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Lā ilāha illā llāh wa Muhammadun rasūlu llāh. '
|system of government||monarchy|
|king and prime minister||Abdullah is Abd aluminium-Aziz|
|1. Deputy prime minister||Crown Prince Sultan is Abd aluminium-Aziz|
|Höhster clergyman scholar (Klerus)||Mufti Sheik Abdulaziz is Abdullah aluminium-Sheik|
|surface||2.240.000 km ²|
|number of inhabitants||26.417.599 (July 2005)|
|population density||of 11.8 inhabitants per km ²|
|independence||23. September 1932|
|currency||Saudi Riyal, Halala|
|time belt||UTC +3|
|mains voltage||127/220 V, 50/60 cycles per second.|
|National anthem||Asch aluminium-Malik (long live the king) is the national anthem Saudi Arabia. It praises it Allah as only true God and asks for it, the king lifelong too received and well-being being issued assigns become to let.|
the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Arab: المملكةالعربيةالسعودية) an absolute Islamic monarchy is in Anterior Asia. Saudi Arabia lies on the Arab peninsula and borders on the Iraq, Jordanian one, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, the united Arab emirates, Yemen, the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. The country is well-known for its wealth, feudale power structures and strict laws. The two holiest places Islam, the Kaaba in Mekka and the Ruhestätte of the prophet Mohammed in Medina, lie in Saudi Arabia. Therefore Saudi Arabia is often called the country of the two holy cities/mosques , homeland of the prophet or motherland Islam. The Islam plays a very large role, which is considered to country as particularly strict gläubig and Islamic-conservatively in Saudi Arabia. Thursday is partial quiescent day, Friday is a complete quiescent day. In Saudi Arabia the Islamic time calculation ( moon calendar) applies.
Table of contents
the Arab peninsula consists to a large extent of an expanded high country. In the west the plateau forms a steep edge abort, which runs parallel to the coast of the Red Sea. In the northwest there is practically no coastal plain. The highest summits lie in the southwest in the Asir mountains. The highest mountain is the Dschabal Sauda with 3.133 m height.
East the edge abort drops the inhospitable high country gradually up to flat landing on water Persian Gulf , whose coast of sumps and salt surfaces is gesäumt. The high country consists predominantly of far sand wild and regions from naked volcanic rock. A broad desert volume, „the empty quarter of “ Rub aluminium-Chali, extends over the entire south of the country.
at Saudi Arabia border Jordanian ones, Iraq, Kuwait, the united Arab emirates, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman and Yemen. At the course of the border it is remarkable that he particularly is very gradlinig in the north and no large projections has, because he was specified by colonial powers.
In the north, northeast and the south Saudi Arabia borders on the neighboring countries, in the east and the west is limited it by the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Saudi Arabia has altogether 4,415 km land border, the longest section is the border to the Iraq.
The border to Yemen became secured in the years 2003 and 2004 by Saudi-Yemeni check plants, which led to diplomatic detunings between the two states.
the country is partitioned in 13 provinces (, singular mintaqat - mintaqa), in addition come still two regions, which are associated sovereignty-legally neutrally, but to the kingdom.
- Northern Frontier
- Dschauf inclusive Qurayyat
- Eastern Province
the largest cities
the largest cities of Saudi Arabia are Riyadh, Dschidda, Mekka, Medina, Dammam and Taif. The first three are towns with millions of inhabitants. Saudi Arabia has as a world-wide largest crude oil exporter a flourishing economic development and an infrastructure distinguished in all interests: Begun of a completely free medical supply up to the connection of all important cities over a motorway-similar road system.
The largest city of Saudi Arabia is the capital Riyadh with approximately 4.1 millions Inhabitants. It lies approx. 150 km south the northern turning circle between the two largest deserts of the country, relatively central in the eastern part of the national center. Riyadh is since the independence of Saudi Arabia in the year 1932 capital. Riyadh a very important through journey place of the Arab area, the Pilgerwege is historical after Mekka and Medina, the most important Pilgerstätten Islam. In Riyadh the main palace of the king house Saud is since 1824. Riyadh, sometimes in German also he Riyadh written, was originally an oasis, which developed gradually to the metropolis, particularly after the oil boom in the center of the twentieth century.
The next larger city is Dschidda at the Red Sea. Dschidda has 2.8 million inhabitant and is the most important port of exportation for oil products and cattle (goats, sheep and camels). The city is approx. Old and since 1947 a gigantic development through-lived 300 years: at that time it had approx. 30,000 inhabitants and was to a small surface within its Stadtmauern limited. Today one can fasten the extents of the city best at its splendour road „Corniche “, which gesäumt, from hotels and palaces, 60 km at the coast of the Red Sea along leads. The city lies embedded between the sea and the Asir mountains.
Next Mekka is to be called, the most important city Islam. In Mekka live approximately 1.3 millions Humans. At present the Haddsch, the obligating Pilgerfahrt of the Muslims after Mekka, several millions are pilgrims in the city. They are often accommodated in Zeltstädten and supplied by the Saudi government with meals and drinking. Mekka has historically a great importance as commercial town and junction of many caravan routes from Asia and Africa to Europe. Is from greater importance for Mekka the Islamic religion. In the center of the city is the most important Heiligtum Islam, the Kaaba, a goal of the Islamic Pilgerreisen. All Muslims pray toward Kaaba. Mekka is in the interior approximately 200 km south the northern turning circle in the middle west of the country. Because of their special religious meaning the rule often changed over the city in history, depending on which Muslim power had the straight largest influence.
Medina has 919,000 inhabitants and is the secondaryholiest city of the Muslims. It lies in the center of the country, to the west of Riyadh. In Medina the Islamic time calculation, as the prophet Mohammed of Mekka into the oasis Yathrib, began 622 the today's Medina, pulled (Hidschra). Mohammed is buried in Medina, which makes the city an important Pilgerort. Medina was an important caravan city and an important commercial centre, 1932 it from the troops of the Saudi king from the rule of the Haschimiten was released and the kingdom incorporated. Entering of the holy cities is forbidden to non--Muslims.
See also: List of the cities in Saudi Arabia
in Saudi Arabia prevails predominantly hot and dry climate. The continental climate in the interior exhibits partially considerable temperature differences, particularly between day and night. In the summer during the day maximum values are of 40 °C possible, in the winter can the freezing point be fallen below at night. The average yearly temperature is with 28 °C. The largest part of the meager yearly amount of precipitation falls between November and January.
The supply of drinking water does not represent a problem due to the wealth of the country, although water scarceness is an increasing problem, because the groundwater reserves are exhausted slowly. Saudi Arabia possesses neither rivers nor lakes and meets the Wassermangel with the building of Tiefbrunnen and sea water desalination plants, which use an important part of the energy. The coasts at Persian Gulf and at the Red Sea are partly oil-dirty. The government announced to invest millions of euro into further sea water desalination plants.
the vegetation is
limited Flora and fauna in most parts of the country to low grasses and small bushes. In scattered oases Dattelpalmen grow. The Arab Oryxantilope as well as further Antilopenarten exterminated by the hunt, today lives it due to Auswilderungsprogrammen again in small number in liberty. Also some singing birds are threatened from becoming extinct.
Game cats, in the desert living flight chickens, are common excavate-building rodents and desert rats as well as various reptiles and insects. A few years ago the forest black horses rediscovered in Syria pull also to Saudi Arabia. The Halsbandsittich is to be found as Neozoon in many settlements. In the territorial waters of the Red Sea it wimmelt from sea animals, particularly in the corral reefs.
Saudi Arabia has a total population of 26.417.599 inhabitants. Of it are legal 7 million humans in the country living foreigners. The population of Saudi Arabia lives mainly in the cities and unites few oases.
The original inhabitants were almost exclusively Arabs. The country is inhabited by approximately 400 trunks, over a tenth of the inhabitants is Nomaden or Halbnomaden. The social security is good, is entitled however only to Saudis. The medical supply, which is to all inhabitants free of charge in the cities at the disposal, is very good. Nine of ten inhabitants are main Arab origin, either native Saudis or Menschen from the Arab area, Egyptian, Jordanian one and Palestinian. Not arabischstämmige foreigners, who are active as immigrant workers usually, place the remainder.
In Saudi Arabia are busy over 6 million immigrant worker. They come mostly from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Iran, the Philippines, Indonesia and the Sudan. They work particularly within ranges, within which Saudis do not want to work. During and to the Mekkawallfahrt in the month Hadsch it comes again and again to moonlighting by foreign pilgrims. After the terrorist attacks of the 11. September 2001 and the US military actions following on it was predominant an inflow of Afghan building workers, Paschtunen, to observe.
The population is with 73% by the majority Sunni - wahhabitisch, 5 10% are Shiites. The remainder belongs mostly to the other direction of the Sunni Islam. The majority of the foreigners comes from Anterior Asia and black Africa.
Saudi Arabia has a population density of 12 inhabitants per km ². 86% of humans live in the cities of the country, the remainder on the country. The average life expectancy amounts to 69.5 years, whereby women become on the average somewhat older with 71.2 years than men (66.9 years).
Per thousand birth there is fifty cases of child number of deaths, as well as a mother number of deaths of 23 100,000 births each. Thus the Saudi Arabian population grows annually by 4 per cent. The fertility rate of Saudi women lies with 6,21 children very highly. Thus the country has one of the largest population growth rates of the world. Nearly two thirds of the Saudi population are old under 25 years. The infection through HEAVE is very small despite the proximity to Africa and the influences with officially 0.01%, resulting from it. In Germany it is with 0,1%, in the Sudan about 2,6%. As reason for the low infection rate strict punishments are considered to except-conjugal sexual intercourse.
