ten destinations most attractive for tourists world-wide.

The optics collective combine justified its own style direction of the photography, the Lomographie with the production of the LOMO Compact automat.

traffic

Wie viele Metropolen leidet Sankt Petersburg unter stetig zunehmendem Straßenverkehr. Einer der täglichen Staus (hier an der Fontanka)
like many metropolises suffers sank Petersburg under constantly increasing traffic. One the daily back-up (here to the Fontanka)

sank Petersburg is an important traffic junction. Here the city manufactures an important linkage between sea-going vessel travel and railway . The port sank Petersburg is the largest port of Russia and has meaning for the whole Eastern European and northasiatic area. Of sank Petersburg out drive ferries to Kaliningrad, for which recently a large driving terminal was inaugurated. Further driving connections exist to Stockholm, Helsinki, Kiel, Rostock and other ports at the Baltic Sea. The important outer ports of sank Petersburg are at the Baltic Sea in Ust Luga and in Wyssozk. Over the Newa and different channels navigable connections to the Ladogasee , to the Volga exist and to the white sea. The ships drive at night by the city, for which balance bridges are lifted up.

The first Russian railway led Petersburg of sank after Zarskoje Selo. Before the First World War the north express drove directly from pc. Petersburg until Paris. Today railway lines exist to Murmansk, Helsinki, (Ladogabahnhof), Kirow, Moscow (Muscovite station), Kaliningrad, Minsk and Berlin (Witebsker station).

Sank Petersburg possesses twelve motorways. At present a further is built around the city. The eastern evasion was transferred to traffic in December 2005. The Russian Kfz characteristic reads “78”, recently also “98”.

Those sank Peter citizen Metrostation Sportivnaya

of about twelve kilometers south of the city center lie the airports Pulkowo I (inland flights) and Pulkowo II (foreign flights). From them Pulkovo airlines flies, from Pulkowo II also numerous foreign airlines.

Due to the situation in the sump and the necessity to make the propulsion of the tunnels in the granite being under it - 1955 opened - the Metro is the deepest underground of the world. Up to 90 the meters deeply built Peter citizen Metro has four lines. In addition there is numerous bus - and trolley bus lines as well as with the Tramwai sank Petersburg the largest streetcar net of the world. The largest portion of the earthbound traveler stream is mastered however by the regular taxis („Marschrutka “). Sank Petersburg possesses additionally far a regional traction network handing into the Oblast Leningrad and until Oblast Pskow, Oblast Nowgorod and the Republic of Karelien („Elektritschka “).

twin cities

pc. Petersburg maintains partnerships between cities with the following cities:

personalities

sank Petersburg was birth and residence of numerous Russian and international noble, politicians, artists and scientists. To the most well-known of them Vladimir Putin, Fjodor Dostojewski, Alexander Puschkin, all Russian Zaren belongs since 1718, Leonhard Euler, Alfred Nobel, arm and Marseille or Iwan Pawlow. See also list more well-known sank to Peter citizens.

literature

  • Stefan Creutzberger (Hrsg.): Pc. Petersburg, Leningrad, pc. Petersburg. German publishing house, Hamburg 2000 ISBN 3421053588 (essay collection over the city. Thematically the elbow reaches Jörg whole Mueller over the “classical” Peter citizens topics up to the Judentum in the city or the Underground Musikszene
  • .): Besieged Leningrad 1941-1944. A city in the strategies of aggressors and defenders. Schöningh, Paderborn and others 2005 ISBN 3-506-72889-X
  • Orlando Figes: Nataschas dance. A culture history of Russia. Berlin publishing house, Berlin 2003 ISBN 382700487X (Exzellente culture history of Russia, since that the 18. Century inseparably with the development sank Petersburg connected is.)
  • Peter Jahn (Hrsg.): Blockade of Lenin degree of 1941-1944. CH. On the left of publishing house, Berlin 2004 ISBN 3861533243 (Begleitband to an exhibition of the GermanRussian museum. The emphasis is on the representation of the German goals and the everyday life in besieged city.)

beyond that offers all large and also many smaller offerers of travel guides the expenditures to the topic sank to Petersburg on. Which is recommendable, might depend to a considerable degree on the requirements and needs of the reader.

English

  • John Barber (Hrsg.): And would run death in besieged Leningrad, 1941 - 44, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan 2005, 243 S., ISBN 1-4039-0142-2 (in besieged Leningrad describes the life circumstances)
  • Katerina Clark: Petersburg: Crucible OF Cultural revolution. Harvard University press 1998 ISBN 0674663365 (concentrates on the artistic avant-garde - currents, those briefly at present the October Revolution blossomed.)
  • Solomon Volkov: Pc. Petersburg. A Cultural History. Free press 1995 ISBN 0684832968 (detailed and easily eccentric overview of the entire culture history of the city.)

sank Petersburg literarily

  • Joseph Brodsky: Memories of Leningrad. Fischer paperback publishing house, Frankfurt/Main ISBN 3596295394 (memories of the literature Nobelpreisträgers of its childhood in postwar Leningrad.)
  • Nikolai Wassiljewitsch Gogol: Peter citizen novellas. Numerous expenditures. (Four novellas of one the founder of the Russian Prosaliteratur. In particular “the nose” and “the coat” belong to Christoph cellar (Hrsg.) to the classical authors
  • of the Russian literature.) Petersburg told. Fischer paperback publishing house, Frankfurt/Main 1999 ISBN 3596132363 (collection of Kurzgeschichten over and from pc. Petersburg with an epilog to the city and literature generally. Contains among other things Contributions of Iwan Bunin, Ossip Mandelstam, Vladimir Nabokov and contemporary authors.)
  • Alexander Sergejewitsch Puschkin: The eherne rider. Contain in numerous Anthologien. (Poem, which ranks among the classical authors of the Russian literature. Numerous literature scientists see the beginning of the modern Russian literature in the poem.)

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