Chess

chessmen
a table with a chessboard in a park

chess (v. Persian: Schah: „King “; standing metaphor: „the royal play “) is a strategic board play for two players. The players try to set the opposing king chess matt. Hereonly spielerische being able of the contractors and not the coincidence are crucial.

Table of contents

general

game of chess with the typical being astonished on Design and chess clock

chess is still before lady, mill, Halma and humans annoys you not the most popular board play in Europe. Go and those chess quite similar plays Xiangqi (see also military chess), Shōgi and Makruk take a similar place in East Asian cultures.

It is match-moderately played both to the pure pleasure and, in chess associations, tournaments, on-line or by letter and E-Mail (remote chess). A further area is the chess composition (studies, Mehrzüger, fairy tale chess, auxiliarymatt, selfmatt, Retroanalyse).

The game of chess becomes on a square Spielbrett, which chessboard easily, which is divided into 64 alternating black and white square fields, on those 16 blackand 16 white figures to be pulled. The play figures are usual made of wood or plastic, whereby there are also decorative play sets, those made of stone, glass, marble or metal (z. B. Tin) are manufactured.

Around the invention of thePlay climbs the so-called wheat grain legend. The inventor Sissa ibn Dahir is to have demanded from his ruler to fill it as wages the 64 fields of the Spielbrettes in the following way with Weizenkörnern: on the first field 1 Weizenkorn, upthe second field of 2 grains, on the third field of 4 grains, etc.

Chess is one of the most complex board plays. The number of the theoretically possible positions becomes estimated on 2 * 10 43. The number of the possible play processes is again overa multiple more largely: By taking as a basis of an average portion length and an average number of possible courses per position for the maximum number of different portions values between 10,115 and 10,120 are indicated. This number is larger than all atoms in the universe.

In the game theory chess is assigned to the zero-sums games. In the sense of the game theory it acts around a play with complete information. Theoretically one could determine thus, whether with on both sides perfect play white or black wins, or the portion remisto end must. The computers momentarily the available are however by far not efficiently enough, in order to clarify this question. In the chess world generally agreement exists over the fact that white, to which first pulls has an advantage (suit advantage), there a speed advantagethe development of the figures exists. This advantage shows up also in the result of the portions - white wins more frequently than black. Statistically seen white 55% of the possible points wins.

rules

of fundamental ideas, Spielbrett and play figures


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Basic position

Everyone of the two players (these shortening as „black “and „white “designation) possesses 16 stones at the beginning of a game of chess. There is this in each case eight farmers and eight figures. The figures cover in each case a king, a lady, two Towers, two Springer and two runners. The runners and Springer are called light figures, towers and lady heavy figures. Easy and heavy figures are summarized under the designation officers.

The chessboard (see also chessboard samples) becomes in such a way between the playerspositioned that from the view of each player down on the right of a white field is. The stones are set up, as shown in the picture, to both sides of the board, on the next to last row the farmers, on the last row the figuresin the order (from left to right for white, for black in reverse): Tower, Springer, Läufer, Dame, König, Läufer, Springer, Turm. The lady comes with both sides on a field of her own color to stand (lat. „regina regit colorem “, upGerman about „the lady determines the color [the field]! “).

The players pull alternating in each case a stone (exception: Castling), whereby the player begins with the white stones. One calls the movement of a stone by a player a section. Creditimplemented, one speaks both players a section of a course.

On a field in each case a stone may stand. A stone blocks thereby the field for all stones of the own color, not however for the opposing: A stone meetsin a field on an opposing, then this opposing stone is taken by the playing field. One says, the stone is struck.

If a stone in the next course could be struck, then this stone is threatened (anciently: it stands for EN prize).If the possibility exists if necessary to again-slam the striking stone shut in the section following on it, then the threatened stone is covered.

If one of the kings is threatened, one speaks of the fact that he stands in chess. With the warning „chess!“one can the play partner on it, this is however in the FIDE rules no more refers to prescribed (Gardez compares).

course rules

“chess” - position, lady threatens opposing king

the stones may only according to certain rules be pulled:

  • Stones may not each other in principlejump over (exceptions apply to Springer as well as with the castling). They may be pulled thus only at the most so far, not be blocked like them by their own stone in their motion (then to have them at the latest before the appropriate fieldstop), or up to the field, on which the first opposing stone stands in the course. In this case they strike the opposing stone and come on its field to stand.
  • A king of an opposing stone is threatened (D.h., the king could be struck in the next course), then this king stands in chess. A “chess” may not be ignored, the player must thus either chess offering stone strike, one of its stones between the king and thoseChess offering figure draw (this possibility is void with a Springer and a double chess) or the king from chess pull. None of these course possibilities exists, then it is chess matte and the play lost. If the king stands in chess, it may also by means of the castling from this do not escape.

king


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The king can draw a field in each direction.

