|base data sour country|
|Land of the Federal Republic:||North Rhine-Westphalia, Hessen|
|highest point:||843 m and. NN (long mountain)|
|lowest point:||99.5 m and. NN, with Iserlohn - hens|
|Kfz characteristics:||HSK, MK, OE, SO, KB|
the sour country is German central mountain region in the middle east of North Rhine-Westphalia. Small Ausläufer of the high sour country is enough into a northwest Zipfel of Hessen around Willingen (Upland). The rather thinly settled area points relatively many forest areas up.
Table of contents
Central mountain landscapethe long mountain (843.1 m) between Willingen (Upland) and Niedersfeld, the preserving head (842.9 m) south of Willingen and the bald one branches (841 m) with winter mountain.
Directly over the summitthe long mountain runs the national border of North Rhine-Westphalia and Hessen. The preserving head, which is completely on hessian area, is the highest collection in completely North Hesse. The bald one branches becomes often falsely as the highest mountain in the sour country and red hair mountainsdesignated. Actually however the almost high mountains - long mountain and preserving head -, mentioned above , hold this attribute, of which the long mountain is even the highest collection in the entire Northwest Germany.
the most important rivers of the sour country are dieRuhr und die Lenne. Besides it gives still: To Alme, Bigge, Diemel, Eder, Ennepe, Fretter, hen, Hönne, Ihne, Lister, poppies, roar, Sorpe, verses, Volme, Wenne and Wupper.
several smaller rivers were accumulated, in order to make water available for the close convenient Ruhr district. The largest these lakes are the Biggesee (with the Listertalsperre), the poppy lake, the verse dam, the hen lake and the Sorpesee.
districts and largest cities
the sour country essentially covers the following circles:
- The by far larger, North-Rhine/Westphalian part of the sour country covers the Märki circle in the west,in the south the circle Olpe and central and in the east the high sour district, which constitutes the largest part of the sour country alone for itself already surface-moderately, as well as in the north the southern part of the circle Soest. These areas of the sour country belongto the governmental district Arnsberg.
- Completely in the east the Upland in such a way specified is in the circle forest hitting a corner Franconia mountain belonging to Hessen in the governmental district Kassel.
- Iserlohn is with nowadays scarcely 100,000 inhabitants the largest city of the sour country. The second largest city of the sour countryis load-separate, afterwards Arnsberg follows as third biggest city.
Whether also the city Hagen lain in the southeast part of the Ruhr district at the same time lies in the sour country, is very disputed; as far as this should be affirmed, it would be with approx. 200,000 inhabitantsbefore Iserlohn its largest city.
the sour country is part of the larger Rheini slate mountains. Most rock developed during Devonian, when the whole area was a shallow lake, why limestone and slate the most frequentRocks are. Some areas are verkarstet, and there are, particularly in the north, between Iserlohn and the Hönnetal, as well as in the area around corroding thorn hundreds Tropfsteinhöhlen, only to a small part (z. B. Dechenhöhle in Iserlohn, Atta cave in corroding thorn, Heinrichshöhle in Hemer - see also rock sea Hemer -, to also visit straining cave) are. The hills developed in the late Pliozän, only the red hair mountains is younger. In the meantime the growth of the mountains stopped.
over the origin of the term sour country one argued much. Some it mean that the designation sour country descends not from the word sourly, but from the word down-German word sur (with difficulty). This suggests either that it in former timesdue to the mountains and valleys was difficult to travel by the sour country or due to which regional conditions “sur” it was that country to make usable. Other theories read that the name of CSU the country comes and thus those south the Ruhrconvenient regions (the county Mark) designates. Possible however it is also that the name from Sugambrerland (after the Germanic trunk of the Sugamber) developed.