The Alphabetisierungsgrad of the Arab population is high with altogether 97.16% (Germany: 99 %). 96.2% of the Saudi Arabian women of reading and letter are powerfully, nearly as many as men, who have a Alphabetisierungsgrad of 98,3%. Into Saudi Arabia on the average 1.7 physicians as well as 2.3 beds in a national hospital come on 1.000 inhabitants. Office language, English is highly Arab is considered as language of the trade, in addition some Arab dialects are spoken, which apply however in the official use hardly.
a only one antique place has objects of interest the country: Mada'in Salih, close of the provincial town aluminium-Ula, on half way between Medina and Ha'il in the north of the country. It concerns here one approx. 2000 years old rock grave place. To it the rock inscriptions on Aramäisch, received well due to the dry weather, are remarkable (approx. 2000 years) and Thamutisch (approx. 4000-5000 years). In this area the particularly numerous are very unusual due to weather rock formations developed, which appear to the viewer such as illustrations from animal and people shapes.
the flag of Saudi Arabia
the flag of Saudi Arabia was introduced 1932 and to the today's form to 15. March 1973 accepted. On green background horizontally a straight white sword, over it in white Arab characters the Schahada , is the Glaubensbekenntnis Islam.
- Lā ilāha illā llāh Muḥammadun rasūlu llāh :
- There is no God except Allah and Mohammed is its prophet.
The smooth sword symbolizes honesty and justice.
Because of the Islamic Glaubensbekenntnisses illustrated on the flag the flag may not be set on half-mast. The Glaubensbekenntnis orders it to the Saudis to treat the flag with a larger respect than this is usual with national flags. So one may not dispose or destroy a shown Saudi Arabian national flag because of the Schahada for example. This leads in particular to problems if international enterprises print the national flag on throw-away articles (packing, doses etc.) in unawareness of this fact to mark about in order an effort list in Arabic language. Also with the soccer world championship 1998 it was forbidden illustrating the flag on the ball.
major item: History of Saudi Arabia
since beginning of the historical excessive quantity was inhabited the Arab peninsula by Semiten. Because of the rough desert climate the Nomadentum was the prevailing restaurant form. Again and again pushed Akkader, Amoriter and Aramäer from the desert into the fruitful areas Mesopotamiens and Syria forwards. The largest of these movements originated in in 7. Century with the spreading of the Islam by the prophet Muhammad. Within fewer decades Muslims conquered a realm, which extended from Spain to India.
By the misalignment of the realm center Arabia lost soon again its political meaning. Only the holy places Mekka and Medina in the Hedschas were annually visited by Muslim pilgrims. Since that 18. Century allied itself the dynasty of the Saud with the strictly gläubigen Islamic reform movement of the Wahhabiten, in order to unite and subject the Arab Beduinenstämme in this way.
A first larger expansion attempt under Emir Saud I. (1803 - 1814) however a destroying military intervention of the osmanischen viceroy of Egypt, Muhammad Ali, provoked its troops Sauds son Abdallah I. on behalf the ohnmächtigen osmanischen Sultans. 1818 destroying struck. Twice - 1818 - 1822 and again 1838 - 1843 - the Saudi rule area in the Nedschd was occupied by Egyptian troops. After these setbacks the substantially weakened Saudis came under the upper rule other, osmanentreuer Arab master princes. The Osmani realm did not observe the situation always in every detail because of Islam of the Sauds recognized of the Turks as „correctly “and because of the holy cities in the area.
Only Emir Abd aluminium-Aziz II. ibn Saud (governing starting from 1902), released its dynasty and their trunk from this subordination in the Osmani realm and again used the wahhabbitischen fundamentalism for a victorious military expansion in Arabia. Crucially here the military victory was Ibn Sauds 1925 over the competitive dynasty of the Haschemiten, which lost thereby its master kingdom Hedschas including the holy cities Mekka and Medina.
After further conquests the different areas became to 23. September 1932 to the new unit state Saudi Arabia combines. Therefore is the 23. September national holiday. By the rich oil deposits Saudi Arabia attained prosperity and a great importance for the economy of the industrial nations.
history after 1945
1945 was likewise created with the Arab league an advice of the Arab states. The Arab league tried to prevent 1948 the establishment of state of Israel with the Palestine war, in also Saudi Arabia engaged itself. Into the 1950er years permitted the king a Council of Ministers, which possesses however only an advisory function. 1960 were the Kingdom of a founder state of the OPEC. Saudi Arabia supported again and again individual parties in civil war states like Yemen and conflicts thereby with other Arab states. 1963 were abolished the slavery, whereby the slaves were replaced by immigrant workers from the Arab neighbour states as well as south and Southeast Asia and Africa. The immigrant workers are to today an important support of the economy of the country. Into the 1960er and 1970er years came it again and again to border conflicts with Yemen, which could be settled 1976 with a peace treaty. A final definition of the border took place only 2000.
the Saudi military was fully removed by its US-American allied one since the beginning of the oil boom. At combat missions abroad Saudi soldiers did not take so far however to part. Since the 40's the Saudi state over 18.5 trillion US invested dollar into the military. That up-to-date defense budget amounts to 18.8 billion $ (2004). The country is since 1948 still with Israel offiziel in the state of war, since still no peace treaties came.
soil armed forces
the Saudi army holds 75,000 men by ground troops in the active service. Likewise the army orders over c.a 4,600 armored vehicles and 750 battle tanks.
the navy of the king realm is small vergleichweise. Altogether 10,000 soldiers serve at this armed service. Of it are 3,000 naval infantrymen. The navy possesses 7 frigates and further smaller ships, so that it is aligned to coastal defense particularly.
Air Force (RSAF)
RSAF stands for “Royal Saudi air Force”. After the Israeli Air Force the RSAF has the secondly largest aerial engagement ability in the middle east. The RSAF developed from a largely defensive military Kraft into a troop with impact ability, progressed technically. Back advice of the RSAF is today the F-15 Eagle and the Panavia Tornado. The RSAF ordered different weapons in the nineties, inclusively, “Sea Eagle” defensive rockets, laser systems for the control of rockets and free fall bombs. Altogether 20,000 soldiers in the Air Force serve. In their possession are 339 combat aircraft.
supported inland the police and the religion police, protects the royal family, to the anti-terror protection is used and protects the holy cities of Mekka and Medina. It covers at present approximately 57,000 men.
Saudi Arabia are an Islamic absolute monarchy. Since that 1. August 2005 governs king Abdullah is Abd aluminium-Aziz, which is at the same time a prime minister. Also the remainder of the royal family holds important government offices. The kingdom consists of 13 provinces, which confine from princes or used the royal family are governed. All province governors are appointed by the king. The small cities and villages are usually governed by a Council of Elders or village. The condition of the country insists 83 points in written form since 1992, a comprehensive document, that on the Schari'a, which Koran and the Sunna are based. These rules are strictly laid out and interspersed. So can be condemned for instance murderers, drug dealers, homosexual ones, high traitors, enormous, marriage crushers and Gotteslästerer to death.
head of state
the monarch is both a head of state and head of the government and at the same time Kustor of the two holy mosques. Since that 1. August 2005 is this his majesty Abdullah is 'Abdul 'Aziz aluminium Saud.
the king house
- Abd aluminium-Aziz aluminium Saud, (1932-1953)
- Saud, (1953-1964), son of king Abd aluminium-Aziz
- Faisal, (1964-1975), son of Abd aluminium-Aziz
- Chalid, (1975-1982), son of Abd aluminium-Aziz
- Fahd, (1982-2005), son of Abd aluminium-Aziz
- Abdullah, (since 2005), son of Abd aluminium-Aziz
everything descend from king Abd aluminium-Aziz. It and its male descendants witnessed to at least 5,000 princes, who hold functions in the Ministries of the state to the majority. The number of its male descendants in direct line rises steadily strongly. Clarifies, as pervasive the king house is in the country.
A large problem, which could result from the many descendants, consists of the fact that after dying Abdullahs could try the number mentioned above princes to stress a part of power for itself. Because the Ölvorräte continue to sink and thus the money becomes ever more limited, some princes will have to lead in the future a life, which does not correspond to their current standard. Saudi Arabia is a religiously legitimized state. The king calls itself since 1986 as guardian of the holy places of Mekka and Medina (arab. خادمالحرمين), which should it and the king house in the Islamic world revaluations. Therefore the king house not to separate the policy from the religion to as for instance in Turkey puts to large value. In particular the solidarity of many years of the dynasty of the Saud with the Islamic Klerus and contributes in reverse to the anchorage of the monarchy in the kingdom. Lately however tears show up in this mutual solidarity.
Council of Ministers
the king is subordinate a Council of Ministers, which was furnished 1953. It has 150 members, that dress four years long this position. Half of the Ministers is appointed by the king, the other half is selected by the people. Council of Ministers consists of prime minister, who first and the second vice-prime minister, 20 further Ministers, from whom the Secretary of Defense dresses also the office of the second vice-prime minister, two undersecretaries of state, as well as a small number of advisors and directors/conductors of large autonomous organizations. The Council of Ministers does not have a control over the national budget or over law resolutions, it advises only the king. All tops position in key Ministries, like inside, exterior, defense and economics, are occupied of princes of the king house.
