as heads (Latin cranium) is designated the knöcherne portion of the head.
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the head is a general characteristic of all vertebrate animals. There are similar developments with Gliederfüssern, e.g. Insects and cancers, with which the upper throat ganglion is protected by the external skeleton. The Parallelentwicklung is still more similarwith Cephalopoden (“Tintenfischen”). These soft animals have a cartilage cap, which protects the brain, and functionally comparable to the brain head is.
With newborn humans the parts of the brain head are not yet completely verknöchert and grown together. Between the individual head plates are bone gaps, the Fontanellen.In the course of the first Lebensjahre the Fontanellen and the brain head close verknöchert completely. At the head seams (Suturen) still the individual disk bones of the brain head are to be identified also with the head of an adult, whereby the seam between both front bone portionsitself usually up to 2. Lebensjahr closes. If one or more head seams close prematurely, then one speaks of a Craniosynostose (see also “Kraniosynostose”).
With the newborn child the relationship from brain head to face head still 8:1, with the five-year child 4:1, with the adult amounts to2:1.
the bones of the head
of the heads of humans consists of 22-30 with one another bones connected by bone seams. The different data are based on the fact that on the one hand the Stirnbein probably forms from two bone plants, but itself after that Growth conclusion usually as uniform bones shows, on the other hand the tongue leg and the auditory ossicles among the head bones to be ranked only as required. Anatomically one differentiates between thus
- the brain head (lat. Neurocranium), which forms a sturdy covering around the brain, of
- the face head (lat. Viscerocranium), which forms the basis for the face. As adjective for parts of the face head also kraniofacial (Facies =Gesicht) one uses.
the bones of the brain head
The brain head becomes morphologic into the head roof (Calvaria, Schädelkalotte) and the head basis partitioned. It in an educated manner by
- unmatched Hinterhauptsbein (lat. OS occipitale)
- the parietal bone in pairs (lat. OS parietale)
- the temporal bone in pairs (lat. OS temp-oral)
- the Keilbein in pairs (lat. OS sphenoidale)
- the unmatched Siebbein (lat. OS ethmoidale)
- a part of the Stirnbeins (lat. OS frontal)
of some authors is assigned the whole Stirnbein to the brain head.
the bones of the face head
- those parts of the Stirnbeins, those the eye socket along-form
- the yoke leg in pairs (lat. OS zygomaticum)
- the Oberkiefer (lat. Maxilla), in reality a bone in pairs
- the Zwischenkieferbein in pairs (lat. OS incisivum), that with humans already before the birth with the Oberkiefer merges
- the unmatched lower jaw (lat. Mandibula)
- in pairs Nasal bone (lat. OS nasale)
- the Tränenbein in pairs (lat. OS lacrimale)
- the palate leg in pairs (lat. OS palatinum)
- the unmatched plowshare leg (lat. the Vomer)
- the unmatched tongue leg (lat. OS hyoideum)
- the auditory ossicles