Independently of it from where the name comes originally, is it only causes a historical term. Reallyit was common neither in the Middle Ages nor in the early modern times. The names of the respective territories were more important (v.a. County Mark and duchy Westphalia). Only since that 19. Century sat down the term sour country gradually as self andForeign description through. It was predominantly used first as synonym for the catholic former duchy Westphalia. While the native education elite positively occupied the term, outstanding ones straight from märkischen area and the Ruhr district have it as name for one economically andculturally apparently backward region uses. Only since the end 19. Century and in 20. Century increased the range of the term ever more. Played as negatively felt consequences of the industrialization a considerable role. Instead one began oneselfafter the apparently natural way of life like it prevailed to upper sour country to long. A role played thereby also the desire to successes of the there tourism economy to tie.
pre and early history
of finds those for a stone-temporal settlement speak, are in the sour country relatively rarely. However one discovered when stick living with Meschede into the early 1990er years tools from the paleolithic age. From the Mittelpaläolithikum became among other things Finds in the Balver cave discovers. From the early Mittelsteinzeit skeleton remainders originate from humans.They were discovered in a mass lime cave with high Limburg. This concerns the oldest proofs of anatomically modern humans in Westphalia. In the Eisenzeit the rich iron ore occurrences in the sour country were diminished.
Toward end 7. Century lived in the areathe sour country still not-Saxonian Germanic trunks (partial) of Frankish origin like the Brukterer or the Chatturarier. By the weakness of the merowingischen Königtums the Saxonian expansion became possible into this area. At its end stood the Ausdehung of the Saxonian area toto the lower Ruhr (subjecting the Brukterer 693/695).
the Middle Ages
integration in the Franconia realm and Christianisierung
the Frankish counterreaction on the Saxonian expansion began already under Karl Martell and became from itsSuccessors continued. In contrast to christianisierten Franconias the majority of the things still held to their heidnischen faith. The arguments with the spreading Franconia realm under Karl the large one were delivered also in the region. Thus the Eresburg became with the today's Mars mountain conquers 772 of Karl. With the Irminsul also one was destroyed the most important Saxonian Heiligtümer and established in its place few years later a church.
After final smashing of the Saxonian resistance the sour country belonged sincethe end 8. Century n.Chr. then to the sphere of influence of the karolingischen large realm. The Saxonian aristocracy was not eliminated, but since Reichstag in Lippspringe (782) was divided the country in the court and administrative units of the counties.
With conquestthe region by Franconias also the Christianisierung began and the development of the church organization of the region. At the beginning the organization of the Saxonian area into mission districts stood. For the sour country and light way area thereafter the archbishop of Cologne was responsible. Also establishments of monasteryshould the Christian religion further strengthen. To the early establishments for instance a monastery belonged in Meschede. More importantly still was the establishment of Pfarreien. To the oldest Urpfarreien (based to 785) Wormbach ( with Schmallenberg ) and Eresburg belong (Mars mountain). To 800 were added Menden, corroding thorn, Velmede and Medebach . Followed to 830 coughs and Altenrüthen (with Rüthen).
territory formation in the high and the late Middle Ages
with after the death of Karl of the large one beginningDecay of imperial central power used also in the sour country gradually the Territorialisierung. Together the region their affiliation to the duchy Saxonia was large. Since the Saxonian duke had straight hardly material interests own within the southern range of its rule area, could itselftrain different first above all lay later also church territories below this level. The most important and strongest count house of Westphalia in 10. and also still in the 11. Century were the counts von Werl, also over far parts of the sour countryordered. In the Investiturstreit the westfälische aristocracy under this remained also the counts von Werl Arnsberg on sides king Heinrichs IV.By becoming extinct the older count line the county Werl Arnsberg diminished strongly. Recent count sexes use this power vacuum like those of the countsof old person well Marks or the counts von Isenberg for the expansion of their rule range.
Scarcely 150 years after the death of Karl of the large one belonged the western sour country to the county Mark, the north around Warstein to the kölnischen duchy Westphalia, and the easternWestphalia to the county Arnsberg. A small area in the lower Lennetal belonged to the county Limburg. The political history of the sour country in the high and late Middle Ages was coined/shaped by the competition of these and neighbouring rule areas around the supremacy in thisRegion.
To the removal from office of Heinrich of the lion 1188 it came to the allocation of the duchy Saxonia. Large areas of the sour country were awarded thereby to the ore diocese Cologne. The archbishops titles of a duke of Westphalia, being assigned now, increased its influence still.To its rights thereby also the right the plant of castles and establishment of cities of the counts belonged to permit or forbid. However in the long run actually existing power decided whether the archbishops could also implement these rights. They could do not prevent about that count Engelbert I. from the Mark to the establishment with the city collection Iserlohns answered the kölnischen city close to the border Menden.
