Chess world champion
the world-best players forwardsIntroduction of the world championship fights
in 16. Century there were the best players of the world of the Spaniards Ruy López de Segura ( around 1560) and after it the Italians Paolo Boi , Leonardo Cutri (around 1575) and Alessandro Salvio (around 1600), beginning with that 17. Century starting from approximately 1620 then Gioacchino Greco.
In 18. The Italians with Domenico Lorenzo Ponziani, Ercole del Rio and Giambattista Lolli theoreticians pointing the way muster century, but France possessed the practically better playersand Italy ran off in this connection rank. The Frenchmen Kermuy Sire de Legal (1730 - 1745), André Danican Philidor (1745 - 1795), Alexandre Louis Honoré Lebreton Deschapelles (1800 - 1820) and Louis Charles Mahé deLa Bourdonnais (1820 - 1840) became detached itself as world-best players mutually. Celebrity attained La Bourdonnais by 6 sequential matches (altogether 85 portions) against the Irish Alexander MacDonnell in London 1834, which the Frenchman won.
Afterto the match victory of the Englishman Howard being astonished clay/tone over the Frenchman Pierre Saint Amant in Paris 1843 now England was considered as the first chess nation. Being astonished clay/tone was it also, that itself considerably for the execution of the first international chess tournament at all, on the occasion of the world exhibition 1851in London, began. Surprisingly the English Vorkämpfer did not win, but it triumphed the up to then completely unknown German Adolf Anderssen one from Breslau.
Anderssens one victory before being astonished clay/tone let it apply now in the chess world than world-best player. 1858 played Andersseninto of Paris a match against the American Paul Morphy. Morphy achieved a shining victory, the American terminated however soon thereafter its chess career so that Anderssen one applied now again than prominent master of the world.
the time of the world championship fights
after its overwhelming victory with the large international tournament in London 1883 (before Steinitz) regarded itself Johannes Hermann Zukertort as Champion OF the World and provoked Steinitz' claim to leadership. The chess world expected a duel of these rivals and got it: By its 12,5:7,5 - victory (+10-5=5) over Zukertort in the match of the 11. January up to 29. March 1886, that in New York, Pc. Louis and new Orleans took place, is generally considered William Steinitz as the 1. Chess world champion.
after Steinitz' match victory was some challengers, which wanted to play with him around the world championship. Until 1948 alone the world champion, whose decided challenge it assumed and whom he refused a world championship fight. The title owner determined the conditions andprize money nearly as desired.
In particular during the time Emanuel Laskers on the world champion throne was criticized this often, there worthy opponents not or after negotiations of many years to the course did not only come.
José Raúl Capablanca tried to introduce 1922 clear rules, ofits potential challengers (Alexander Aljechin, Efim Bogoljubow, Géza Maróczy, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Réti, Akiba ruby stone, Savielly Tartakower and Milan Vidmar) were accepted. It consisted of 21 paragraphs, those in December 1923 in the American Chess bulletinwere printed. The main points were:
- The title owner must defend its title within a yearly, if it is provoked by a recognized master, if this deposits a price fund of at least 10,000 dollar guaranteed and 500 dollar first as security. The world championhowever the right has to specify the exact date for the beginning of the match.
- From prize money go 20 per cent to the title owner, which remainder distributed in the relationship 60:40 between winners and losers of the match.
- The match goes on six profit portions,Remis do not count. The considering time is 150 minutes for 40 courses. After five hours play time gives it a hanging portion.
The successor Capablancas as a world champion, Alexander Aljechin, adhered formally to these rules, to a back fight with Capablanca went hebut thus from the way that it the challenges of other players always given preference.
The world championship of the world chess federation FIDE was aligned from 1948 to 1993. The respective challenger of the world champion became by a multi-level qualification system (regional zone tournaments, interzone tournament and candidate tournament) determines.
After Kasparow was ready no longer 1993 to defend its title under the auspice of the FIDE the condition usual before 1948 reset itself. Kasparow defended its title after its own conditions. 2000 it lost it onthe world champion Vladimir stuff NIC officiating now. Parallel for this the FIDE organizes an official world championship, whose winner is however not generally recognized as world-best players.
An attempt to combine the two world champion titles again was from the American large master Yasser Seirawan initiated conventions of Prague, which to 6. May 2002 of Garri Kasparow, Vladimir stuff NIC and Kirsan Iljumschinow, which presidents of the FIDE, one signed. This failed meanwhile, since planned qualification matches did not come.
1. World champion: William Steinitz (1886 - 1894)
Steinitz was not a fighter nature and shrank from an argument. Like already before the match with Zukertort he selected himself again the most successful and its position in the chess world at the earliest threatening player to the fightaround the world champion title.
- The first title defense of 20. January up to 24. February 1889 in Havanna it won 10,5:6,5 (+10-6=1) against Mikhail Tschigorin.