Laws are set by resolution of the Council of Ministers and following ratification by royal decree into force. They must stand with the Scharia in agreement. The law is exercised by a system by religion courts according to the rules of the Scharia. The individual judges are appointed by the king on suggestion the high advice in law questions. This advice consists of twelve experienced lawyers. The independence of the courts is legally protected. The king is the highest appeal instance and has the power of pardon. Since the Saudi state State of 1932 six kings prevailed over the realm, everything from the house of the aluminium Saud including Abdullah. If a new king must be appointed, then the advice of the oldest ones of the king house meets, in order to appoint him. The prominent members of the royal family select the new king with additional agreement of the Ulema from its center in case of a Vakanz.
The authority of the king is limited theoretically by the rules of the Scharia and the Saudi tradition. It must also that the consent between the royal house Saud, religious leaders (Ulema) and other important elements of the Saudi society protect. The consent to the religious leaders applies to the king family as “critical”, since these have a very large influence on the population.
in March 1992 issued king Fahd several decrees, in which the fundamentals of the system of government are regulated. For the first time on this occasion the procedure was codified with the succession to the throne. In the course of the royal reform program a national advisory committee was created at the same time, whose advise members the government appointed by the king in affairs with public interest. In the reform program also an outline plan for the establishment was contained of advisory committees on province level.
In September 1993 king Fahd issued further reform decrees, with which he gave an agenda to the advisory committee and whose members appointed. The king announced besides the Council of Ministers betrefeffende reforms, which planned among other things a restriction of the term of office on four years and in addition for the avoidance of interest conflicts of the Ministers and other high official contained regulations. The agendas of the 13 province advice and their members were also communicated 1993.
In July 1997 the number of members of the advisory committee of 60 to 90 was increased. In May 2001 again an extension took place on 120 and in the year 2005 on 150 members. Since many of the old members were not again appointed with the extensions, the composition of the committee changed strongly. The role of the advice is extended gradually also considering the increasing experience of the committee.
Saudi Arabia enjoys in the policy with the other Islamic countries a special status, because the two holiest cities of the Islam are in this country.
Despite the not democratic system of government and the violations of human rights grassierenden for western conceptions Saudi Arabia has very good diplomatic relations with Europe and the USA, also to Germany. Since the Mohammed caricatures these are cooled down however, with Denmark give it at all no more relations.
Despite the undemocratic rule form Saudi Arabia was so far a close allying of the USA. Since the notices of the 11. September 2001 is cooled down the relationship between the two states. 15 of the 19 assassins was Saudi citizens, which was officially disclaimed first. A further load of the relationship with the USA is that most passengers of the Guantanamo of prison are Saudi citizens (132 prisoners).
Saudi Arabia is member of the gulf co-operation advice (Gulf Cooperation Council, GCC).
the Gulf Wars
1. The Gulf War
in the first Gulf War (1980 - 1988) supported Saudi Arabia the Iraq against Iran. Due to the Islamic revolution in Iran and the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan Abd aluminium-Aziz took place since 1982 an intensified support to the USA under Fahd ibn, from which one had somewhat dissociated oneself in the meantime. With it the structure of an industry independent of the oil as well as large investments in the infrastructure, roads and airports as well as strengthening the relationship with the neighbour states are connected by border treaties.
2. The Gulf War
the security situation as rich of an oil state as Saudi Arabia is as precarious, became clear with the occupation of Kuwait (1990 - 1991) by the Iraq. Saudi Arabia had to be received an alliance with the USA and other western states, in order to protect themselves and to sell the Iraqis Kuwait. Saudi Arabia carried for it nearly 40% of the war costs. However the stationing of American troops in the country led to violent criticism wahhabitischer clergyman and Islamic fundamentalists, who are directed increasingly against the king house and in recent past to violent arguments and terrorist attacks on western mechanisms led.
3. The Gulf War
since the notices on the World trade center in New York in September 2001 sees itself to Saudi Arabia strengthens reproaches suspended to support groupings of terror. Of the 19 assassins of the 11. Septembers originated 15 from Saudi Arabia. Halfofficial donations and members of the royal family stand besides in the suspicion aluminium-Qaida to have financially promoted. Funds from Saudi Arabia flow also to extremistic combinations like the Hamas - movement into Israel/Palestine.
During the third Gulf War (2003) Saudi Arabia refused the use of its military bases on Saudi soil, which led to a further cooling of the relationship to the USA to the USA. The headquarters of the US troops was therefore shifted to Qatar.
State of and religion
the state religion is wahhabitische forming out Sunni Islam. This current Islam wins by the financial assistance of Saudi Arabia and the king with the establishment of mosques and Koranschulen in all world increasingly in meaning. Saudi Arabia supports likewise all directions Sunni Islam, usually fundamental one and militant groups. The Ulema, the religion scholars, who preach in the mosques and television programs of the country , has large influence on the people. Religion and politics are not separated.
gives no political parties. Trade unions are officially forbidden of the king. Traditionally each citizen has entrance to high official ones and the right on the occasion of public audiences to turn with Petitionen directly to it.
the Scharia (Koran and Hadith (Sunna)) is the main source of the legislation. The head and state religion is the wahhabitische Islam, to which 73% of the population, belonging to the Sunni Islam, particularly in the Nadschd and in the north, belong. Other Sunniten places 12% to the population, Shiite about 5 10%. The freedom of religion of the Shiites is limited, therefore customs, which are not compatible with the Sunni Islam, may do z. B. the time marriage or the intending celebration for Imam Hussain and Imam Ali, not to be exercised. 98% of the population are Muslims, the remaining 2% are Jews and Christians. Many immigrant workers, Hindus or confession lots spend themselves with the entry as Christians, because no religions are recognized except Islam , Judentum and Christianity. Practicing of other religions than Islam is forbidden in Saudi Arabia. For immigrant workers and diplomats it is therefore forbidden with punishment celebrating a service receiving a baptism or a Krankensalbung. Churches, synagogs or other not Islamic prayer houses are not there, and those establishment of these is forbidden. After the interpretation of the wahhabitischen clergymen no not-Islamic place of worship may stand on the country, on which the two holy places are. On Missionierung to other confessions than the Islam and the waste of the Islam stands the death penalty, which is also executed. However there is z. B. two German schools in Saudi Arabia, in which these laws do not apply; within the campus one can live in such a way as also in Germany.
The two holiest places Islam, the Kaaba in Mekka and the Ruhestätte of the prophet Mohammed in Medina, lie in Saudi Arabia, so that the country is annually the goal of several millions pilgrims, particularly during the Haddsch. Theft during the Haddsch can be punished with Zwangsamputation of a hand or even with death. Also holy Zamzam - source of water, which are valley Mina and the mountain Arafat, on which the prophet Mohammed held its last lecture, in Saudi Arabia. The grave of EH is to lie in Dschidda.
In addition, therefore Saudi Arabia in the Islamic world enjoys a special status, because of its intolerance in relation to other cultures and religions is criticized. Particularly it is criticized that many antique buildings in Mekka and Medina were down-torn by the wahhabitischen Saudis, with reasons, which are not compatible with the Islam. The Wahhabiten derives its Islamic teachings from kitab RK-tauhid .
In Saudi Arabia prevails the wahhabitische Islam, which applies with some other Muslims than disputed, because it very conservatively and sometimes too strictly lay the religion out. The conservative and dogma tables interpretation Islam by Muhammad ibn of the Abd aluminium-Wahhabs teachings win today outgoing from Saudi Arabia increasingly influence on the entire sunnitische--Islamic world. According to Wahabiti teachings only everything is not forbidden, what is forbidden according to Koran or other excessive quantities, but also each action or situation, which could lead to such an forbidden act. Thus it occurs the fact that according to an inquiry over 80% of the men up to the their marriage ever with a not used woman von Angesicht did not speak to face because that to the Unzucht could lead.
In Saudi Arabia Muhammad is ibn Abd aluminium-Wahhabs teachings state doctrine. At the same time the Saudi state promotes wahhabitische and other Sunni organizations in all parts of the world. The trailers of theology Muhammad ibn Abd aluminium-Wahhabs see themselves suspended to the reproach within the Muslim community from many sides to be extremely intolerant in relation to other views of the Islamic teachings and disbelieving ones (non--Muslims) and intersperse its own understanding Islam with force or impressing (present the exemplary life and the laws) against other Muslims. Trailers of the movement see in it against it the legitimate fight (Dschihad) against disbelieving ones, which are only after the name Muslims, and against Abtrünnige of the Islam.
As centers of the Wahhabiten in Saudi Arabia the cities Riyadh and Buraida are considered.
A peculiarity of the Saudi system, which results from the collection of the wahhabitischen teachings to the state doctrine, are mutawwaʿ, the religion police. The so-called. mutawwaʿīn guards beside the regular police, who are to control the adherence to moral standards in the public, are. It is furthermore unusual that during the Friday prayer the lecture is very loud placed, so that the entire surrounding field of the mosque is exposed to sound. Is anti-western propaganda pretty often.
The Islam the society polarizes contradicting way of life of a set of members of the Saudi king house. Commentators consider therefore a religiously motivated coup d'etat through fundamentalist of clergyman conceivable.
Mufti (s) (of clergyman)
the Mufti is a highest mental scholar of Saudi Arabia at present Sheik Abdulaziz is Abdullah aluminium-Sheik . It issues so-called Fatwas (religious appraisals) and speaks it to the king family. The influence of the Mufti had sunk in the last years, however since the publication of the Mohammed caricatures again strongly rose. In addition, it was to be observed before it that the influence of the clergymen seemed to rise strongly. In a Fatwa from March 2004 the Mufti demanded a complete prohibition of the mixture of the sexes as answer to a conference, which Saudi Wirtschaftsexpertinnen in the restaurant economics held from Dschidda, with which women and men partly unseparated and a Vorleserin unverschleiert in a common area in the conference participated.