Above all the counties Arnsberg and Marks with changing success opposed penetrating Cologne. To onefirm alliance against Cologne it did not come however, too largely was the competition among themselves. Particularly against the expansion attempts of archbishop Siegfried of Westerburg developed resistance. Apart perhaps from the bishops from Minden and Münster were to it nearly allAlso count Eberhard II. takes part territorial gentlemen Westfalens among them. of the Mark. The decision fell in the battle by Worringen (1288) in their process the bishop was imprisoned taken. As result of the battle the further ascent becameCologne in Westphalia broken. Schwelm and Hagen fell to the county Mark. The castles Volmarstein and Raffenberg were destroyed. The archbishops were from now at only a national gentleman beside others. On the other hand the counts of the Mark won clearly onInfluence.
In the course of the time it showed up that above all the county Arnsberg was in the defensive. As itself in the last third 14. Century it drew that the count Gottfried IV. from Arnsberg childless, stood cure Cologne would die andthe county Mark as competitors around the inheritance opposite. Cologne became generally accepted. The ore chair bought its territory from the count and made for it possible as an only lay prince a funeral in Cologne cathedral.
With this acquisition those hadExpansion of Cologne in Westphalia their high point reaches. In particular the county Mark could retain their independence. A substantial attenuation of the Cologne position was certainly the loss of the rich commercial town Soest. This recognized in the year 1444 the sovereignty Cologne archbishop DietrichII. from Moers no longer on and took shelter to the duke of Kleve. Thereupon it came to the Soester feud (1444 - 1449) between the archbishop of Cologne and the city Soest. On the side of Soest stoodbeside Kleve also the county Mark, in addition, the duke of Burgund and numerous westfälische cities connected dynastisch closely with this area. With these Auseiandersetzung went it no longer only around the rights of a city separating around the distribution of power insouthern Westphalia altogether.1447 were besieged the Soest by 12,000 men a strong professional army, could not not be taken however. Soest and its direct surrounding countryside, the Soester Börde, remain with the duke of Kleve and/or the county Mark. On the other hand Cologne kepttaken during the war the areas around Fredeburg and Bilstein. Thus territorial development of the “duchy of Westphalia” was to a large extent final. But with the profit of Soest the high point of their expansion phase was reached also for the counts of the Marks.
Those century for a long time argumentbetween the archbishops of Cologne and the counts of the Mark Marks were decided since the battle of Worringen and finally after the Soester feud to favour of the county.
one goes to establishments of city
and Hanse from a legalCity term (municipal rights) out, belonged the county Mark and the duchy Westphalia in the Middle Ages and the early modern times to the areas with a close network of cities and liberties (places with city-similar rights, usually however without Stadtmauern). One sees exceptions howthe grown city Medebach off, concerned it establishments the respective national gentleman to the safety device of its area and as base with the arguments with the neighbours. To that extent the emergence of cities was a result of the territory formation in the region. Fora certain economic meaning speaks that some “Beistädte” so-called of them were the Hanse. In the kölnischen sour country were this for instance Brilon, Rüthen, Geseke, Arnsberg, Werl or corroding thorn. In the märkischen sour country were this above all Iserlohn, Load-separate, Neuenrade, Altena and Plettenberg.
early modern times
of a “historical sour country” cannot be during the early modern times a speech in particular. In particular the reformation and Gegenreformation led particularly between kurkölnischen and märkischen territoriesto a hardly bridgeable cultural gap. While the Mark became Protestant, the duchy Westphalia remained catholic. Also verfassungsrechtllich both areas developed differently, as the representation of both territories shows.