The king is matte with the game of chess the most important figure, since it is a goal of the play, the opposing kingto set - which terminates the portion immediately.Matt set is called to threaten the opposing king with (or several) a figure (EN) without the threat can be repelled by pulling the king away on a unbedrohtes field, striking the attacking figureor Dazwischenziehen of a figure. As special (however not much it spread) gesture that one lost or gives up, one can upset the own king on the chessboard and/or. surround.

Course possibilities: The king knows in each case a field in each direction everGo to course. Thus it can achieve all white and black fields of the chessboard. Because of its kurzschrittigen course way it needs for it however many courses. Between the two kings at least one field must be. The two kings can never directly next to each otherstand, since a king may not pull on a threatened field.

In the opening it depends usually to bring the king by a brisk castling in security. The farmers of the castling position are not to be pulled if possible.Also in the central play a safe position of the king, where it is protected against opposing attacks, is of importance. In the final game the king can unfold a large effect. Contrary to opening and central play the king pretty often an active comesand play-crucial role too. In addition it is often necessary to platzieren the king central. Particularly in a farmer final game the position of the king is crucial. Reaching of the opposition of both kings is often play crucial.

lady


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The ladycan as many as desired fields far in each direction draw

the lady is the strongest figure in a game of chess. The lady falls (together with the tower) into the category heavy figure. In practice a lady is in interaction also Tower, runner and Springer a strong attack figure.

Course possibilities: The lady may draw the effect on each free field in each direction linear and diagonally to jump without however over other figures and united thus both a tower andalso a runner in itself. From a weissfeldrigen condition field the lady can go diagonally on other white fields and accordingly from a black only on an identical. A number or a line of the chessboard along the lady may do over white andblack fields to be pulled and on any other field be placed, as far as the way is free. Thus the lady is a very agile, fast figure.

It is, under otherwise same conditions, nearly as strongly as two towers together. InPersian one this figure becomes as Vasir (rough: the royal advisor and yard strategist, Wesir) designate, what corresponds to the military-strategic interpretation of the play rather

tower


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The tower can move itself as many as desired fields far in straight lines direction

the towerthe second-strongest figure is in a game of chess. Together with the lady it falls into the category heavy figure. One differentiates with respect to the basic position and with respect to the opening between lady tower and king tower. First is stationed on the lady wing, the whitethe black on a8 stands on the field a1. The latter is stationed on the king wing; the white stands on the field h1, the black on h8.

Course possibilities: A tower may pull on lines and rows in each direction arbitrarily far,without jumping however over other figures. The only exception of it is the castling, with the tower and king to be moved. A tower has only a range limited by the edge of playing field, and it can reach all fields of the Spielbretts.It is possible to set only with tower and king the opposing king matt.

Under otherwise same conditions the tower is therefore substantially stronger than a Springer or Läufer (however it takes at the beginning of the play, v. A. before thatCastling, due to its very much limited mobility a subordinated role). However an individual tower is somewhat weaker than two of these figures. One calls the value difference between a tower and a Springer or Läufer quality. One speaks of quality gain, if one can conquer a tower by giving up of a Springer or Läufers, and of quality victim, if one abandons the quality to favour of other advantages consciously.

runners


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A runner can itself diagonally over any numbermove from fields.

Runners fall into the category light figure or officer. In the game of chess in each case two white and two black runners on the board are at the beginning of a portion. Each party has in each case a weissfeldrigen and a schwarzfeldrigen runner. One differentiatesthe lady runner and the king runner. The white lady runner stands to beginning of play on the field c1, the black on c8. The white king runner stands to beginning of play on the field f1, the black on f8. The so-called pair of runners is very effective,that a pair of Springer or a runner and a Springer is superior usually, since the two runners can act well together. In a final game king and pair of runners against king can be set matte. Runners are langschrittige figures, in oneCourse from a board side to others to arrive know, if all intermediate fields are free. Of unequal-colored runners one speaks, if white possesses a schwarzfeldrigen runner and black its own calls a weissfeldrigen runner or in reverse. These cannot itself mutuallythreaten. One calls a bad runner that runner, which by own farmers, who on fields of the same color as the runner is reduced in its motivity.

