as Santería one designates a group of synkretischen religions. It unites people-catholic faith with Black African religions, above all the religion of the Yoruba - people from west Africa. According to the routes of transportation of the African slaves between that 16. and that 19. Century is the Santería (partially. under different names) in the Karibik and in Brazil. The traditions of the Yoruba and the religions of other African peoples developed themselves further in the colonies independently and form today with one another used, in addition, clearly differentiated religious groups (e.g. Candomblé in Brazil).
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literature 5 Web on the left of [work on ] history the strict Katholizimus of colonial powers Spain and Portugal under the catholic faith. Similarly as those Spanish Jews, who fled not after 1492 before the Inquisition to Greece and elsewhere, but to baptize left themselves, in order to be able to remain in the country, partly however secretly their Judentum continued to maintain, then also the zwangschristianisierten slaves of the Yoruba people continued to continue their religion despite prohibition under the dominant catholicism.
the Cuban Santería
due to the not-written tradition does not give it firm faith regulations, but rather groups of Gläubigen, which follow common rules. There is a common core range, around which most different forms develop.
The main directions are the Regla Ocha (particularly spread in the west of Cuba), the Regla Conga (also Palo Monte, particularly in the east of Cuba) and the secret company of the Abakuá. Beyond that numerous other groups exist like those the Voudou (also Vudú or Voodoo), the Regla Arará (or Arada) and the Gangá Longobá.
The result of this Nebeneinanderbestehens of Yoruba and Katholizimus led in the long run to a fusion of completely special kind. While the catholic church rejects officially the Santería as Heidentum (secretly however bears), is for the trailers of the Santería the affiliation to the catholic church a condition. Holy ones of the catholic church receive a dual function in the eyes of the Santería: they remain the holy ones of the catholic church, as Gods of the Santería under a second name are however at the same time admired. The allocation is however regionally different.
Although the Santería is actually a religion of the black ones, a strong propagation can be particularly observed also under white Kubanern for the 1970er years, on the basis of Cuban intellectual ones. Without this there was also before already a strong influence of the Santería on the Cuban catholicism, which has to do also with the people-medical knowledge tradierten within the Santería.
With the Cuban emigration the Santería spread also in the USA and is in recent time also in Europe to be found.
Since it does not concern with the Santería a religion, which is based on religious writings, she constantly changes and adapts due to the practical practice of her trailers the changed social conditions almost breakless. Any attempt to kanonisieren the religious rules must fail, since there is no institution, which decides on correct or wrong worship.
Orishas - only one conception
of the Synkretismus is to place divinities of the Santería the allocation made here and is neither complete nor obligatory. In the Regla Ocha it gives about 200 different divinities, from those approx. 20 as core range to be regarded can. To the characteristics specified here come still many other characteristics and rites, which are assigned to the respective divinities.
|Divinity||rule range||kath. For holy||color|
|Elegguá||and close the ways Antonius||open||red + black|
|Yemayá||sea, birth, death||virgin of Regla||light blue + white|
|Changó||God of the war||Barbara||red and. white|
|Obatalá||of heads||Nuestra señora de read Mercedes||white|
|Ochosí||arrow and. Elbow, prison||Norbert, Albert||bright green, black-green, green-white|
|Orichaoko||of fields, harvest, rain, fertility||Isidro||blue and. pink|
|Ochún||goddess of the rivers and the love||virgin of the copper (four-gene del Cobre) Cuban nationalholy||more amber and. red|
|Oya -||wind, Friedhofstor, storm,||brown with black and. white strip||all|
|Osain||of mountains, plants, herbs||Silvester|
|Aggayú||of rivers, sheet||Christoph of Havanna||dark red and white|
|Oggún||iron, mountains, forests||Petrus (Havanna), Paulus, Johannnes of the Täufer (Matanzas)||black + transparent green|
|Babalú Ayé||health||Lazarus||white-blue, white-green|
in Europe is the folkloristische variant of the Santería particularly by the Cuba tourism since beginning of the 1980er years admits become. That particularly led in Germany also at the universities to a stronger occupation with these religions. Every now and then the admission into the Santería, paid quite expensively by tourists, can be seen rather as a form of Bauernfängerei, since the social and religious background of the Santería grown over generations contains far more than one confession to a faith.
the most important literature to afrokubanischen religions is not available unfortunately in German language:
- Anibal Argüelles Mederos/Ileana Hodge Limonta. Loosely llamados cultos sincréticos y el espiritismo. Havanna 1991
- Enrique Sosa Rodriguez. Loosely Ñañigos. Havanna 1982
- Lydia Cabrera. El Monte. Havanna 1981
- Fernando Ortíz Fernández (see article)
- Varuna wood apple: Santeria - the Voodoo of the Kubaner
- Cristina García. Dreaming in Cuban.
Web on the left of
- http://www.orishanetwork.de/ (German Santerianetzwerk)
- research project the people customer at the University of Marburg (Santería in Germany)
- http://www.orishanet.org/ocha.html - information to the Orisha faith (English)
- Orisha in Trinidad & Tobago