Savannah

tare-craves national park in Tanzania, picture of a typical Trockensavanne
Klimadiagramm einer Dornsavanne
climatic diagram of a Dornsavanne

as savannah generally a tropical or subtropical type of vegetation is defined, which consists of a closed Krautschicht and a rather open wood layer. The demarcation to steppes, grass country and drying forests is handled different.

Savannah and/or savana/sabana meant as much as „widens level “.

the term savannah

although the terms „savannah “and „quilt “for the designation of certain vegetation types were introduced, became the designation starting from the 1970er years of geographer more for certain climate zones used. Carl Troll suggested first calling in the Tropics all hygrophilen Pflanzengesellschaften savannahs completely indifferently, which for a vegetation it concerns. Since however hygrophil and xerophil relative and with difficulty definable terms are, hunter gave to the term a climatic sense, which had to do nothing more with the zonalen vegetation to the savannah.

The savannah is a vegetation zone of the Tropics, which is characterized by its open vegetation (grass country) and in relatively regular intervals standing trees. They arise in the transient area between the arid trade wind zone and the tropical rain forest climate. Accordingly the vegetation zone of the savannahs lies between the vegetation zones desert and tropical rain forest.

The vegetation controlling factor is here the Wassermangel. Typical values lie between 500 and 1500 mm yearly precipitation (is called 500 to 1500 litres water per m ² and year). This Wassermangel leads to the regular distribution of the trees typical for savannahs, because each tree prevents a wood new vegetation in its closer environment by its water consumption.

In the savannah there are as in all other climate zones animal species, which adapted on the one hand to the vegetation of this habitat and on the other hand the adapted animal species than booty to strike or than carrion verzehren. In addition count for example: Gepard, Gazelle, Gnu, Zebra, elephant, lion, wild pig and giraffe.

There are three different kinds of savannahs: Damp, drying and Dornsavanne:

Feuchtsavanne Trockensavanne Dornenstrauchsavanne
layer Africa, Asia, Australia, India, South America Africa, Asia, Australia Africa, Asia, Mexico, South America
climate 7-8 humid months 4.5-7 humid months 2-4 humid months
Ø yearly precipitation 1000-1500 mm 500-1000 mm 250-500 mm
of vegetation up to 2 m high, evergreen grasses, easily closed Feuchtsavannenwald, gallery forests at rivers, building of rain fields brusthohe of grasses, more easily tree existence up to 30 cm high grasses

of adjustment characteristics to the climate: Damp, drying and Dornsavanne: Leaves-throwing off in the drying time, with increasing dryness removing tree stature and increasing stature water reservoir that plants and other adjustments to the drynesses.

In addition, savannahs are in particular in Africa strongly common, arise in India, Australia and in the northern part of South America . In Africa a Savannengürtel pulls itself semicircularly by the continent, beginning in the Sudan and Sahelzone of west Africa, over the East Africa niches savannahs up to the South African “Veld “.

Savannahs are to differentiate of the likewise arid grass landscapes of moderate widths, the steppes and prairies and the treeless Pampas of South America.

 

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