Course possibilities:Runners cover on the fields of the own color diagonally arbitrarily farthe board. Over other figures away they may not pull. Runners stand effectively, if as much as possible fields of the board in the next course can serve as target field.

Springer


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Possible Springer courses

Springer fall into the category light figure or officer.A game of chess begins with 2 white and 2 black Springer (also „Ross “or „Rössel “mentioned). The characteristic of Springer is it, over own and opposing figures and farmers „jumps “to be able. A good field for a Springer is therefore inthe rule such, from which this again as much as possible has different course possibilities. There is therefore the proverb:„A Springer at the edge brings grief and violates “ and/or. „A Springer at the edge is one violates “. One differentiates between king Springer andlady Springer.

Course possibilities:The course takes place in such a way that from the output field of Springer as target field always 2 of fields straightforward and then a field comes on the left of or right of it to a halt. Thus Springer is able, all fields of the boardto enter, but for it for example the way from a chessboard side to the other one is a long way. In the center of the board a Springer has the possibility of pulling on maximally 8 fields on the edge of the board is it4 and in a corner of the board of only 2 fields.

The value of a Springer corresponds with 3 farmer units in approximately that of a runner. Particularly in the central play, if still many farmers on the board are, is it thatRunners often consider. With a Springer and a runner it is possible to set matte. With two Springer this is possible only if the opponent makes a gross error; usually the portion in the Patt ends. The opponent has howeverstill another farmer, then it is perhaps possible to set with two Springer matte since by the additional farmer the Patt is waived and perhaps second Springer can checkmate, before the farmer is converted.

Farmer


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Courses of the farmers.
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The white farmer on d5 can strike either the black tower on c6 or black Springer on e6.
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After the black farmer a double step after c5 made and thus actually the threatened field c6behind itself, the white farmer left after can strike c6 and take the black farmers away from the field c5.

The farmer is Spielstein of the game of chess. Each player has eight farmers, the one barrier before the remaining to beginning of portion Figures form. Because of its limited course and impact possibilities the farmer is considered as the weakest stone in chess. In contrast to the remaining figures the farmer can move not backwards, but only forward. However the meaning of the farmer becomes inProcess of a game of chess ever more highly, due to the possibility of being converted with reaching the opposing basic row into a stronger figure. The world chess federation FIDE does not differentiate figure “with respect to its official chess rules between „farmer “and „, nevertheless becomes a farmer colloquiallyfrequently as figure does not designate.

Course possibilities:

  • In the starting position the farmer can move alternatively a step forward, if the target field is empty, or however a double step make, if the field before the farmer and the target field emptyare.
  • The farmer is not in the starting position (2. and/or. 7. Row), then he can move around only one field forward (if he does not strike).
  • The farmer strikes diagonally. The farmer is only Spielstein, thatin another direction than the course direction strikes.
  • The farmer can move only forward. It is only Spielstein, which cannot return on a field already entered.
  • The farmer can strike EN passant.

If the farmer the opposingBasic row enters, then it must itself, when a component of its course into a lady, a tower, runner or Springer of the same color (after the free choice of the player) to convert. One calls a transformation in something else as a lady Unterverwandlung. The farmer is taken from the play, and on the appropriate field the new figure is set. The characteristics of the new figure come into force immediately, this can thus depending upon position z. B. lead to the direct chess matt. ThoseTransformation does not depend on whether the selected figure in the course of the play was struck. In this kind a player can get thus from a kind of figure more copies, than in the basic position are present. Like that it is always memorable, ifone in a portion got for example a third Springer. If one has only one figure set available, this leads naturally to a problem. A second lady becomes therefore in practice - against the rules - in this case usually througha turned tower replaces. Usually the transformation takes place into a lady (the transformation into a king is naturally not permitted).

Is usual in the chess haven, the priority of the other play figures lady, tower, to divide runners and Springer in farmer units so mentioned,to the value of a farmer are based. A farmer has therefore the value of a farmer unit.

In the Persian play the farmer was called „Pyâdah “(„foot soldier “) and explained as such.