Excerpt from these Fatwa:
“Newspapers published their pictures in this state, which hurts the Scharia. Unverschleierte women open the gate to the bad one and to the bad one. Their behavior was represented of the foreign media as beginning of the release of the Saudi women, so as if they were limited by the Islamic right. I warn of the bad consequences, which will have such behaviors. It that such a shameless behavior happened just in Saudi Arabia, hurts me the country of the two holy mosques, whose leader always obeyed the Scharia without fear of criticism.“
The outbreak of the Mufti had nevertheless caused different reactions and above all also criticism at the meeting. At that time still Crown Prince today king Abdullah is Abdul Aziz was forced to switch itself on. It moderated expectations and tried to calm the conservative men down that everything will not so fast happen, nevertheless: “The changes are on the way. We precede with the changes, but we must do this step by step.“
A prohibition of private mix-sexual conferences was not embodied, although on it is to be counted at any time, so far yet in the law. In smaller circles the sex separation seems to loosen nevertheless. Weddings for example are private meetings, however the culture Ministry sends here sometimes a male and always a female custodian. The Aufseherin controls additionally that in the woman places of the wedding no photos are made, since the women are there unverschleiert and usually generously dressed. (With weddings likewise a legally prescribed sex separation applies, except in the small family circle.)
the influence of the clergymen in the country is very large and hardly assessable.
The current Mufti, sheikh Sheik Abdulaziz is Abdullah aluminium-Sheik, in the year 2005 on the Pilgerfahrt against the terrorism preached and its acts “attack and calling Islam” called.
- Islam.ws:  Internet side of the Wahhabiti scholars with Fatwas (English)
- aluminum Islam:  Internet side “Ministry for Islamic affairs” in Saudi Arabia (German, Arab, English, Turkish, Franzözoisch and Malaiisch) (inclusive Hadith and Koran translation and Rezetation.
- binbaz.org .sa:  Internet side of sheikh ibn Baz (Arab)
- ibnothaimeen:  Internet side of sheikh ibn Uthaimin (Arab)
- German Fatwasammlung etc.: 
- al-islaam.com:  Very detailed side on German and Turkish.
- al-tamhid.net:  Detschsprachige side
Mutawwaʿ: the religion police (Arab: مطوع)
religion policemen are called مطوعون mutawwaʿūn and/or. مطوعين mutawwaʿīn.
Mutawwaʿ (Plural: mutawwaʿīn) religion guard, in addition, means religion police, as the “committee for the promotion of the good one and prevention of the bad one” is often designated.
The Mutawwaʿīn makes sure that nobody offends against the laws Islam. It is for example always checked whether all business is closed at the prayer times and that in this time no men waste their time “senselessly”.
The Mutawwaʿīn is to it authorized, men, who itself with women maintained, with whom it not married, related or verschwägert are, to be arrested. They are also justified to banish products, which are considered as unislamisch, and konfiszieren, like e.g. Barbiepuppen, CDs/DVDs of western groups of music, pornografisches material etc. Also Internetcafés and portable radio telephones are controlled by routine. The religion police enjoys a very large public support by the people.
The Mutawwaʿīn is an organization, which is financed by the State of and also this is subordinate. Additionally the Muftis ( religious scholar) has an influence on the Mutawwaʿīn, however no control. The Mutawwaʿīn is beside the regular police guards, who are to control the adherence to moral standards in the public. In addition, the Mutawwaʿīn carries a white garb, is often by normal citizens not to be differentiated. They may proceed only against men, which is responding women the Mutawwaʿīn under normal conditions strictly forbidden; they have neither the right to arrest a Mrs. still it to hold.
If a woman makes herself punishable a passing, which falls under the supervision of the Mutawwaʿīn, the official must talk about it with the man ( married man or relative) and/or. particulars take up. If no man is thereby, the official can make on somewhat attentive by gestures or Handzeichen (e.g. missing head cloth, wrong clothes). Here the contact prohibition is however often gone around and addressed nevertheless. If the passing is so heavy that it must be absolutely punished, the normal police, which has also the right to arrest women, will become consulted however not by physical force (if this occurs nevertheless, an official usually accused of sexual annoyance). If the woman refuses cooperating itself, the family is contacted, those now for the woman vouches (with refused co-operation the married man is exhausted and obligated to bring its wife to the authorities).
The Mutawwaʿīn avoids the contact to not-Muslim women. It is also no incident well-known, in which the Mutawwaʿīn would have proceeded against not-Muslim women; in addition, the clothe regulation is implemented here.
The power and the influence of the Mutawwaʿīn were strongly limited at the beginning of the 1990er years particularly in the procedure against women. Men may still be arrested by the Mutawwaʿīn. After the incidents of the 11. Septembers 2001 are supervised the Muftis and their lectures in every detail by the government, the Mutawwaʿīn is mostly tapered and to be supposed now also make certain that none terror-wonderful-end lectures are held. It gives in Saudi Arabia approx. 3,500 members of the Mutaween, which are supported by thousands of Freiwilligen, those in the command hierarchy directly king Abdullah subordinated are however the clergymen exert likewise a large influence on them. In addition, often the religion police is together with the usual police on the way, can without police motorcade patroullieren. To the valence in day the sales of many products is forbidden in the “dear color” red, in order to divert the population of this “heidnischen” pageant. The religion police prevents the sales of red roses, red Plüschteddys, red congratulation maps and other red gift articles. Celebrating of Easter, Christmas, Sabbat, Christian New Year and other not sunnitisch--Islamic celebrations/rituals is forbidden and likewise by the religion police controlled/is not prevented.
legal basis for the Mutawwa `into
the legal basis originates from the Koran: aluminium-amr bi'l ma'ruf wa n-nahy 'on aluminium-munkar (Arab: الأمربالمعروفوالنهيعنالمنكر aluminium-amr bi-ʾl-maʿrūf wa-ʾn-nahyʿaniʾl-munkar), „order, which is quite, and forbid, what is despicable “ is an Islamic principle, which already receives mention several times in the Koran.
Additionally the religion police is legitimized by the following Hadith: “The heart does not know, what it is quite and does not forbid, what is despicable”.
Primary authentication from the Koran:
Sure 3, verse 110:
„You (Gläubigen) are the best community, which developed among humans. You order, which it is quite forbid, what is despicable, and believe in God. “
- Translation Rudi Paret
The master of the worlds; Allah c.c pointed in the holy Koran clear principles to us out! The Muslim community is to differ straight by the adherence to these principles from others!
Further authentications from the Koran see Suren: 7,157; 9,71; 9,112; 22,41.
Therefore embodies in the constitutional structure of the kingdom of the 3. January 1992 is called it in chapter 5 („rights and obligations “), article 23: “The state protects the Islamic faith, uses the Schari'a, orders, which is quite and forbids, what is despicable. ”
in Saudi Arabia stand the laws of the Korans (“the genuine word of God”) and the Sunna i.e. (Scharia) over the human rights. The annual report 2003 of the organization Amnesty international lists among other things the following facts:
- Arrest of forceless political oppositionals
- application of the flogging punishment with men (mostly Auspeitschungen)
- Amputationen of member masses as punishment
in Saudi Arabia women are reduced in accordance with wahhabitischer tradition in some rights; in the penitentiary system mitigating circumstances are awarded to them. The efforts of liberalisation of the government carried its first fruits (see below). Women must veil themselves with the so-called Abaja. In the meantime it is obligation that each woman possesses an identity card, the country may not however without a permission not be left. In Saudi Arabia steering of motor vehicles in the city is strictly forbidden women. In October 2005 confirm king Abdullah that in it in next time nothing will change. Only since 1966 Mrs. Schulen may visit. In the meantime in the education sector the liberalisation progressed so far that the majority of the students women are. They must pursue their lectures however at the screen, since in the university as in the entire public area the principle applies that women may not have any contact to not-related men.
Women do not have political rights. Until 2001 was not allowed to possess it an own passport. Therefore they do not dress positions also in the government, that is placed by the majority by members of the king house. Many occupations were them not accessible, today are the women nearly each occupation accessible, however under the condition of strict sex separation on the job. They may not leave the country without permission of their married man or another male guardian.
Women possess at present neither active nor passive right to vote. There were democratic elections for the first time 2005, however only on local level. The men could determine only half of the delegates. The remainder is appointed further by the king house. In the next local elections are to be able itself to take part according to official announcements also women. There the State of all affairs after the Islamic right regulates is unknown to things such as honour murders.
the Homosexualität is to be punished according to Koran Sure 4 verse 16/17 and in Sure 7 verse 79/80 as still the “violating act” which was there is described here, therefore the Homosexualität is in Saudi Arabia a heavy passing; thus so far 103 men were arrested because of homosexual actions and condemned to 14,200 whip blows. (14,200 whip blows are the standard punishment for homosexual actions.)On 16 April 2000 9 men were condemned to 2,600 whip blows and 5 years prison, because of “strange behavior” were there the men with their arrest in woman clothes dressed, take one to it were Transvestiten.
