Saxophone

Verschiedene Saxophone; v.l.n.r: Bass-, Bariton-, Tenor-, Alt-, Sopran- und Sopraninosaxophon
different saxophones; v.l.n.r: Bass, Bariton, tenor, old, Sopran and Sopraninosaxophon

the saxophone and/or. Saxofon is belonged a music instrument and to the family of the woodwind instruments.

Table of contents

history

the saxophone was invented by the Belgian Adolphe Sax in the year 1840 andfinally to 28. June 1846 in France patents. A wind instrument is belonged and to the family of the woodwind instruments. In the patent request Sax justifies its invention with the absence of well sounding woodwind instruments of the deep situation. Originally for the employment in the Sinfonieorchesterthought, it found however first to application in march and military chapels, since contemporary composers ignored the new instrument to a large extent first.

Only with the arising of the jazz the actual triumphant advance of this instrument began with its very variable sound and a large dynamic extent. In the meantime it is with concert - and dance music one of the most popular solo instruments, and many well-known soloists based their own volume or Combos.

technology

the former US president Bill Clinton is (also) for its playat the saxophone

the saxophone admits made of metal built, so that it looks like a sheet metal wind instrument, there however during the toner generation the air column by the tubing sheet mouthpiece (as with a clarinet) is divided, speaks one of a woodwind instrument.

The actual saxophone is detachable into 4 individual parts:

  1. the tubing sheet
  2. the mouthpiece with Blattschraube
  3. the elbow
  4. the Korpus

for playing is usually hung the instrument by means of a carrying belt (neck belt) around the neck of the player, in particular for larger remarks like thatBariton saxophone gives it however also moving or shoulder belts.Sopran and Sopranino in straight lines design are often played without stretcher belts.

types

the similarity of saxophone and clarinet often one stresses. The saxophone does not over-blow however like the clarinet into the Duodezime, but like the transverse flute or oboe into the Oktave. This results from the conical cut of the instrument (closely at the mouthpiece and very far at the Schallbecher). Grasp-technically the instrument is related to the modern transverse flute. ThoseGrasps correspond also to those a B-clarinet with Boemsystem of the tones D ² - h ³.

The saxophone is built in eight dimensions: Piccoloinstrument (saxophones aigu in es', Sopraninosaxophon, not to confound with the special design of the Soprillo (see below)), Sopran (in Bb or C), Old (in it or F), tenor (in Bb oder C -> Melody saxophone), Bariton (in it or F), bass (in Bb or C) and very rarely retort bass instrument (in Eb). Isolated there is even playable Subkontrabasssaxophone in Bb (this have a length of the sound tube of 4,30m).

SinceBeginning of this millenium even gives it a still smaller saxophone than the Sopranino: The Soprillo in Bb-tendency, in straight lines design with Applikatur up to high it, with normal finger set. A characteristic is the upper Oktavklappe, which is built in the mouthpiece. ThatSoprillo has a length of the sound tube of 30cm.

Further there are also very well playable retort bass and Subkontrabassaxophone approximately since the same time. Their design deviates somewhat from the classical form: The main pipe is again devoured. Thus these becomeInstruments very compactly: The Kontrabassaxophon is not playable in going. The Subkontrabassaxophon in Bb of these by its inventor B.Eppelsheim “Tubax” design mentioned is played in the stand. Both are characterised owing to their close Mensurierung by a small air consumption. The Intonationthese instruments is outstanding to be called.

C and f variants, which were conceived by Sax for the employment in sinfonischen orchestras, are not practically any longer manufactured today and had never the meaning, them after their inventorshould. Only the C-Melody saxophone, in the size between old and tenor saxophone settled, became into the 50's 20. Century built and uses.

The mobility and the versatility of the saxophone led to numerous experiments. The Conn O Sax (over1928) in a straight form with a bulgy Schallstück one built. The straight form of the saxophone lends a oboe-well-behaved sound to the saxophone. With the Conn O Sax through the ball-well-behaved Schallstück the nasale sound of a double tube instrument (oboe, English horn or bassoon) are reached. ThoseTendency of this instrument is i.e. equal the tendency of the English horn, F, lies thereby between old and tenor saxophone and corresponds to the ambitions Saxs a symphony orchestra-suited instrument to generate. Although the advantages outweigh opposite an English horn, the instrument did not become generally accepted.

Another development of the saxophone was that one tried the saxophone from wood to build, in order to obtain a still wooden sound. These forms are hardly well-known, because they are to be manufactured instrument-structurally very with difficulty and the clarinet are too similarand strong tendency problems exhibits. The wood saxophone is very similar to the Hungarian Tarogato.

Also regarding the technology for the cover of the Tonlöcher new beginnings were pursued occasionally. The rule is also today still the use of hollow metal flaps, inside alsoa felt pad covered with leather are filled out. The material of these pads became in the course of the technical development also by modern plastic materials (Codera, TopTone or Jim Schmidt (the USA)) replaced, the padded flap is however to today standard. To the improvement of the resonance behaviorbecome with the larger flaps different editions from metal or plastic (so-called. Resonators) uses, which can be riveted glued on the pad or.

An absolute exception represents temporarily in the time a saxophone produced of 1938-1941 of Selmer the USA:In co-operation with the US-American manufacturer renowned at that time Bue a saxophone without flap pad (“Padless”) was developed, with which the seal of the Tonlöcher was obtained by a leather ring at the Tonloch and the use of absolutely flat-polished brass flaps. Although the resonance behavior andthe speech of the model as very good, were in the long run susceptible the thin gaskets were described too and the system disappeared again from the market.