Farmers are particularly strong if them:

  • Are in particular not mobile,by opposing farmers on the same line and no opposing farmers on neighbouring lines are blocked give, which could strike the farmer (free farmer).
  • In groups and thus opposing figures before itself arise float and mutually to cover itself know.
  • Far advancedit is whereby the Potenzial becomes more important the transformation.

playing

it wins the player that the opposing king chess matt (Persian: Schah = „the king is mat dead “) sets. The course, with which the king could be struck, becomesno more implemented. A further possibility for the play gain is the task of the opponent, this is at any time possible. Likewise a player loses the portion, if he exceeds his considering time (it is not, its opponent can even against most awkward playmore checkmate, in this case end the portion remis).

If a player cannot implement an rule-in accordance with-eaten course more and if his king does not stand in chess, then one speaks the portion of a Patt, ends in this case remis (undecided).

notation

algebraic notation

general common is today the algebraic notation. For other forms see the major item chess notation.

The chessboard is occupied with a coordinate system. By recording of the output field and the target field of the individual courses one becomesGame of chess in writing held.

In the detailed algebraic notation the kind of the figure (K = king, D = lady, T = tower, L = runner, S = Springer, for farmers is omitted the indication), the output and the target field are indicated.A list with figure designations in other languages is to be found in the article chessman. Impact courses are marked by „an x “between output and target field. A chess requirement receives „+ “behind the course, a matte „# “. Becomes a farmer into anotherFigure converted, then is indicated the letter of this figure behind the course. The small castling is marked by 0-0, the large castling by 0-0-0. EN-passant-striking becomes by a placed behind e.p. marked.

Examples:

e2-e4 farmer pulls from e2 to e4
Sb1xc3+ of Springer on b1 pulls after c3, strikes the opposing stone and offers chess
Td1-d8# tower pulls from d1 to d8 and sets matt
e7-e8D farmer on e7 pulls after e8 and transforms into a lady
f5xg6 e.p. Farmer f5 strikes the opposing farmer on f5 in passing and draws after f6

shortened one algebraic notation

with the short notation the output field is omitted. If a course is no longer described thereby clearly, then those becomesOriginal line (if this is not identical) or the output row (if both figures on the same line) added.

Examples:

Lc4 runner pulls after c4
Lxc4 runner pulls after c4 and strikes an opposing stone b4
farmer pulls there after b4
axb4 farmer pulls after b4 and strikes there an opposing stone
fxg6 e.p. Farmer f5 pulls after f6 and strikes thereby the opposing farmer on f5 in passing
Sec4 of Springer on the e-line pulls after c4
Sexc4 of Springeron the e-line the tower on
the first row strikes pulls after c7 cxd8D farmer on
c7 strikes on d8 and transforms into a lady [work on]
further markings occasional

finds one

in the literature on c4 T1c7instead of „x “also „: “, for example Sb1: c3+ or L: c4. In the short notation the colon is also sometimes placed behind, for example Lc4:. During striking with a farmer one knows the impact character also omitted, for example ab4 or still more briefly off, if this clearlyis.

rules for chess tournaments

the chess clock

major item: Chess clock

a chess clock serves in tournament chess to limit and indicate the two players the available the considering time. A chess clock has both players for the separatedTime indicators (“clocks”), from which in each case one runs. If a player exceeded it the available the considering time (in tournament chess usually 120 minutes for the first 40 courses), the portion is considered as for him lost.

the Remis

withChess is to be agreed upon it the two players permitted at any time a Remis (undecided). This rule is often criticized as the sense of a match haven contrary constantly.

A play ends also remis if it none of the two players, even with most awkward playthe opponent, is more possible to set matte if 50 courses long no figure were struck and no farmer were moved (50-Züge-Regel), as well as with threefold repetition (not necessarily one behind the other) the same position with the same player at the course and the sameCourse possibilities (castling, EN passant). A more exact representation gives the article Remis.

play results

in tournament chess a player for a won portion to usually 1 point, for each Remispartie receives ½ point. A player,that did not lose its portion receives a point.

the arbitrator

with larger tournaments as well as with crew fights in higher play classes supervises an arbitrator the adherence to the FIDE rules. If a player ignores the rules, the arbitrator has the following capabilities of sanctions: Caution,the portion for lost explain, exclusion of the tournament.

fundamental ideas of the strategy and tactics

portion phases

the first 10 to 15 courses of a game of chess are called opening. The strategic goals during the opening are thoseMobilization of the figures, the security of the king and the control of the center. The openings divided into open plays, half-open ones of plays and closed ones of plays. Farmer victim in the opening, with the goal for it other advantages (z. B. Attackor) to reach, one calls development projection/lead Gambit (chess) (z. B. Scottish Gambit, Damengambit, Königsgambit).