In addition, four men were executed surely so far because of Homosexualität the real number could with 5-10 lie. In addition, homosexual actions stand under heavy punishment such as whip blows and prison, can be punished with death. On homosexual sexual intercourse the death penalty stands. So far only men for this criminal offence were condemned, a case of female Homosexualität are not so far in Saudi Arabia not well-known. Since women cannot be punished with whip blows, one would condemn her with high probability to terms of imprisonment. The death penalty with female homosexual sexual intercourse is improbable, however no concrete legal opinions exist to this thing. The prohibition of the Homosexualität was continued to intensify at the end of of 2005 by a Fatwa by the advice of the clergymen.
to 7. September 2000 ratified Saudi Arabia the UN-convention for the removal of each form of discrimination of the woman, with reservation against article 9 exp. 1 and article 29 exp. 1 of the convention. Article 9 exp. 1 acts of affairs of nationality and forbids in particular that the nationality of the woman with a marriage with a foreigner of the nationality and/or. Statelessness of the spouse is made dependent. Article 29 exp. 1 describes the procedure with disputes between national Contracting Parties over the interpretation or application of the convention, therein the jurisdiction of the international Court of Justice is recognized, which each Contracting Party in the case of a non-agreement can call on one side. In addition Saudi Arabia does not regard itself bound to those regulations of the convention, which in contradiction to the Schari'a.
For some years the government seized measures to advance the liberalisation. At first the improvement of the women's rights for Saudi conditions ran very fast, in the meantime is however to a large extent erlahmt the measures (because of the incident in March 2004 see Mufti). Women possess 40% of the private possession and thus over relatively much influence.
With the preselection to the chairmen of the board of the Chamber of Commerce women are available recently likewise. With the last elections two women were selected into the executive committee.
There are Schönheitsstudios, combing salons and further mechanisms for women, but always apply that women should be beautiful for their married man only or from cause of family meetings or woman meetings, where no clothe regulations apply. With woman social gatherings no clothe regulations, just as little as in such buildings, apply which only women are reserved, for z. B. Schools.
The following improvements were obtained:
- It exists a committee for women's rights (10 members, of it 7 women)
- the masking obligation may with some causes be gone around, for example with public or political appearances of a woman often with Auftitten in television endings. Head cloth is obligation and the clothes still also here must nevertheless be to some extent conservative, therefore not too much skin may be shown.
- Women may possess a passport, the country may nevertheless not without permission be left.
- Women may now also without male company into the public, however the contact is further forbidden too to related men.
- Women may exercise now also occupations outside of the lehr, maintaining and medicine sector. Grundvorraussetzung for the fact is however that on the job sex separation prevails.
- In exceptional cases women themselves may go to the police and refund announcement, for example against the own married man.
- Starting from summer 2006 women without the permission of their male guardian can request an identity card, this should in March 2006 the case already be, but the new identity cards were rejected by many women, because they require a passport picture. This was solved in such a way that the new identity cards will not contain a picture, but a finger mark for the identification of the passport holder.
Particularly to emphasize:
- 2004 gave it the first female host on the Saudi state television: Buthaina on-Nasr.
- 2004 criticized a Mrs., Wafa Raschid, on the television for the first time publicly a clergyman.
- 2005 locked Hanadi Zakariyya Hindi as a first Mrs. the training as the female pilot.
It was announced that women are to receive the active right to vote with the next choice.
Although very soon no large changes are expected with women's rights, the government nevertheless promised not to cancel the rights granted so far. In the country is very disputed that; above all the Muftis demands the abolishment of the starterdependent masking rule. The government continues to pursue beyond that its program to induce Saudi women still more to the gainful employment. For the wahhabitischen clergymen the past changes are already a disaster, but are missing to them due to political pressure the possibility of bringing up for discussion their displeasure. The relations between the clergyman and the government is considered therefore as cooled down. The wahhabitische Islam resisted for a long time the liberalisation of the women, the economic situation and above all the work moral of the male population makes the promotion of woman's work meanwhile compellingly necessary. Since short it is to be observed that the clergymen support the gainful employment of women. Female cutting is punishable in Saudi Arabia, and. And. with the death penalty, because it is compared in the wahhabitischen Islam with murder.
the autodriving ban for women was not abolished for the time being. In the cities it is strictly forbidden to women to lead vehicles. Although derivably from the Islam not directly, it is women in Saudi Arabia in the city strictly forbidden to steer a vehicle. Many believe, this is a kind wahhabitischer tradition for the protection of the women.
Excerpt of an interview with a clergyman because of the woman driving ban:
- “It is correct that from the holy Koran a woman driving ban cannot be derived directly. But our laws in Saudi Arabia forbid that, for good reason. They may not forget that we one very much, very conservative society to have. Which would be for example, if a woman would cause an accident, before court to answer for itself would have - into the prison would come! Our society would not accept that. Women before court or in the prison? Inconceivably. From our view the woman is a nature, which must be protected under all circumstances. They are our jewels. And to ensure, the law intends this protection. “
basis for the veil obligation in the Saudi law
excerpt of a Fatwa by a clergyman, why the veil should be obligation:
- “Allah instructed the women of the prophet and the women of the Gläubigen to remain in its houses to carry and show its beauty not men except the next relatives or the own married man the veil, there to the Libertinage leads and the state would destroy.” On only see Koran, Sure aluminium-Ahzab, verse 59 and Sure, to verse 31.
On only the two main sources for the veil obligation in the Saudi law form the Koransuren aluminium-Ahzab (verse 59) and (verse 31). To derive the veil however still leaves itself from numerous other sources from the Koran (Ayat) and Hadith (here 2 Beispielhadithe).
Hadith: (Sahih Muslim number: 4412)
- to “Umar Ibn aluminium-Khattab, Allahs well-being favour on it, reported:
- “Three times my thoughts corresponded late revealing taken place to the Allahs, regarding the place Abrahams, the instruction of the women to mask itself and concerning the prisoners of the battle Badr. ”
Hadith: (Sahih Muslim number: 3862)
- to “Ali, Allahs well-being favour on it, reported:
- “One gave to the envoy Allahs, Allahs benediction and welfare on it, a skirt touched with be-being those threads. It would send it to me. As I this then angezog, recognized I the anger by its face. He said to me: I did not send this skirt to you for tightening, but so that you make from it veils for the women. “
Koran Sure on only, verse 31:
- “And say to the gläubigen women, it are (instead of someone to anzustarren, rather) its eyes to strike down, and their Keuschheit to retain, which decoration, which they (at the body) carry, not openly, as far as it is not visible (normally), their scarf over (of the neck cutout forward descending) the slot (the dress) pull themselves and the decoration, which they (at the body) carry, anybody openly show, except her man, her father, her father-in-law, her sons, her stepsons, her brothers, the sons of their brothers and its sisters, its wives, its slaves, the male officials, those do not show no sex impulse (more) have, and the children, who know still nothing from female sex parts. And they are not to together-strike with their legs and make attentive thus on the decoration, which they (by the clothes) carry hidden (at them). And probably perhaps all together (repentant) again Allah turns, its Gläubigen to you it you (then) will be issued.“
Koran Sure aluminium-Ahzab, verse 59:
- “Prophet! Say to your wives and daughters and the women of the Gläubigen, it are (if it to withdraw) somewhat of its garb (over the head) down-pull themselves (yudniena `alaihinna min, dschalaabiebihinna). Like that it is earliest ensured that it (when respectable women) recognized and thereupon is not troubled (company-laa yu'zaina). Allah however is barmherzig and ready too assigned “
further verses from the Koran, from which a Schleierplicht can to be derived to be able (leaves), is:
- Sure aluminium-Aʿraf> Verse 26
- Sure on only> Verse 60
- Sure aluminium-Ahzab> Verse 53
- Sure aluminium-Ahzab> Verse 55
the Koran and the Hadith are interpreted in Saudi Arabia in the opinion wahhabitischen Islam. The veil should the whole body with exception of face and hands cover and should simply worked and not attractive be, so that men were made attentive of it. It in addition, that women mask their face and their hands, this are gladly seen as as particularly behaviourful are regarded, are however no obligation. The face veil (غطاءالوجه ghitāʾ aluminium-wadschh and/or. Nekab) is particularly common among married women. The half face or mouth veil is likewise often to be seen.
See also: [Veils in the Islam]
[[of 8] veils in the Islam (detailed)
women in Saudi Arabia are subject always to a male guardianship, one can these however not with the guardianship e.g. compare for children. In the everyday life the male guardianship is handled “tolerant” certainly rather - women must really let only in the rarest cases know to their guardian (e.g. with longer journeys or journeys abroad). The male guardian is up to the marriage usually the father, the brothers or if necessary. an uncle. Starting from the marriage the married man is a male guardian. The male guardian is jointly responsible for the criminal offences of the woman, with smaller crimes is it often the case that the male guardian has to answer for itself before court, with larger crimes usually both. Starting from 2004 women may lead their companies themselves i.e. the own responsibility for it to carry.
Women can let themselves be relieved before court of their male guardian, must for it however to prove be able that this abuses her, raped, torment or force to do things those not with the Islam are compatible (e.g. Prostitution or analer sexual intercourse). The male guardian becomes for these offenses thereupon automatically to the account pulled, except an agreement out of court between man and woman gives after relieving (e.g. Remuneration money, custody for children). After a divorce normally always the man has the custody for the children, except whom woman can prove that the man “harmful inclinations” has, anti-religiously or simply able is not to largetighten children. With over 70% of the divorces the man keeps the custody, except the father is a so-called. Murtadd. Assigned in this case will the nut/mother the custody and the father can even to death be condemned. After a divorce the woman must wait at least four months, in order to marry again. The law is directly taken from the Koran (Sure 2: Aluminium-Baqara) and is to exclude misunderstandings with the paternity question.
