|of box stems|
The department contains only the kind box stem (Equisetum), whose kinds with exception of a tropical kind do not become higher than 1.8 meters.
The today's box stems are the last survivors of a formerly species-rich group of the container pore plants, the Equisetopsida. To this Taxon the Calamiten ( Calamitaceae) belonged, which admits by fossils from the Permian and carbon is. They were fell trees, reached to30 meters height and 1 meter of master diameters and formed an important component of the hard coal forests.
Box stems grow often on damp soils or in the water. In addition, the horsetail is considered as field weeds, is an important welfare plant.
Box stems are of several yearsPlants, which spread vegetativy from their Rhizom.
They are to be recognized easily by their rungs. Each branch is composed of a set of knot (Nodien) with dazwischenliegenen Internodien. At each knot inconspicuous sheets (Mikrophylle) rise, andsome kinds also Seitensprosse. These are landlord-lie arranged.
The name box stem therefore agitates that one can pull and again back-put the branch axle out of the sheath formed by the sheets. Rhizome become long to 6m. The Vermehrung is by Ausläufer andeven by individual, zerhackte pieces of branch possible.
The Sporenbehälter (Sporangien) is to 5-10 at the lower surface of the Sporangienträger (“Sporophylle”), which look like one-legged small tables. These are schraubig in zapfenförmigen Sporophyllständen arranged to the branch psi TZE. The Sporen always are equivalent arranges, independent of the sex (Isosporie). The fossil Calamiten was partially heterospor, so that one assumes the Heterosporie was lost. They possess two volumes (Hapteren) with spatelförmigen ends, those at the external layer (Exospor)in the damp condition are wound around the Spore. If the Sporen drain, then the Hapteren unfolds and causes thus a Verklettung among themselves. Some kinds have the Sporophyllstände at the green rungs, others have special (does not become green) rung exclusive forthe Vermehrung.
A characteristic of the box stems is the storage of silicate (as lignin replacement) into the cell wall. The plant contains silicic acid up to 7%. These storages make box stems a gentle scrubbing means (tin herb).
Arzneilich become thoseunfruchtbaren summer whisk as urine-driving means, with rheumatism, inflammations, renal disease, urine semolina uses; in former times also with TBC. After Kneipp very astringent Kraft, blood, stomach, kidneys and blister cleans, also outwardly cleaning and astringent with excursion and wounds.
- (Equisetum giganteum)
- (Equisetum myriochaetum)
- Ästiger box stem (Equisetum ramosissimum)
- (Equisetum debile)
- winter box stem (Equisetum hyemale)
- (Equisetum laevigatum)
- multicolored box stem (Equisetum variegatum)
- (Equisetum of scirpoides)
- pond box stem (Equisetum fluviatile)
- sump box stem (Equisetum palustre)
- (Equisetum diffusum)
- (Equisetum bogotense)
- forest box stem (Equisetum sylvaticum)
- meadow box stem (Equisetum pratense)
- horsetail (Equisetum arvense)
- giant box stem (Equisetum telmateia)
- Rauer box stem (Equisetum x trachyodon)
- Bank box stem (Equisetum x litorale)
see also: Systematics of the Pflanzenreiches