In the central play the players try to affect the play process with the means of the strategy and tactics to their favour. Strategic already admitted andtactical motives facilitate the portion guidance for the chess players.

Only if few figures on the chessboard are, then one speaks of the final game. A strategic goal in the final game is often the transformation of a farmer. With this material predominance the portion can then usuallyeasily to be won.

value of the figures

around a game situation or a play course roughly in terms of figures to judge to be able, become the figures weights, in relation to the farmer:

  • Springer 3 farmer,
  • runner likewise 3 farmer,
  • tower scarcely 5Farmer,
  • lady 9 to 10 farmers.

Since the king can not be struck and its attack strength is strongly situation-dependent, it is not rated.

Although runners and Springer are directly rated, the pair of runners is particularly in the final game stronger than twoSpringer, since it empties field their Machtpotenzial then over that relatively fully exhaust can.

The actual current value of a certain figure depends naturally strongly on its position on the board, in particular of their course possibilities and its covering. In particular hasa farmer, who stands briefly before converting, an accordingly higher value.

victims

as victims one designates the intentional giving Spielsteines up to favour of other strategic or tactical advantages, for example lady victims or tower victims. A special form of theVictim is the Gambit, a farmer victim in the opening for faster development or advantages in the center (for example the Königsgambit 1. e4 e5 2. f4 exf4).

binding


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Nearly genuine binding - white runner binds black lady

one Binding is a perfect or partial restriction of the motivity of a figure by the line of application of an opposing figure, whereby during pulling the bound figure away this line of application behind the bound figure would continue on a second object. This second objectfrequently the king or (uncovered) a figure is, rarer a field (z. B. a matte field).

Binding is one of the most frequent tactical and strategic motives in chess.

If the figure cannot pull because of binding after the rules, then speaksone of a genuine binding. This is exactly the case if the king is the second object and stood thus in chess. If the figure can still along the binding line pull, then one speaks of a nearly genuine binding. If the figure may pull despite binding at will, then one speaks of a false binding.

Spiess

close related to binding is the Spiess: A figure (z. B. King) becomes from a line figure (lady, tower orRunner) attacked and to pulling away in a forced manner. Thus the line of application of the aggressor extends and affects a second object. This object can be (uncovered) a figure or a field (z. B. Matte field).

fork attack

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Fork attack on tower andOne calls lady by white Springer

on f7 a situation, in which a figure attacks two or more figures of the other side at the same time, fork attack or briefly fork. A fork attack, in particular by a farmer or a Springer, can a play-crucial tactical idiom its, if thereby a more valuable figure is conquered. If a Springer offers chess and threatens at the same time two other heavy or light figures, then one speaks of a family chess.

departure chess

if one a figure in such a way drawit can that by their way course the line of application of an own figure standing behind it becomes free on the opposing king, then one speaks of a departure chess. If the taking off figure gives chess for its part, then one speaks of a double chess. Departure chess andDouble chess have often destroying effect, because the opponent must react to the chess requirement and must accept the consequences of the course of the taking off figure. With double chess the king must pull (by the course of another figure to be able not two chess-offering figuresto be struck or both chess requirements at the same time blocked).

matte idioms

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Fool matt

the shortest possible matte is fool matte the two-brisk. 1. f3? e5 2. g4?? Dh4#.

A matte idiom quite frequent in the central play is basicrow matte that: A tower ora lady penetrates on the basic row and sets behind a farmer chain catches king chess matt. A king, to who by an opposing Springer chess is ordered, cannot evade to this chess requirement, if it is enclosed by own figures completely. Can attacking Springer not to be struck, then the king is chess matte. One calls this situation suffocated matte, because the king is suffocated in its restrained environment to a certain extent.

Beginners fall every now and then on shepherd matt in here, with that the lady, ofRunner covered, the farmers on f7 and/or. f2 strikes and matt sets. A further case of opening is sea-cadet matte that. With this idiom white sacrifices its lady, around a speed for a matte attack on the black king remained in the centerto win.

farmers and farmer formations

a large role in the game of chess play position and mobility of the farmers.

