Scapa flow is a kind bay, which results from the layer that, in the southern part of the Orkney (Scotland , Great Britain) convenient, islands Main country , Burray , South Ronaldsay , Flotta and Hoy. By Scapa flow runs the driving connection between Houton on Main country and Lyness on Hoy as well as Flotta.
Since this bay lies well protected, it was used in history more frequently than Naturhafen. Already the Wikinger met here in 13. Century their ships and you gave the name to “Skalpafloi”. Also at Napoleons' times this port played a substantial role. There the British met, for a trade relation with the Baltic, their ships. This very day some Relikte remind from this time of it. So e.g., Martello of towers built the 1813-1815, for the protection of a possible invasion Napoleon at the Longhope in the southeast of Hoy. The British navy furnished both in the First World War and in the Second World War here the main base of its fleet. In both world wars German submarines tried to penetrate into the bay.
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to 23. November 1914 knew U 18 (captain second lieutenant Heinrich of Hennig) by the Hoxa sound, which main approach road in the south, into the bay to penetrate. It had attached itself an incoming freighter and the barriers had thus overcome. Because the British had vacated the base at this time, U 18 did not find a worthwhile goal. With the attempt to set off the boat was discovered and rammed by a sweeper. The crew stepped out and came into shank.
To 31. May 1916 ran out the Grand fleet, under the command of admiral John Jellicoe, of Scapa flow to the Skagerrakschlacht . To 5. June 1916 wanted to drive the British war Minister, lord Horatio Kitchener, on board the tank cruiser HMS Hampshire to Archangelsk, in order to lead with Russia important negotiations. The Hampshire left Scapa flow by the Hoy sound. It, to the west of Main country, ran a little later on a mine and sank within 15 minutes. There were only 12 survivors. Drowned to lord Kitchener and over 600 people.
To 18. October 1918 tried PRACTICES 116 (first lieutenant to sea Hans Joachim Ems man), with a freiwilligen crew to penetrate in Scapa flow. Allegedly the Hoxa should be free sound by nets and mines. But the opposite was the case. Through additionally installed Unterwasserhorchgeräte heard one the screw noises of the boat and sighted against 23.30 o'clock, in the light of the search headlights, its Sehrohr. By remote ignition a whole mine barrier was released, which PRACTICE 116 destroyed.
After the armistice 74 ships of the German deep-sea fleet in Scapa flow were interned. There countering admiral Ludwig von Reuter gave to 21. June 1919 the instruction to the self sinking of the fleet. He assumed that the German government the peace treaty of Versailles would not prevail to assume and therefore on the next day again to state of war. The German fleet should not fall the British undestroyed into the hands. With exception of a liner, three small cruiser and eleven torpedo boats, sank all German ships. The wrecks of the sunk ships were lifted to a large extent between 1923 and 1939. Remain however seven ships at the sea-bottom, which serve today as a popular goal for dipping trips.
in the Second World War succeeded it to U 47, with captain second lieutenant Günther Prien, to 14. October 1939 to penetrate by the Kirk sound into the bay of Scapa flow. It could sink the warship HMS Royal Oak (1400 men crew) and leave after it the port intact again. Prien and Scapa flow were made famous thereafter by National Socialist propaganda. After this incident all eastern entrances were blocked by a set of barriers. These so-called. Were built for Churchill Barriers by Italian prisoners of war. By it the islands South Ronaldsay, Burray, Glimps cross-beam, Lamb cross-beam and Main country are passable.
the fleet basis remained until 1956 in enterprise. 1977 acquired the advice of the Orkneyinseln the abandoned area of the base Lyness. It was developed in the following years to a visitor center. In April 1990 the Scapa flow Visitor Centre was opened. In the former pumping house are issued various photos, models and Relikte. Before the house are among other things two 15cm of cannons of the cruisers Karlsruhe and brake.
sunk ships of the deep-sea fleet 1919
large liners (battle ships)
of 10 large liners were sunk:
SMS Bavaria, SMS Friedrich the large one, SMS large cure prince, SMS emperor, SMS empress, SMS king Albert, SMS king, SMS Crown Prince William, SMS Mark count and SMS prince regent Luitpold. The SMS bathing was saved from the self destruction by Aufgrundsetzen and ended later than goal ship.
The wrecks of the SMS Crown Prince William, SMS Mark count and SMS king are this very day on the reason of Scapa flow
large cruisers (battle cruisers)
of 5 large cruisers were sunk:
All ships were again lifted later.
of 5 small cruisers were sunk:
SMS Cöln II, SMS Karlsruhe II, SMS Dresden II and SMS Brummer were not saved by the sunk ships.
of 37 torpedo boats were sunk:
- First flotilla (G 86, G 40, G 38, G 39, V 129, S 32)
- second flotilla (G 101, G 103, V 100, B 109, B 110, B 111, B 112)
- third flotilla (S 53, S 54, S 55, S 91, V 70, V 73, V 81, V 82)
- sixth flotilla (V 45, S 49, S 50, S 131)
- sieved flotilla (S 56, S 65, V 78, V 83, G 92, S 136, S 137, S 138, H 145, G 89)
- Half seventeenth flotilla (S 36, S 52)
of 18 torpedo boats due to were set or saved swimming (G 102, V 100, S 54, V 73, V 82, S 132, V 125, V 126, V 127, V 128, V 44, V 43, V 46, S 137, G 89, V 80, S 51 and S 60). The remainder was lifted later.
- Friedrich Ruge: Scapa flow 1919, Gerhard Stalling publishing house, 1969
- Peter L. Smith: The Naval Wrecks OF Scapa flow, Orkney press 1989, ISBN 0 907618 20 0
Web on the left of
coordinates: 58° 53 ' 32 " N, 03° 03 ' 0 " W