The male guardianship is to serve the protection of the women and be based among other things on the following Hadith:
- “Anas, Allahs well-being favour on it, reported:
- “As the envoy Allahs, Allahs benediction and welfare on it, on journeys was, had it a black servant named Angascha with it, that besingt with its beautiful voice melodische poems, in order to accelerate the march. There the envoy said Allahs, Allahs benediction and welfare on him: You Angascha, go around thereby gently so that you do not break the gläsernen containers! The prophet meant the weakness of the women. “ Number of the Hadith in the Sahih Muslim: 4287
and the following excerpt from a Koranvers (Sure 4 to-Nisa de: The Mrs., verse 34):
- The men are the responsible persons over the women, because Allah distinguished the one before the others and because it of its fortune hang-evenly. Therefore virtueful women are the obedient ones and (their husbands) the secrets with Allahs assistance protect.
Therefore the men for the acts of their wives are jointly responsible.
In Saudi Arabia death penalties are usually expressed for the following criminal offences: Murder, rape of strange women or the own wife, sexual abuse of women or children, drug trade and armed robbery in connection with severely woundeds person or dead ones. A so-called. Murtadd is punished likewise with men with death, with women gives it a lifelong imprisonment.
The following criminal offences can be likewise punished with death, this are however rather rare: Homosexualität, prostitution, benefit and trade/smuggling of alcohol, illegitimate sexual intercourse (Unzucht, adultery), Koranschändung, Gotteslästerung, sexual annoyance of women. An exact list with offenses, which can be punished with death, does not give it.
Under normal conditions death sentences in Saudi Arabia with the sword are executed (beheading). The execution of men is usually not public usually, those from women. The Steinigung was abolished 1983.
Since at the beginning of of 1980 altogether 1527 humans in Saudi Arabia were executed, among them were 40 women. Nearly half of all death candidates (711) possessed a foreign nationality. With them it acts to a large extent around immigrant workers out of asiatic countries: 234 from Pakistan, 89 from Nigeria, 69 from Yemen, 55 from India and 5 from Turkey. 2003 was exekutiert 52 humans - 17 Saudis and 35 foreigners. 2004 was it 35 humans, and in the year 2005 82 humans were executed, among them two women, who had been condemned because of murder.
Pardons can be granted only by the king or by the family of the victims, by that so far Begnadigten were 64% women. There is additionally the possibility to learn in the prison the complete Koran by heart that could do possibly. cause a transformation of the punishment (so far 12mal, 3mal with men and 9mal with women).
With the largest part of the executed women it concerns women, who were gotten as immigrant worker inside in the country. Since 1978 in Saudi Arabia 1654 humans were executed, of it 44mal women and 1610mal of men. From the 44 women only 22 women had the Saudi nationality. From the 44 enforcement 10 was because of drug trade, one because of Zuhälterei (and/or. Support of the prostitution) and 33 because of murder.
With a rape it is entitled alone to the woman, the author to begnadigen, with a tried rape has also the family the right, the author to begnadigen. The Saudi criminal law does not grant for rape in the marriage mitigating circumstances for which one, as e.g. in Iran.
Here an excerpt from an Arab newspaper, translated into German, to which on the enforcement reports:
“In the capital Riyadh on Wednesday two men were beheaded by the sword. The Jemenit Bilal is Ahmad is Ali Muhammad and the Saudi Nasir is Ali Hasan is Muhammad Hazazi brought in the city Riyadh on open road a woman kidnapped, it into a remote area, it there had raped, had murdered and of its decoration and money had robbed. The highest court again stated to show opposite sexual criminals and murderers no grace. “
There is also the possibility of being paid to the family of the victim “a blood money “and thus of being begnadigt. The blood money cannot be offered usually, if the victim is a woman or a child or a very heavy case is present, e.g. Rape in connection with murder, armed robbery in connection with murder, sexual criminal offences in connection with murder or insidious murder.
The last death sentence with women became to 10. June 2005 because of murder executes, with men to 7. February 2006 likewise because of murder.
expiration of the death penalty
usual beheading takes place in in the morning hours at a publicly accessible place. To beginning of the 1990er years was usual it to carry out executions on Friday according to the midday prayers but take place executions for some years also on other days. The ritual is short: The Delinquent is moved forward with a car and must down-kneel itself at a ditch bound. The eyes are connected for it. The executioner gives it an impact in the backs, so that he rears up, and slams shut in the next moment with the sword. With an experienced safe impact the head falls to soil, the blood flows immediately into the ditch. But there are particularly trained executioners. There is the rumor that the condemned one still another tranquilizer is squirted before. With women beheading is usually not public.
table from accomplished death penalties approx. 1976 (1980) -
an execution statistics, which was led inaccurately starting from 1976, shows 2006 the table starting from 1984 the statistics by the authorities accurately was only led.
|Crimes||number of executions|
|murder||867 (women and men)|
|drug smuggling/trade||438 (women and men)|
|rape of Mrs.||152 (all men)|
|heavy robbery||69 (all men)|
|rebellion||63 (all men)|
|bomb assassination attempt||16 (all men)|
|Ausserehelicher sexual intercourse (Unzucht)||8 (women and men)|
|bank robbery||7 (all men)|
|adultery (inclusive foreigngo Sex))||5 (all men)|
|high treason||4 (all men)|
|alcohol production||4 (all men)|
|Homosexualität||4 (all men)|
|rape and/or. sexual abusing of children||3 (all men)|
|Zuhälterei and prostitution||2 (women and men)|
|sexual annoyance of Mrs.||2 (all men)|
media a part of the media in Saudi Arabia are state-guided and belonged also this, other parts again are independently by the Saudi culture Ministry are supervised. With the Islam do not agree upon contents and contents against the king house are forbidden. The Islam is at all in the whole society also present in all Saudi media as.
in Saudi Arabia is available that Internet since 1999 over the national telecommunications authority KACST, which Internet by a special department supervised and is censored. Mainly sides, which are classified as immoral or unislamisch, are censored, above all pornografische sides. Evasion attempts will have noted and brought to the punishment, Internetcafés all a certain license to acquire and become regularly of mutawwaʿ (religion police) controlled.
the television in Saudi Arabia is subject likewise to control by the culture Ministry, all series, films and advertising spots must for its contents be examined and approved. Thus it often occurs that western ones films, series and Zeichentrickfilme in some places are censored or cut, which are classified as immoral or unislamisch. The television program of all transmitters is interrupted 5-mal on the day during the prayer times and switches live to the large mosque after Mekka. At all the Saudi television of many religious contents and transmissions is coined/shaped.
The largest transmitters in the country are:
- Saudi TV 1 (state television)
- Saudi TV 2 (state television)
- Ekhbariya TV
- aluminium Ryadiah TV
- aluminium Majd TV
newspapers enjoy more liberties than the other media, their published texts before the appearance are examined, may not in addition, not unislamisch or immoral be, in this case can the culture Ministry the appearance of the respective newspaper prevent and the copies recall let. The texts are usually examined after the appearance, whereby one proceeds here relatively generously.
The largest newspapers in the country are:
- Arab news
- Arabia on-line
- Asharq aluminium Awsat
- Saudi Gazette
- aluminium Eqtisadiah
- aluminium sow dia. aluminium Yawm
may have outwardly also completely changed the wealth the country, at one however holds the Saudis steadfastly: at the Wahhabismus, their gestrengen, puritanischen design Islam. For a long time were the wahhabitischen Saudis not much like. Only by their supremacy in the region this faith direction was recognized by the remainder of the Sunni world. Holding to the Wahhabismus is considered as the most important guarantor to surviving the monarchy.
The culture of the country is substantially coined/shaped of the wahhabitischen Islam. The country takes a privileged position in the Islamic world, since on the national territory the two holy cities Mekka and Medina are. The culture and the social life in Saudi Arabia follow exactly specified rules: those the Sunni denomination of the Islamic religion.
The whole life seems to move according to the rules of the wahhabitischen ruling powers. All must be subjected to the set up rules, like for example the work peace during the five daily prayer times. Men must pray immediately on the spot. Women is permitted it to retrieve the prayer if they are at a suitable place. The whole public life in the country is supervised by the religion police.
Saudi Arabia tries, to be which remainder of the Islamic world a model in the interpretation of the Korans and the way of life prescribed by the Schari'a, what seems to have also success. Many immigrant workers and Muslims abroad regard Saudi Arabia as exemplary Islamic state.
Because the king house aluminium Saud persists in such a way in its responsibility in relation to the Islam, is it forbidden, public theatres, operating cinemas or Schauspielhäuser. Culture takes place only within a very close framework. It must be traditional and serve the faith. If the topic for example represented in the literature turns to the theology or the representation of other countries, it is tabuisiert mostly and is considered as verpönt. If one tries to accomplish a cultural meeting as humans from the west, then she is subject always to strict control and censorship of the religion scholars.
The cultural inheritance of the country is maintained for example on the annually organized Dschanadriyya - culture festival. Here traditional music and dances arrive at the performance. The whole cultural life in the kingdom is perfectly appropriate for the Islam.
the law on registration of births marriages and deaths giving Saudi Arabia is based on the Islamic law, the Sharia. This favours patriarchale structures. The marriage is understood not as Sakrament, but as civilian contract. The present Treaty is to be signed by witnesses, and specifies a certain sum of money (mahr), which is to be paid from the man to the woman. (The same sex marriage does not occur in Saudi Arabia due to the prohibition of the Homosexualität.) into the early 1990er years amounted to the value of an average mahr between 25.000 and 40.000 Riyal; occasionally it occurred however that pairs completely rejected the custom mahr and used a nominal amount, in order to fulfill the formal conditions of the Saudi marriage laws.