Economiceconomics however there was quite points of contact, in addition, substantial contrast. Thosegebirgigen parts duchy Westphalia, the county Mark formed an early mining industryal compression zone with a internal-regional “division of labor” together with the winner country. Certainly extent and adjustment of ore promotion were very different and - processing. Basis was in all three territories thoseplentifully existing water power, wood to the coal production and ore pits. There were mining industry, iron production and Weiterverarbeitungsbetriebe in all regions, but specialized nevertheless all areas in certain ranges. In the winner country the Eisengewinnung dominated and - production, in the kurkölnischen sour country these products becameto steel and sheet metals processes, which were then improved in the märkischen sour country to finished goods. Above all those always strengthens clearing the forests has already at the end 18. Century the Eisenverarbeitung raises the price of. With the exploitation of the coal pits in the Ruhr district lostthe location factors water and wood then finally their meaning.
by the marriage duke Johann III. with a daughter of the duke William III. from Jülich and mountain it came 1521 to the combination of the duchies Kleve, Jülichand mountain as well as the counties Marks and Ravensberg. After the death of duke Johann William in the year 1609 began the “jülich klevische succession controversy “, which led to completely new territorial connections also in the southern Westphalia. A result brought only the contractof Xanten in the year 1614. Afterwards Jülich and mountain fell at Pfalz Neuburg, while the duchy Kleve as well as the counties Marks and Ravensberg turned into at Brandenburg.
Later the dreissigjährige war, that began four years the economy into oneCrisis led, which however hardly changed balance of power.
The transition at Prussia in the long run however substantial effects had. Similarly as Minden Ravensberg the märkische sour country was integrated ever more strongly into the comparatively centralized Prussian state. Itself some ständische Relikte could state, but tendentious the Prussian absolutism became generally accepted .
In the early modern times the meaning of the production from iron and later increased also metal finished goods in the gebirgigen part of the Marks. On the other hand smelting and the production of semimanufactured products at meaning lost.The märkische sour country was in 18. and at the beginning 19. Century certainly a commercial compression zone of first order.
the former county Arnsberg became the actual center of the duchy of Westphalia. The city Arnsberg was beside Bonnone of the residences of the cure state. Politically was the development duchy Westphalia coined/shaped by ständischen persistence tendencies of the native elite from education middle class to win aristocracy and Klerus on the one hand and the attempts of the cure prince a direct influence on the other hand. In the year 1437it did not only come to the Arnsberger “reformation of the Feme “, but a first” hereditary national combination “between cure Cologne and the Nebenländern Vest Recklinghausen and duchy Westphalia tried to cause a reconciliation of the conflicting interests. This had only conditionally succeeded and to 1463a second hereditary national combination between cure prince, cathedral chapter and conditions was locked. This agreement is confirmed several times. Although the cure princes up to the end of the old person of realm tried to expand their influence success remained small. In addition also it contributed that all officials andFunction carriers from the duchy to come had. Against the resistance of the land condition meeting meeting usually in Arnsberg all attempts had an absolutist structure of state to intersperse, fail. The duchy Westphalia remained therefore in the core only partly a Ständestaat integrated into the cure state.While the education-civil elite in early 19. Praised century this condition to a certain extent as connecting factor for a future liberal society, saw in the meantime to a taut Prussian government accustomed the industrial citizens of the Marks at the end 18. Century judged the situation thatNeighbour region as anachronistisch.
In particular travelers stated that the original condition would obstruct the economic life. Actual the economic situation in the duchy Westphalia was not to be compared with the protoindustriellen upswing in the county Mark. Width of parts of the also agriculturally few productiveRegion, had only a small minted commercial development. The attempt of the kurfürstlichen government by the introduction of “industrial schools “the textile industry to promote, carried only at few places fruits. One tried provisional with broom binding or the productionto hold from wood goods over water. Also the large number of moving dealers particularly in the regions lain more highly witnesses from missing local acquisition possibilities.
The observers surveyed however multiple from the outside that it beside it also completely considerable predominantly iron andmetal metallindustrielle of compression areas gave. Different mountain orders regulated and promoted thereby the exploitation of silver, copper and lead. In contrast to the strictly obrigkeitlichen mountain orders of the county its penetration encountered certainly Marks substantial problems.