A farmer, who can achieve the opposing basic row, without him on the own line or on a directly neighbouring linean opposing farmer opposite stands, is called free farmer. Such a farmer can be only prevented by opposing figures from reaching the opposing basic row and thus from the transformation.

A formation of farmers of one is located in a section of the boardopposite opposing farmers, then one speaks less numerous formation of a farmer majority. The possession of a farmer majority is frequently an advantage, because from it a free farmer can develop.

One calls two farmers of a party standing directly next to each other farmer duo.A farmer duo is a very effective formation, because it controls the four fields present before him. If the farmer duo is mobile, i.e. not by opposing farmers restrained, then it can drive opposing figures apart by its advance and the co-operationthe opposing position destroy.

A farmer, who does not have farmers of the own party on a neighbouring line beside itself, is called isolated farmer. An isolated farmer (Isolani) can be a disadvantage, since he blocks easily from opposing figureswill can: These can establish themselves on the field before it, without being able to be driven out by a farmer. In addition the isolated farmer can be covered only by more valuable figures and not by one „colleagues “.

Two farmers of a color, thoseon a line, calls one stands one behind the other a double farmer. A double farmer is normally a disadvantage, since the two farmers make more difficult mutually covering by own figures and facilitate the blockade at the same time by opposing figures. An isolated double farmer becomesalso as double Isolani, three one behind the other standing isolated farmers are called Tripel Isolani.

Two or more farmer in a diagonal arrangement are very useful for defense. In this farmer chain formation mentioned the next-rear covers in each case for the front farmer. A pair farmeropposite color, which face each other directly and block themselves mutually, one calls a Widder. A pair farmer of opposite color, who stands each other diagonally opposite, so that everyone can strike the other one, calls one a lever. Suitably set leversan important means is, in order to open in chess a blocked position and to actually tear the initiative.

history

chess in Persia

the wheat grain legend reports Dahir of the invention of the game of chess by Sissa ibn.

ThatOne assumes origin of the game of chess in India, where it the designation Chaturanga (speak: Tschaturanga) carried. At the end 6. Century arrived it to Persia. There Chaturanga became then under the name Shatranj (speak: Schatrandsch) admits. It is relatedwith Xiangqi (Chinese chess) in China and Shōgi in Japan. From Persia arrived it in the eastRoman realm (after Konstantinopel) and spread, after the Muslims had conquered Persia, also in the Islamic world until Spain. The Waräger brought the game of chess from Konstantinopel („Miklagard “) to Russia, where it since beginning 8. Century one plays.

In Spain the chess of the Mauren became in 10. Century imported, where in 13. Century on behalf ofAlphonso X. from Spain a famous play manuscript over chess, Backgammon and the cube play, called Libro de loosely Juegos, was written. From there it spread to Italy and into Provence. Therefore also the names of very old openings,for example the Spanish portion and the Italian portion.

In the German literature chess became for the first time mentioned around 1050. The monk Froumund Tegernsee wrote latin novel poem Ruodlieb, in a visitor to yards of the king through in the monasteryits championship in the game of chess attention excited.

Chess belonged since the beginning 13. Century to the seven virtues of the knights. Jacobus de Cessolis wrote at the beginning 14. Century those allegorisch - moral writing De moribus hominum et officiis nobilium super ludoscaccorum, which belongs to the oldest abendländischen sources over the game of chess and was far common in the Middle Ages. In the German language area the play and also the chessboard Schachzabel were called. In its attendants found also volkssprachige Schachallegorien (Schachzabelbücher)widens spreading. In these books it goes less around the technology and rules of the play than around an instructing representation of the life and the society on the basis the figurative comparison with the game of chess.

modern trend rules

Honoré Daumier, Chess player, 1863.

Toward end 15. Century became generally accepted the modern chess rules: Farmers may draw with their first course two fields far, to runners may diagonally arbitrarily far pull (they jumped before exactly 2 fields far), and the ladyit may pull in all 8 directions arbitrarily far (before only 1 field diagonally) whereby it became from the weakest to the most powerful figure on the board.

By these changes won chess at speed, which help it to higher popularity. In Europebecame chess a favourite play of the middle class. Also the rules have themselves since early 19. Century hardly still changes. The most popular figure shape, called being astonished clay/tone, was created 1849 by Nathaniel Cook, by the player Howard being astonished clay/tone leading at that time publicised and taken over 1924 of the world chess federation (FIDE) when its establishment.