This was legitimized legally by the following Koranvers: Sure: 4 on-Nisa' (the Mrs.) verse 4: And give to the women their bride gift as donation. And if they gladly somewhat of it issue you, then can use you without heistation this to Wohlsein.
The marriage contract can specify also a certain sum, which is to be paid in case of a divorce to the woman, or determined other conditions specify, e.g. it assures the right to the woman, to be separated to be able in the case that the man marries a second woman, or that in this case the custody for the children is entitled to the woman. In the case of divorce children remain under normal conditions with their father. After Islamic understanding the intimate areas of life are separate from marriagable women and men in principle; the marriage is the only place, in which this separation legitimate-proves is waived. The Koran recommends the marriage with this background to a considerable degree; it helps among other things for mental perfection and is gladly seen therefore. Each mash lima and each Muslim, which are to the marriage able, should try to follow. A man has to marry the right up to 4 women. Hereunder applies the Monogamie (a woman) as preferential, Polygamie (2 to 4 women) on the part of the man is ungerne seen, but permitted. Men from the royal Famillie can marry as many women, as they want.
The divorce rate lies with 3 of 10 marriages for an Islamic country relatively highly.
it exists an official compulsory schooling of nine years for both sexes. From the primary school to the university conclusion the state takes over the costs of education. The first day at school ratio is with 91%. There are eight universities and 65 colleges, among other things in Dammam, Zahran, Dschidda, Medina and Riyadh. 17 colleges are reserved the women. As in the whole society sex separation prevails - educational facilities are either only for men or only for women. Lectures of male doctors, professors pursue the female pupils at a screen.
In the schools no clothe regulation prevails. Women place in the meantime the largest part of the teachers and professors. So 60 per cent of all Saudi professors is female. To the comparison: In Germany there is 12 per cent. From the normal teachers 56 per cent is female.
The sex separation in schools is at the same time the basic condition of the sexual clearing-up in the school teaching, since short likewise topics become informed, which describe the social contact and handling the other sex. One expects thereby additionally the lowering of the divorce rate.
Saudi Arabia has a large educational provision regarding the Islamic religion. Most large institutions for education lie in Riyadh. Beside the Islamic sciences a further emphasis lies in the range of the technical sciences. To the topic oil and its processing are the educational facilities of Saudi Arabia world point; that will remain also in such a way, since the government announced further investments in million height, also around the fast population growth sake.
The instruction language at the universities of the country is usually English.
The Saudi children in Koranschulen, which gives it in each small village, receive their basic formation. Although the rights of the women are reduced in Saudi Arabia, boys become and girl equally informs. Something over half of the graduates of university is female, internal studies has devoted that the female graduates better to cut off than the male ones.
The educational facilities altogether are very good and decay equipped.
the most popular kind of sport is followed football, of horse running.
here behavior opposite
is no routistic tourist country possesses. Tourist visas become only in very small number and under strict editions, z. B. to single women under 45 years, for group journeys do not assign. Foreigners must deliver their passport with their entry and received for it an inland document of identification for foreigners issued.
In all rule an entry requires to Saudi Arabia the formal, written invitation of an inland Saudi with designation of interests and reasons, which must state, why for the completion of certain tasks the entry of a foreigner is necessary. The inviting Saudi vouches sponsor” in relation to the state for the correct behavior of the entry, it becomes in all rule “(Arab: كافل kāfil) - and sometimes also payment for it expects.
To the beginning of work usually regional restrictions are given to the given visas. That means that in the visa the province is called, in which the entry may be. Journeys generally speaking country are made impossible thereby. Often these editions control themselves for aggravating security situation (conditions 2004/2005) in the country due to that increasingly by means of road blocks.
All these regulations happen under the situation which can be estimated generally in such a way that of Saudis predominantly would like to avoid the contact with non-Arab humans or non--Muslims.
To the most important hire belonged: The far distance of the Muslim of the Mushrikin (disbelieving ones), over not to become like it, even if they do not commit Shirk.
Recognizably non-Arab foreigners have to count partially in the everyday life on spontaneous meeting with hostility and extremely unfriendly documents, for example accident-dangerous attacks in the traffic. Those inland strongly disputed government of Saudi Arabia by the prince army of the aluminium Saud is located in a Spagat between the desires of the own population for Islamic integrem life without foreign influences and the political approximation to the west, more exactly to the USA. She sees herself here suspended to increasing criticism of the native ones. The question of handling non--Arabs polarizes the country.
Due to increasing unemployment under the Saudi population the government plans the development of the Pilger tourism. Beside the Pilgerstätten Mekka and Medina are to be able Muslim pilgrims in the future historical and landschaftlich delightful places to visit. A partial realization of this plan was not reached so far however yet.
special laws, behavior rules and recommendations with Saudi Arabia journeys
the Saudi Arabian criminal law is one the exotic and the-most poetic world, one should before journeys about its characteristics absolutely inform exactly!
Saudi Arabia is not a routistic tourist country. There is only a very much limited foreign tourism predominantly from Arab neighboring countries. Since 1.1.1999 however some few group journeys with travel line from western countries are possible per year. Strict clothe and behavior regulations, which are laid out after the conservative wahhabitischen Islam understanding, exist. With the entry all kinds are seized by religious books, also Islamic ones like e.g. the Koran. For German citizens for Saudi Arabia visa obligation exists. The collecting main of an invitation to Saudi Arabia as well as a still at least six months valid passport are necessary for requesting a visa. The German child document of identification is not recognized, for children is recommendable its own passport. Furthermore no visas or an other entry (stamp etc.) should be registered in the passport from Israel. During the chamfering month Ramadan it is to be drunk forbidden during the chamfering time (sunrise to sunset) in the public something eating or smoking. (with exception of pregnant women and old person humans) even April jokes at the 1. April are forbidden and can be punished, since Muslims may not lie.
In view of the present displeasure expressions over caricatures of the prophet Mohammed one recommends to avoid gatherings of people. Danish citizens should absolutely avoid journeys.
The Saudi criminal law is the Islamic Scharia (Koranrecht and/or. The genuine word of God) and the Sunna with the well-known, if necessary up to flog and other body-met handing punitive sanctions. Drug and alcohol possession as well as - consumption are punishable. Import, possession and consumption of Schweinefleisch are punishable. Homosexual actions are punished in Saudi Arabia after discretion of the judge with liberty withdrawal and whip blows. (Whip only with men). Transferred one homosexual sexual intercourse is punished with men with death. Gambling of all kinds as well as maps and board plays is forbidden.
The photographing prohibition is used without uniformity. Who photographs, it must count at least on the fact that camera and films are konfisziert. Also with one before filming or photographing Mrs. this should ask film and photographing permission for permission.
Saudi Arabia lays Islamic principles out very strictly. Thus restrictions themselves apply to cultural activities in the kingdom, which are natural in other Islamic countries long. Cinemas and theatres do not exist with one in Riyadh (cinema only for women and children accessible). Cultural events with western participation as for instance book readings, film demonstrations or exhibitions are subject to official permission and censorship. The presentation of Islam-deviating art - in particular western - is uncommon or taboo.
prevails to behavior rules for women and
men - with the exception of some private or foreign meetings (z. B. Messages, German schools) - in the whole society sex separation. In the Saudi Arabian criminal law between women and men a relatively large difference is made. Women generally moderate punished as men. In the sex comparison women are guiltily spoken very many more rarely. The situation of the woman in Saudi Arabia and it imposed upon code of practice by the wahhabitisch conservative design Islam is determined, which gives it world-wide only in Saudi Arabia. Therefore becomes in particular from Saudi, in addition, other Muslim Mrs. a strict observance of the rigiden clothe and social handling rules expects.
Western women enjoy a special status, which relieves her of some rules. In order not to hurt on the one hand religious feelings of Saudi citizens however nevertheless to retain on the other hand the own identity than western woman are recommended, as here generally usual, carrying a black, the body and the legs of completely veiling Umhanges (so-called. Abaja). The German message in Riyadh has borrowing copies, which are made available visitors. To western women no head cloth obligation applies only, if they Islamic religion are not. However the religion police usually implements the head cloth obligation also for not Muslim women.
Ausserehelicher Sex can be punished partly, particularly with men, hard, independently of religion and country of origin. The last death sentence because of except-conjugal Sex with men was executed 2002, with women in the year 1977 (daughter of the king at that time).
The substantial difference between except-conjugal Sex and adultery consists of the fact that with adultery two married persons have Sex and also from their opposite to know that he/they is married. Adultery is one of the few offenses, with which between man and woman no difference is made, at least according to law. The experience shows however that men are likewise punished here very many harder. The punishments are harder as with simple except-conjugal sexual intercourse and reach from Auspeitschungen, fines, liberty withdrawal up to the death penalty. Since 1980 five times the death penalty for adultery was expressed; all five condemned were men. A woman was not condemned because of adultery so far ever to death. It is so far no incident well-known, with which non of Muslims was accused of adultery or except-conjugal sexual intercourse, yet should one the sexual intercourse for safety reasons with a partner avoid, with which one is not married. One should not talk above all under any circumstances publicly about it. Into the private Sexleben of a married couple the law does not interfere; there is however a law, which forbids the analen sexual intercourse, since this applies in the Islam as sin. It was not brought however ever to the accusation, since the law in the population is considered as absolutely natural.
Living together, in addition, common staying overnight in a room unmarried partners are already pursued criminally. (Whip blows for the man). For non--Muslims no exception is made.
Generally it is advisable for women to carry the arms and legs if possible not stressing clothes in which public and in the society of men far.