Altogether was the finished good production - apart perhapspronouncedly by home-commercial nail nagelschmieden in some places - few. The mining industry was more important in the sour country, the production of wrought steels by hammer works and semimanufactured products. Of importance Marks were the iron and metal promotion and - processing at the border to the county Balve (“Luisenhütte “). In addition came the mining industry with Sundern, Warstein, Brilon, Mars mountain, Winterberg Silbach or Schmallenberg. The commercial center of the duchy lay however in the area of Olpe. There above all those concentratedProduction of sheet metals. It was common to most manufacturing plants that they worked not least for the need of the bergischen and märkischen finished goods industry.
19. and 20. Century
in the course of the secularization and the abolition of the religious principalities fell thatkölnische sour country first at Hessen darmstadt, before then to the Napoleoni wars the whole area came by the Viennese congress as part of the new province Westphalia at Prussia. Both the former county Mark as well as the former duchy Westphalia becamePart the governmental district Arnsberg .
In the märkischen sour country there was tying to the preindustrial trade traditions considerable early frühindustriellen an expansion phase. Still 1800 formed the area Iserlohn Altena Lüdenscheid with Galmei - mining industry, wire, needle, brass bronze and silk trade one of the world-wide largest industrial areas thattime at that time. Until far in 19. Century inside e.g. was. Iserlohn the largest industrial city of Westphalia and one of the richest commercial towns of Prussia. Then however the area came opposite the Ruhr district into the Hintertreffen. The negative economic consequences that were still by far more profound Industrialization for the formerly kölnische sour country. There came it to a profound Entindustrialisierung and Agrarisierung of economics and society in many places. First in the frontier to the winner country and märkischen sour country it came predominantly to considerable industrial developments. In addition counted in particularthe city Neheim (“light industry “), cough (heavy industry “Hüstener trade union “), Warstein (Eisenverarbeitung - axle production), Olpe (industrielle sheet metal production). Particularly in the circles Meschede (circle Meschede) and Brilon (circle Brilon) industrial development remainedpunctually. The mining industry concentrated on iron ores (e.g. Sundern, Balve, Warstein) and Metallerze, here are above all Ramsbeck, Meggen, to call and Mars mountain. A majority of the remaining area was essentially dependent on land and forestry. If one notwhen commuter or seasonal worker could make additionally money, in particular the under-rural layers were forced to the out or drift.
It came particularly during the Empire of straight in the west of the former duchy of Westphalia (Neheim, cough, Sundern and Warstein) to oneAdjustment of the economic and social structure to the development in the märkischen sour country, however the cultural and konfessionellen differences remained work powerful. This showed up in particular in the range of the political culture. In the märkischen sour country the Prussian liberalism and Konservatismus were long timethe strongest political forces. In addition already the socialist movement came for the 1860er years. Their attempt into the 1870er years also into the formerly kurkölnische sour country to advance failed however pitifully. The reason was that at the latest with the culture fight approximate-end thereall subpopulations over decades nearly closed the central party selected. Political conflicts between social groups took place there almost exclusively within the catholic environment (catholic environment). Essentially only after the turn of the century it succeeded to the Social Democrats in modestTo seize extent also into the Indutrieorten of the eastern sour country foot.
Since the end the governmental district Arnsberg belonged to the Second World War to the new Land of the Federal Republic North Rhine-Westphalia. First nothing substantial changed in since 1816 the nearly unchanged Kreiseinteilung. This changeditself with the large municipality regional reorganization. The law for the range of the sour country (sour country/Paderborn law) came into force 1975, for the sauerländischen parts of the circle Soest already 1969. Partially against the resistance from citizens and local politicians numerous becamebefore independent places to larger municipalities folded up. Something similar happened also on the level of the circles. Relatively got off the circle Olpe ungeschoren . The today's Märki circle consists of different older parts. From the core components of the circles Arnsberg, Meschedeand Brilon developed the high sour district.
like the historical overview shows, was the sour country in different extent an old trade region. Also on the structural change in 19. Century one referred to. Substantial one Changes carried out themselves however also in 20. Century and in particular after the Second World War.
