Santiago Carrillo solar

Santiago Carrillo solar (* 18. January 1915 in Gijón, Asturien, Spain) is a Spanish politician, Secretary-General of the communist party of Spain PCE from 1960 to 1982.

Carrillo was born as a son of the prominent socialist delegate Wenceslao Carrillo. As thirteen-year old it was already member that Spanish socialist worker a party PSOE. It participated in the combination of the socialist and communist youth federation 1934 to the united socialist youth and became their first chairman.

Table of contents

youth in republican Spain and reproaches of the mass massentötung

Carrillo “El Socialista “became active as militant politicians, typesetters and journalist of the newspaper. It participated in the revolutionary rebellions in October 1934 and sat for it until 1936 in the prison. 1936 it became member of the PCE, already 1937 member in the central committee of the communist party. In the Spanish civil war it participated as officer and a political commissioner, led the junta for the defense of Madrid against the troops general Francisco Francos from November 1936 by January 1937 and showed an intensive pro-Soviet beginning. With view of its activity for the public order in the junta for the defense of Madrid from the public prosecutor of the gang governing in Madrid accusation without documentary proofs was raised, Carrillo has the murder of approx. To exekutieren to answer for 2,000 persons, who were added to that rights and as booty of the prison were taken out, in order it in Paracuellos del Jarama (Madrid), and/or. does not prevent. This controversy is to today the subject of the debate between historians of the republican and the insurgent side.


after the military collapse of the republic it fled to Paris, belonged there to the republican government-in-exile and tried to reorganize the party. Carrillo lived 38 years in the exile, mostly in France, in addition, in the USSR and in South America. Starting from 1942 it was involved in the structure of an illegal secret organization of the party in Spain.

1960 he became Secretary-General of the PCE, when successors of Dolores Ibárruri (la Pasionaria), which was selected at the same time to the chairman and so that nominal the PCE led. Carrillo strengthened the position of the party in the underground in the working class and under the intellectual ones and occurred several attempts, soon the Marxist-Leninistic, soon the stalinistischen and/or. the per-democratic current to replace it. After the invasion Warsaw Pact into Czechoslovakia of the 1968 Carrillo began to dissociate its party from the CPSU to. At the congress of party in Rome 1976 it occurred for a “pluralistischen competition” of the parties.


it returned 1976 to the death of the dictator general Francisco Franco in the secret one to Spain and by the police was arrested, but to short time again released. With the negotiations over the re-establishment of the democracy in Spain with Prime Minister Adolfo Suárez by the PCE the acknowledgment of the monarchy was demanded. With first internationally left Carrillo considered a conference of party before a photo of king Juan Carlo I. in the background and reached thereby their readmission as a party to 9 hangs up. April 1977. Carrillo became member of the Neunerausschusses of the democratic opposition, which prepared the political transition (= transición).

euro communism

as well as Georges of Mark shark in France and Enrico Berlinguer in Italy he developed euro communism with a meeting to 2. March 1977. In its 1977 define Carrillo euro communism published book as movement for a pluralistische socialist society with individual and collective liberty based on the “democratic centralism”. The achievements of the workers' movement, how “independent trade unions” and “right to strike” become described by euro communism as integrals elements of socialism, while the marxism Leninism awards only the function of a transmission belt for the world revolution to the trade unions aforementioned by the party. In April 1978 it painted the terms “marxism Leninism” on the Party Congress of the PCE from the pro grammar of the party and rejected the Leninism as dogmatisch. He criticized the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan together with Berlinguer 1980 and rejected the Putsch general Wojciech Jaruzelskis in Poland as failure of the attempt to export Muscovites the society model.

political practice

of open as the majority of its comrades developed Carrillo successfully important activities for transición to the democracy in Spain, for the kämpferischen defense of the parliamentary democracy.

Carrillo was selected 1977, briefly after the legalization of the PCE, in Madrid with the first democratic elections for the congress of the Deputierten, the Spanish House of Commons to the delegate. 1979 and 1982 he was red-elect to the delegate. But because of the failure of its party with this choice (the number of the seats in parlament was reduced from 23 in the year 1979 to 4 in the year 1982) it became to 6. November 1982 in a forced manner to the resignation from the post of the Secretary-General. Its successor and earlier trailer, that very many younger Gerardo Iglesias of the wing of the “Erneuerer” lay with him from the outset in the controversy. Its new direction called Carrillo indirectly “socialfascist course”.

exclusion from the PCE

to 15. April 1985 was excluded Carrillo and its political friends from the PCE. In the subsequent year 1986 they created their own party, which them Spanish worker a party - communist unit PTE-UC called. This tiny left wing party was not in the conditions to attract voters. Therefore Carrillo pleaded to 27. October 1991 for their dissolution. Later the PTE-UC with the governing socialist party PSOE fused, but Carrillo rejected the PSOE membership recalling its many years as a communist.


  • Adónde va el Partido Socialista? , German where the socialist party, goes
  • to 1959 Después de Franco ¿ qué? , German after Franco, which, 1965
  • of problem of OF Socialism Today, German problems of socialism today, 1970
  • Eurocomunismo y Estado, German euro communism and State of, 1977
  • El año de la Constitución, German the year of the condition, 1978
  • Memoria de la transición: la vida política española y el PCE, German memory of the transition: The political Spanish life and the PCE, 1983
  • Le communisme malgrét, German communism tout despite everything, Paris 1984
  • Problemas de la transición: condiciones de read la revolución socialista, problems of the transition: The conditions of the socialist revolution, 1985
  • El año de la peluca, German the year of the clarity, 1987
  • Problemas del Partido: el centralismo democrático, German problems of the party: the democratic centralism, 1988
  • Memorias, German memories, 1993
  • La gran transición: ¿ cómo reconstruir la izquierda? , German the large transition: Develop how the left one again? , 1995
  • Un joven del 36, German a youth 36, 1996
  • Juez y parte: 15 retratos españoles, German judge and a party: 15 Spanish Portraits, 1998
  • La Segunda República: recuerdos y of reflexiones, German the second republic: Memories and reflections, 1999
  • ¿ hectar muerto el comunismo?: ayer y hoy de un movimiento clave para duck that la convulsa historia del siglo XX, German he is dead, communism?: Yesterday and today a movement carnation around the convulsive/desperate history 20. To understand century, 2000
  • Un futuro para España, German a future for Spain
  • Libertad y socialismo, German liberty and socialism
  • La memoria EN retazos: recuerdos de nuestra historia más reciente, German the memory in fragments: Memory of our recent history, 2004


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