As up-to-date (2005) the largest chess tournament of the world the match taking place annually in Hamburg is regarded „right Alsterufer against left Alsterufer “.

label

before beginningand after the end of a portion it is usual that the opponents give themselves the hand. A Verweigerung of the hand impact, as it seemed Karpow and Viktor Kortschnoi for example in one of the world championship fights between Anatoli, is considered as rough Unsportlichkeit.

Master portionsend usually not with one chess matt, but with the task one the player. It applies among chess masters even as impolite to further-pass on in a hopeless situation. In master practice it is also against the label, in clearly worse positions a Remisto offer. In completely balanced positions it is at the struggle-higher player to offer the scoring hurrying.

While the portion is it forbidden disturbing the opponent all the same in which way. In addition also frequent Remisangebote or mobile telephone bells counts. After an older FIDE - guidelineringing a mobile phone of a player led during the portion to the immediate loss. With effect of the 1. The rules forbid July 2005 in principle the taking along of everything, technical devices also switched off, which can serve telecommunications or the data processing, into thatPlay area.

Except in remote chess it is forbidden availing themselves during a portion pieces of advice third or arousing also only such an impression. Since there are meanwhile very strong chess programs, with chess tournaments special meaning is measured out to the monitoring of this rule.Like that it is not permitted to depart without permission of an arbitrator from the fixed tournament area.

Taking of courses back already implemented is not permitted. If a player affects his own figure, he must implement a course with it (affected- led), if there is a rule-fair possibility. This applies also, if an opposing figure is affected - this must be struck. If it wants instead the figure to only adjust, he must communicate that before. But the French has itselfExpression J'adoube in-patriated. Exceptions to affects - led it gives with blind chess and with remote chess.

the modern chess world

of federations and world championships

the international roof federation of the chess players is the FIDE (Fédération international one of theÉchecs), which aligned the official chess world championships since 1948. Starting from 1993 it came to discrepancies; some players deplored themselves over arbitrary decisions of the FIDE and left the organization. 1993 created Garri Kasparow and Nigel Short, as consequence from thatDisputes with the FIDE, the Professional Chess Association (PCA). The PCA was a competition organization to the FIDE and delivered own world championships. First and only PCA world champion became 1993 Garri Kasparow. In the meantime the PCA does not exist any longer.

Good players can do thoselifelong title FIDE masters, international master and large masters acquire, who are assigned of the FIDE according to clearly defined rules. Women can acquire a female version of these titles. These become then as WFM, WIM and WGM (Woman Grand master)designated. The standards, which must be erspielt for these titles, are easier to reach than for the general titles. Very good player inside can reach also both titles. The first woman, who received also the large master title of the men, was Nona Gaprindaschwili.

The play strength of the players becomes after the valuation system, which determines so-called Elo number , developed by professor Arpad Elo into the 1960er years. This valuation number is developed according to scientific methods of the statistics and the probability theory. In Germanyexisted since 1992 the DWZ. One before measured the play strength in the Federal Republic of Germany with the help of the Ingo number (1947 of Anton Hösslinger from Ingolstadt develop, therefore the name „Ingo “), in the GDR by an organization of the players into performance classesand the NWZ (chess).

See also: Chess world champion

computer chess

since it mechanical calculating machines gives, one also chess computers built. With arising ever faster computer and sophisticated software gives it todayon a PC running chess programs, which are far superior to the average player. In the meantime one can play hochklassiges chess also on mobile telephone , PDA and other Handheld.

The particularly developed chess machine Deep Blue of IBM estimated 1997 in a matchsix portions with tournament considering time even the chess world champion at that time Kasparow. Many critics had already very much in former times prophesied the end of the human superiority after the defeat Kasparows, but in the meantime many large masters train special anti-computer chess by computers. Itit appears however that humans cannot exist on a long-term basis against the constantly increasing computing strength of the computers. There the game of chess in the western world a deep cultural meaning attained and a controlling of the play with Fantasie and intelligence, has the triumphant advance of the computer in this kind of sport a noticeable psychological effect is associated.