Today there is only few leftovers of the early industry, only wire production in Altena and chain production in the Iserlohner area is still of importance. InHowever numerous smaller and middle enterprises of the metalworking industry exist Märki sour country. In Iserlohn also the pharmaceutical and the chemical industry are represented. Admits is the sour country also for considerable producers of lights in the Arnsberger, Lüdenscheider and Iserlohner areaas well as for sanitary armatures in particular into and around Iserlohn. In the Schmallenberger still important enterprises of the cord industry (falcon socks) exist to area.
While the märkische sour country had to exhibit more jeher several economical centers since, the economic emphasis of the high sour district long time layin the area of the today's city Arnsberg. Only few older enterprises (like the company BJB or Cronenberg ) survived the restaurant history of the last centuries also here, but as follow-up enterprises or reestablishments also today still numerous enterprises with supraregional existAdmitting heating degree. In addition for instance the light producer tri lux, the houseware producers Wesco and Berndes , the paper manufacturer Wepa or the belt manufacturer Schroth belongs.
Further commercial emphasis is Sundern (Severin of household appliances) and Meschede (Honselwerke). In addition, into the formerly agrarianMunicipalities settled after the Second World War numerous usually smaller producing enterprises.
Also with view of the admitting heating degree sour countries of products, play the breweries a special role. Beside numerous small breweries above all Warsteiner and Veltins in the Mescheder are quarter Grevenstein supraregional admits. Thus two of the largest breweries of Germany lie only few kilometers far away from each other. Worth mentioning also the private brewery Iserlohn with their beer specialities from the Green the valley is in Iserlohn.
The medium-size, innovationable economic structure is common to all sour countries circles. Thisit left in 19. and early 20. Turned out, in the long term centraloperational structures clearly proved century opposite the large-scale enterprises of the Ruhr district in the Hintertreffen however as substantially more flexible. The industry and Chamber of Commerce in Arnsberg stressed for instance at the turnto the new millenium with pride that the chamber district exhibits a stronger portion of commercial workers as the Ruhr district. It strikes negatively in particular in the high sour district to beech that the knowledge-based service sector is relatively weakly pronounced. This becomes essentially only from some specialist areasthe professional school for south Westphalia represent.
Differently it looks within the range of the tourism. Since the end 19. Century became above all the upper sour country a goal of recovery-looking for inhabitants of the industrial district and the large cities. These new earning facilities contributed to it,to make smaller the high migrant numbers of these areas. Particularly after the Second World War (upper) the sour country became a center of the tourism. The forests and the small cities make it very attractive moving, and many cities are because of theirgood air quality of health resorts. The higher collections are besides popular winter sports areas, particularly for Netherlands tourists. World-wide is the Bob admits - and Rodelbahn in winter mountain and the ski jumping in the hessian Willingen. In particular after the turn of the century became in thisRange strongly invests. The winter sports arena sour country with numerous snow cannons, a Mountainbikearena developed or the 154 kilometers is enough for red hair paste the sour, winner country and the Dill mountain country connects.
for the cultural life of nearly everyoneprimarily the annual contactor celebrations belong to sauerländischen municipality. In almost any village therefore a contactor association ( particularly in the former county Mark) or one can be found brüderschaft - (particularly in the former cure Cologne).
In the formerly kurkölnischen areasKarneval is a further popular people celebration. High point each session are the rose on Mondays courses (the removals partly take place like for example in Menden also on tulip Sunday ). One of the longest rose on Mondays courses of the sour country is into Warstein - the Belecke.
Those Karl May festivals on a free light stage in Elspe take place annually from March to Octobers. These became famous by Pierre Brice, the actor in the Winnetou films, when he transferred the main role for several play times to Elspe.
insome areas are particularly in the older population still flat-German dialects common.
sporty importantly is in the sour country above all winter sports. In the high sour country for example in winter mountain are ski and Rodelhänge. The Rodeland Bobbahn winter mountain is location in the Worldcup, mill-head-digs Willingen forms annually one the tendency-fullest ski jump - competitions. In Iserlohn is resident the ice hockey - Erstligist Iserlohn Roosters.