Most frequently used old and tenor saxophone, followed of Sopran and Bariton, are while thoseVariants in the extreme situations sometimes solistisch or for enriching the tone qualities in larger ensembles to be used.

play technology

Klaus Doldinger with saxophone

over on the saxophone by the way to be produced as on each single tubing sheet instrument, tones and melodies,it depends on the correct co-ordination of blowing on and finger technology. The correct degree at Lockerheit is just as important as a basic tension, which quick on the one hand a good breath support, on the other hand one (RH) action times made possible.


occupations

Blowing orchestra

the longest tradition has the saxophone in the blowing orchestras. Already one year before patenting used the French military music of two saxophones. In blowing orchestras the saxophone has an important klangliche meaning. It connects the wood register of woodwind instruments with the sheet metal register of sheet metal wind instruments. On the one hand the saxophone has the mobility of a woodwind instrument, anderereseits one is inferior it to the volume of a sheet metal wind instrument hardly. 1844 prophesied Berlioz to the saxophone by its characteristics a large future.

classical music

in the classical music becomes thatSaxophone as solo instrument, in saxophone formations, in chamber music occupations and in concert occupations uses.

saxophone solo one

in the new music is particularly used the saxophone as solo instrument. The composers particularly stress the sound possibilities and the technical in their compositions therebyAspects of the saxophone. Some the composers, who wrote works for saxophone-solo, are:Paul Bonneau, Pierre-Max Dubois, Jean Francaix, Alexander Konstantinowitsch Glasunov, Jaques Ibert, Christian Lauba, Jean Marie Londeix, Ryo Noda, Guido running ore or Fuminori Tanada.

saxophone in chamber music occupation

in chamber music occupation is used the saxophone in combination with other solo instruments. Some the combinations, which find in compositions use, combine the saxophone among other things with singing, violin, Flute, clarinet, oboe, bassoon, trumpet, trombone or Schlagzeug.

Particularly frequently the saxophone is used as main instrument with company. Common here in particular the combination of saxophone and piano , in addition, pieces are in companyfrom organ, accordion, harp and guitar exist.

saxophone formations

the formations, in which the saxophone in the classical music are used, are ajar against the formations of the caper instruments. In particular becomes the saxophone in the saxophone quartet and inSaxophone ensemble, which consists of 12 saxophones, uses.

The saxophone quartet consists of Bariton, tenor, old, and Sopransaxophon.

The occupation of the saxophone ensemble varies depending upon ensemble leader and compositions. The standard composition of the saxophone ensemble, which introduced Jean Marie Londeix, consists of a bass, twoBariton, three tenor, three old, two Sopran and a Sopraninosaxophon. Other saxophone ensemble, like for example the Raschèr saxophone orchestra, change depending upon composition the composition of the instruments. The six usual kinds of saxophone are used also here.

jazz

thatJazz is “saxophonisiert”. There was and hardly gives a jazz ensemble, in which the saxophone would fill out not at least an important Solistenrolle. One finds quartet occupations most frequent, thus to group of rhythms plus saxophone. From it one must see the Triobesetzungen derived,those the harmony instrument, thus guitar or Piano to be omitted. Pure saxophone occupation are rarer, take however in the modern serious music and in border areas of the jazz due to the nearly unlimited sound possibilities an interesting role. Saxophones are important also in one Bend volume, here are are it occupied usually as follows: first and second old saxophone, first and second tenor saxophone as well as a Baritonsaxophon. In order to be able to obtain in the jazz an individual tone quality, is the choice of the equipment more importantly ever. e.g.:Tenor or old saxophonists falls back to a metal, - or ebonite mouthpiece. There are also some saxophonists which mouthpieces themselves “tunen” (mill out, or with so-called. Spoilers provide) around their own tone quality to produce


smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Wester, Paul Bonneau, Alexander Glazounov, Jaques Ibert, Darius Milhaud, Albert Rousell, Moondog, Marcel Mule, W. To Ferling,

saxophonists

see in addition category: Saxophonist

ensemble

Quintessence saxophone Quintett, German saxophone ensemble, Raschèr saxophone quartet, Itchy of finger, Cologne saxophones mafia, World of saxophones quartet, Nuclear Whales of saxophones Orchestra, Danubia saxophone quartet Vienna, London Saxophonic, Tübinger saxophone ensemble, Ardey saxophone quartet, Saxofourte, Alliage quartet, Saxofour, OSax, LesFemmes Saxales, citizen of Berlin saxophone quartet, Four in A row, The Osland of saxophones Quartet, bending volume

manufacturer

literature

  • Eugen Brixel, series of publications for young musician, number 1, whom clarinet and the saxophone, music publishing house Stefan Reischel, upper nine-churches, Austria, 1983
  • Peter Ninaus, Voraussetzungen for blister-down-arrangeby the example of the clarinet, a view under the aspects of the Musikpädagogik, psychology, physiology and the instrument making, Bakkalaureatsarbeit at the university of music and representing art in Graz, 2004
  • Uwe LOD TIG, regularly essays (Vintage saxophones, test reports) in “SONIC Wood & Brass”,PNP publishing house, new market, Germany
  • Venzke/Raumberger/Hilkenbach, the saxophones, contributions to building characteristic, function and history, technical book row the music instrument, PPV media

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