It remains open whether the computers, whose play strength constantly rises will make the game of chess uninteresting in foreseeable time. The number of the specialists, those the imminent final victorythe programs over each human player forecast, constantly grows. However there are also voices, which state, the top players became equally better like the computer programs. Others argue that even with unbesiegbaren computer programs the game of chess did not become uninteresting - finallyhumans would measure also still in the Sprint or marathon race, although each motorized vehicle was faster.

Strategically humans can against a computer with maneuvers put on on a long-term basis, whose beginning for the computer is first not recognizable in the context of its computing depth,successfully operate. Stuff NIC had against Deep Fritz z. B. Success with a possible Durchmarsch of a free farmer put on on a long-term basis, who - first not yet far pulled - was too late recognized of Deep Fritz only as serious threat.

Inkorrekte combinatorial attacksare a little promising in the play against computers (contrary to the play between humans).

See also: Computer chess, chess computer, chess server, chess program

special chess forms

apart from different chess variants, which possess partly different boards and figures, gives itthe following special chess forms.

  • On-line chess over a chess server. In the Internet there is a set of chess sides, on which chess is offered against other persons. Similarly as with the German valuation number (DWZ) and the ELO number good chess servers usually determinefor each player its play strength. Although the valuation numbers cannot be compared directly with one another, they make it for the player possible to find on the server an opponent of its play strength. Usual is it also that the players can converse with one another (Chat) and plays mutually to analyze can.
  • Remote chess. As is the case for on-line chess the opponents are also here spatial from each other separately. However the considering time amounts to usually between 30 to 60 days for 10 courses. The courses become either over Internetor postal to the opponent conveys. With remote chess it - contrary to remaining chess - is usual and permitted, chess programs, to use data bases and books. Also remote chess is played frequently on-line on a chess server.
  • Simultaneous chess: A playerstart against several opponents at the same time. Usually thereby the single player is substantially stronger than its opponents. For example a large master often plays against many amateurs. The largest simultaneous meeting found to 19. November 1966 in Havanna instead of. 380 chess mastersplayed against in each case 18 opponents at 6.840 boards. 1929 played Tartakower simultaneously in the airplane on the flight between Budapest and Barcelona. If a simultaneous meeting with limited considering time is delivered, one speaks of the Handicap simultaneous. The world record in simultaneous chess becomes at present (August2005) of Zsuzsa (326 portions) held.
  • Blind chess: With blind chess play one of the two or two players without opinion of the board. A combination of simultaneous and blind chess is blind simultaneous chess.
  • Consulting portions: Here a party consists of severalPlayers, who deny themselves - advised - may. Such consulting portions were in and the 30's 20's quite like.
  • High-speed chess and lightning chess: The permissible considering time is clearly reduced thereby. This chess form gained clearly in the past significance,surely not least because of the medium-fairer Spieldauer. The difference lies particularly in the considering time: With high-speed chess each player has usually 5 minutes between 15 and 60 minutes considering time, with lightning chess. On the numerous chess servers is also oneextremely shortened considering time common by only one minute (for the whole portion), this variant is called Bullet. The shorter the considering time is, the more steps the strategic aspects of the play into the background.
  • Tournament-simultaneously or TUSI. The fatherthis form of the play is Eugen Thüner. Here at 10 boards in a set of 5 players at the same time in each case 4 portions of everyone against everyone easily with altogether 1 hour considering time. Everyone has white in 2 portions and in 2other black. It assigned board sides are marked by a color chart. The last in each case course is marked with a over-put ring. In principle can be played tournament-simultaneously also with a deviating number of participants (and therefore also with a deviating board number). ThatWorld record is with 26 participants, to 20. May 2000 in the town hall Ditzingen one on the other met.
  • Tandem chess. With tandem chess in each case two 2er teams begin against each other. A player with white and a player start also black. Strikesa player an opposing figure, then is handed over these to his team colleague. This may set this figure then instead of its own course on a free field.

see also

literature

general chess literature

encyclopedias

  • Otto Borik (Hrsg.): Meyers chess encyclopedia. Meyers encyclopedia publishing house, Mannheim 1993, ISBN 3-411-08811-7
  • David Hooper, Kenneth Whyld: The Oxford Companion ton of Chess. Oxford University press1992, ISBN 0-19-866164-9
  • Isaak and Vladimir Linder: Chess: the encyclopedia. Sport publishing house, Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-328-00665-6
  • Klaus Lindörfer: Large chess encyclopedia. History, theory and play practice of A-Z. Orbis, Munich 1991, ISBN 3-572-02734-9

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