Riding centers in the sour country are Balve, in which with the Balve optimum takes place annually an internationally meaning riding tournament and which became homeland of the honorary chairman of the German Reiterlichen combination , Dieter count Landsberg Velen, and Warstein, whose delivers brewery Warsteiner the champions Trophy and which Alois Pollmann Schweckhorst brought the successful jumping rider out. The jumping riding is thereby the kind of main horse haven in these places.
Further sport mechanisms to the Frezeitgestaltung are
- the experience bath Finnentrop,
- the summers rodelbahn on the Sackpfeifewith additional leisure offers,
- the Sommerrodelbahn in winter mountain,
- experience baths in Olpe, Plettenberg, winter mountain, Letmathe and cough,
- which are “Seilerseebad” in
- Iserlohn and the all-weather bath
objects of interest
in the sour country are in many areas caves, of which many were developed to looking caves. One the largest generally speaking federal territory is the Atta cave in Corroding thorn. But also in the northern Märki circle one can visit some Tropfsteinhöhlen. More well-known ones are those the Heinrichshöhle in Hemer or the straining cave in Balve. Also Warsteiner the Bilsteinhöhle is to be visited.
As trip goals also for inhabitants of the Ruhr district like are the many artificial lakes, which were built primarily for the water supply of the large cities. The Sorpesee on Sunderner cityand the Biggesee between the Märki circle and the circle Olpe is considered thereby as the most popular. After the poppy and the Diemelsee are designated municipalities even lying close. Around these seas to a large extent a good tourism economy with Gatronomie and leisure-time facilities has itselfto the local recreation in an educated manner.
particularly in the former border area between the county Mark and the ore diocese Cologne exist this very day some castles. As master castle of the counts of the Mark the castle Altena functioned, after thatalso the neighbouring city was designated. At the boundary line put on the castle Klusenstein was direct on rock of the Hönnetals. The castle Eversberg, which is received today only in ruins, should the owners of the count von Arnsbergprotect from cure Cologne. The castle fast mountain in corroding thorn stood under kölnischer leaning hotels.
The house Letmathe in the Iserlohner of the same name local part is an example of one of the many gentleman seats in the sour country. In contrast to it the manor is cunning ring living in Meinerzhagen today stillnot to always visit. Both buildings are considered nevertheless as landmarks of their city. From the first millenium after Christ the property is stick living in Meschede.
Beside castles there are some locks in the sour country also. Some examples of particularly well-known locks: that Lock break living in oil mountain, the lock Dahlhausen in Menden, the lock stove rings in Arnsberg, the lock Körtlinghausen in Rüthen, the lock Laer in Meschede, the surge tank Melschede in Sundern and the lock new yard in load-separate.
the experience visitor mine Ramsbeck in Bestwig , which contains a mining industry museum, applies for museums as visitor attraction. The only Science center in North Rhine-Westphalia is with the Phänomenta in load-separates.
Beudeutende routistic centersalso the two large recreational parks, the panorama park in Kirchhundem , are which is large 800,000 m ², and which away Fun adventure country in Bestwig with 400.000 visitors annually.
- Ernst Dossmann: On the traces of the counts ofthe Marks. Worth knowing over and growing of the former county Mark and over the Märki circle. Iserlohn, 1983. ISBN 3922885144
- Ernst Dossmann: Paper from the old county Mark: Paper trade and processing in the marketing area between Volme, Ruhr and Hönne:an economic-geographical and family-historical study for the development of an important südwestfälischen industry in the periphery of the cities Hagen, Iserlohn, Hemer, Menden, Fröndenberg and Plettenberg. Iserlohn, 1987. ISBN 3-922885-33-0
- the high sour district: Development and change of a region. Arnsberg, 1996. ISBN 3-930264-12-9
- George of Mieders: Flora of the northern sour country. Balve, 2006, ISBN 3-89053-104-0
- Rudolf Brüschke, Norbert Föckeler (Hg.): Jewish life in the high sour district (=Hochsauerlandkreis series of publications Bd.III). Fredeburg, 1994. ISBN 3930271184
- Karl Peter Ellerbrock/Tanja Bessler Worbs (Hrsg.): Economics and society in the southeast Westphalia.Dortmund, 2001.ISBN 3-87023-192-0
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- history of the mining industry in the sour country
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