As a German man one, unabhänging from the religion, should avoid the contact to Saudi women. Gestures and behavior opposite women, who apply in western cultures as normal, can be felt of Saudi women as sexual annoyance, on which for western conditions hard punishments stand.
In some restaurants, shopping centres, banks etc. sex separation prevails. There are however buildings also mixed, in which one should avoid it with relatives/married the other sex to speak. There are restaurants, in which women and men may feed together. These are marked by the sign “Family section”.
Further behavior rules and recommendations:
- It is uncommon to inquire and for it gifts make about the woman of another.
- Usual Central European Umgangsformen, like for example a radix complement to the woman or the daughter of the interlocutor, are not usually and better to omit.
- Honour and reputation as well as the respect older one opposite are important points.
- The clothes should be west conservative.
- The Arabs are very hospitably, sometimes in addition, in an intolerant manner in relation to other religions adjusted (“disbelieving ones”).
- Often only against 22 o'clock is eaten. Business is generally settled before the meal. A portion is left by the main court remaining. It symbolizes that one is full and redundantly was served. During the meal never one smokes.
- The meals are taken with the right hand to itself. The left hand is considered as impure. This is used only for the assistance, for example in order for pushing away (it is not forbidden eating with the left hand it would however negatively be noticeable).
- Journeys during the chamfering monthly Ramadan are to be avoided, since practically everything stands still all day long; only few jobs, shopping centres and offices are opened.
- If one is invited to the meal with a native one and women serve somewhat, one should not stare if possible at her, which is considered as impolite.
- Also Muslim foreigners should omit it urgently to speak badly about Muhammad ibn Abd aluminium-Wahhab or its teachings.
- Smoking in the public is not verpöhnt and gladly seen.
If one is stopped as western foreigners of mutawwaʿ (religion police), one should present the brown foreigner land document of identification immediately, in order to avoid misunderstandings. One should avoid it to speak publicly about religion or criticize the Islam. The Islam is considered as state and people religion and as the holiest property. Therefore e.g. become. Koranschändungen with death punishes.
All business and offices are five times on the day because of the prayer times closed. It is recommendable to read itself before the entry with the Foreign Office the current information and safety references. In addition one should delete all pictures on cameras and mobile telephones. With the entry all kinds are seized by religious books, also Islamic books like e.g. the Koran.
in Saudi Arabia is officially forbidden the pornography. No direct search is accomplished (e.g. if the receiving of western Porno channels is illegal, it however no active search is therefore accomplished), if however with control pornografisches material is found, fines are usually imposed. With entry become possibly. CDs, mobile telephones, cameras scans. The taking along of magazines, on or in which female parts of the body are stressed, should be avoided therefore.
the sexual annoyance is in Saudi Arabia a very delicate topic, since is not defined, which actions a sexual annoyance represents. If a woman feels sexually troubled, automatically an annoyance is present, it must not even have come to a physical contact.
Thus it became with young people a kind “people sport “some time ago of pulling to women the veil from the head to and then of away-running. The transferred young people were publicly expenditure-whipped, in order to set an example. Since then the rate for this kind of “sexual annoyance” sank strongly. Therefore it is advisable urgently to avoid the contact to native women. Also one should avoid it to talk publicly about topics such as Sex or western and Jewish culture. So far 2 men were condemned and executed because of sexual annoyance by women, to death.
Saudi Arabia is world-wide the largest producer of oil. The country is a prominent member of the OPEC. The oil promotion was taken up 1938, 1944 the oil export. The national oil Ministry is the Arabian American oil company by the Saudi state was put under state control, it is the largest oil promotion company of the world. In the year 2000 12.3% of the oil promoted world-wide originated from Saudi Arabia. The supplies amount to 35 to 36 billion tons and/or. 262,7 billion barrel. Since Saudi Arabia possesses 25% of all well-known Erdölreserven of the world, the economy of the country is specialized in the broadest sense in everything, which has to do with oil. With a delivery of 505,9 millions Tons oil per year Saudi Arabia is world-wide the number one. The country has atomic power plants.
The secondarymost important economic goods of the country are natural gas, afterwards the service sector comes, in particular the tourism (annually more than one million pilgrim). Saudi Arabia gained a gross domestic product (GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT ) of 144.4 billion euro in the year 2000. That corresponds to 6,967 euro per head. The largest part at the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT with 47,7% was gained in the industry of the country, which exists to the majority in the promotion of oil and its derivative processing. The portion of the service sector was nearly equal with 45,2%. With 7% the portion of the agriculture of the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT is very small. The social net in Saudi Arabia is very good, is entitled however to only Saudi citizens and for the Saudi State of working foreigners.
Saudi Arabia had thereby an economic growth of 4,1%.
The currency in the kingdom is the Riyal with the following subunits: 1 Saudi Riyal (SR) = 20 Piaster = 100 Halala. The rate of exchange to the euro amounted to in October 2004: 1 SR = 0.24 € (conditions: 11. October 2004). Saudi Arabia has an inflation rate of 1,4%.
Saudi Arabia commercial balance sheet reports a surplus of 36,989 billion Euro (to Germany and Japan the third biggest commercial surplus of the world). The country exported 2002 goods in the value of 60,86 billion in the year Euro of it 88% crude oil as well as 5.1% petrochemical products - into the following main exporting countries: into the USA with 16,3% at most, afterwards Japan with 14,9% at the portion of the goods and South Korea with 9,6% finally follows. These countries represent the most important foreign trade countries of Saudi Arabia. As important export countries the moreover one still Singapore and France are to be called.
Goods and goods in the value of 23,871 billion were imported Euro. The most important goods, which were imported in the country, were machines, means of transport and chemicals. The usually-driven car is Toyota Cressida. Also on this sector of the economy the United States play an outstanding role. They exported 18.9% of the goods in the kingdom. Great Britain, Japan, Germany and France divide behind the USA mostly the export market for Saudi Arabia. The state transacts expenditures of 45,17 billion in the kingdom Euro.
Most means are spent on the population and the infrastructure. Dwelling, water, river, inland telephone and Internet are free for each Saudi, which are themselves to change for the not working however. No data are given unemployment and the foreign debts; according to newest information the state has no more foreign debts. One must proceed however from an unemployment ratio with up to 30%. A further problem for the young Saudis is that highly paid jobs are not distributed by the state any longer naturally at each Saudi.
Saudis see themselves meanwhile with the situation completely new for it confronted to have to perform work so far of that approx. 7 millions Immigrant workers were implemented. Most of these work are according to opinion of the Saudis “under their level”. The Saudi government tries now to displace the foreign employees from their positions and to occupy the low paid jobs with young Saudis - so far only 44% of the jobs are dressed by Saudis. An additional problem consists of the fact that Saudi men, who make “low work” have nearly only the possibility of marrying a foreign woman since the Saudi women likewise regard such a married man as under their own level. By “low work” one understands the work in Saudi Arabia as a Taxifahrer, single hand buyer, Kfz specialist, machine-builder, assembly worker or as an employee in the office.
Nearly all leading positions are assigned at Saudis.
The country holds foreign exchange reserves of 17,373 billion Euro. Apparent Saudi Arabia holds a very good economic position since the beginning of the oil boom into the 1950er years and maintains these. Wealth is obvious in the kingdom. The Pro-Kopf-Einkommen sank from 1980 to today around 70%, which is because of the birth explosion.
the railway system is 1,390 km long and usually single-lane. The road system is 146,524 km long and to 50% fastened.
There are 3 international airports: Dammam, Dschidda and Riyadh. The national airline is Saudi Arabian airlines. An outstanding position take the two Ölhäfen race to Tanura with Dammam at Persian Gulf and Yanbu at the Red Sea . About half of all travelers are pilgrims after Mekka. The coastal ship travel is from great regional importance for trade and traffic. An oil pipeline leads from the oil fields at Persian Gulf after Yanbu at the Red Sea. Them are 2,200 km long.
Wassermangel and little fruitful soils set limits to the agricultural use. Established in the Arabian desert large artificial farms, in which with artificial climate and at large financial expenditure cattle are bred, in order the country from meat imported goods to to make more independent (“aluminium Safi Danone”, largest cow farm of the world with 32.000 cattle).
the training system
- 14% the military with 36% [work on]: How Washington pay Our Soul for Saudi Crude, Crown, 2003, ISBN 1400050219
- gold, Dore, Hatred's Kingdom: How Saudi Arabia support the new ones global Terrorism, Regnery Publishing, Inc. 2004, ISBN 0895260611
- Mackey, Sandra, The Saudi: Inside the the ore Kingdom, Houghton Mifflin, 1987, ISBN 0395411653
- Ménoret, Pascal, The Saudi Enigma: A History, Zed Books, 2005, ISBN 1842776053
- aluminium-Rasheed, Madawi, A History OF Saudi Arabia, Cambridge University press, 2002, ISBN 052164335
- Simmons, Matthew R., Twilight into the the ore: The Coming Saudi oil shock and the World Economy 2005, ISBN 047173876X
- stone mountain, Guido: Saudi Arabia. Politics history religion, Munich: C.H. Beck 2004, ISBN of 3406511120
- Abdalrachman Munif, salt cities, expenditure for paperback, Heyne, 2005, ISBN 3453350197
Web on the left of
|Commons: Saudi Arabia - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wiktionary: Saudi Arabia - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- land and travel information of the office for foreign
- king Fahd, Saudi monarch in the case of Islamic - a Portrait in the South German newspaper.
- Map of the surrounding region with the UN Cartographic section.
- Internet censorship in Saudi Arabia
- Saudi Arabia journey information
- German message in Riyadh
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