- 6 ½ for second title defense of 9. December 1890 up to 22. January 1891 in New York against Isidor Gunsberg on and won 10,5:8,5 (+6-4=9).
- of the 1. January up to 28. February 1892 defended Steinitz its title again successfully in Havanna against Mikhail Tschigorin with 12,5:10,5 (+10-8=5).
- in the match of 15. March up to 26. May 1894 in New York, Philadelphia and Montréal Steinitz the recent German talent had to give itself Emanuel Lasker 7:12 (+5-10=4) struck.
2. World champion: Dr. Emanuel Lasker (1894 - 1921)
Lasker was altogether 27 years from 1894 to 1921 world champions. Its outstanding position in the chess world of that time is undisputed. However was its world championship alsoby the fact coined/shaped that it knew to go to duels of uncertain exit through setting up only with difficulty fulfilling conditions out of the way. Thus it did not come to a match with the Polish master Akiba ruby stone, wished by the chess world. ThatKräftemessen mit José Raúl Capablanca fand erst 1921 statt.
In detail Lasker played the still following world championship fights after its victory over Steinitz 1894:
- Of 7. November 1896 up to 14. January 1897 gave it in Moscow a revenge fight against Steinitz, thatLasker again for itself to decide could. Final result: 12,5-4,5 (+10-2=5)
- 1907 (delivered of 26. January to 6. April) triumphed to Lasker over thatAmerican franc marshal. Final result: 11,5-3,5 (+8-0=7). Was played in different cities of the USA (New York town center, Philadelphia, Washington, Baltimore, Chicago and Memphis).
- 1908 (duration: of 17. August to 30. November) defeated the world champion its German rival Siegbert Tarrasch. The cities Duesseldorf and Munich divided the adjustment. Final result: 10,5-5,5 (+8-3=5)
- of 19. November to 9. December 1909 could become generally accepted Lasker in Paris superior against David Janowski. Final result: 8-2 (+7-1=2)
- of 7. January to 10. February 1910 defended Lasker its title against Carl bad. ThatMatch ended undecided, which was sufficient for title defense. Final result: 5-5 (+1-1=8). Play places were Vienna and Berlin.
- 1921 (15. March to 28. April) was subject to Lasker the Cuban master José Raúl Capablanca in Havanna. Final result: 5-9 (+0-4=10). Lasker broke through the matchTask off, since it did not get along with the tropical climate.
3. World champion: José Raúl Capablanca (1921 - 1927)
Capablanca dominated the chess tournaments into the 1920er years andwas particularly famous for his deep positional understanding. Of 16. September up to 29. November 1927 came it into Buenos Aires to the long-waited match around the world championship against Alexander Aljechin, which Capablanca lost with 15,5-18,5 (+3-6=25). In thatIt tried future in vain to induce Aljechin to a revenge fight.
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 result ½ ½ ½ ½ 0 ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ 1 ½ ½ 0 ½ 0 15 ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ 1 ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ 0 ½ ½ 1 ½ 1 18 ½
4. World champion: Alexander Aljechin (1927 - 1935, 1937 - 1946)
by its spectacular victory over Capablanca mounted Aljechin 1927 the chess throne. Although he had promised its predecessor a revenge match, Aljechin evaded in the next years Capablancaand a back fight did not come off. Instead it played the following matches:
- Of 6. September up to 17. November 1929 it successfully defended its title against Efim Bogoljubow. Final result: 15,5-9,5 (+11-5=9). The match partly became in the Netherlands (differentPlaces) and Germany (likewise at different places) easily.
- of the 1. April up to 14. It began June 1934 again against Bogoljubow, which had again no serious chance against Aljechin. Final result: 15,5-10,5 (+8-3=15). Different cities of Germany were aligners.
- 1935 (match duration: 3. October to 15. Decembers) it lost its world champion title at max of Euwe. Final result: 14,5-15,5 (+8-9=13). One played in different Netherlands cities.
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 result ½ 1 ½ ½ 1 0 0 ½ ½ ½ 0 0 1 ½ ½ ½ 14 ½ ½ 0 ½ ½ 0 1 1 ½ ½ ½ 1 1 0 ½ ½ ½ 15 ½
- 1937 succeeded it to it in the revenge fight against Euwe to recover its title. Final result: 15,5-9,5 (+10-4=11). One played of 5. October up to 7. December again in different Netherlands cities.
to further matchesit did not come during the Second World War. 1946 died Aljechin, which accuses Kollaboration with the Germans and the Antisemitismus, in Portugal.
5. World champion: Professor Dr. Max Euwe (1935 - 1937)
the Dutchman Machgielis (max) Euwe could by itsVictory over Aljechin two years long the world champion title for itself stress. He was the only amateur, who had the title chess world champion.
Thereby it was suited also as one of the candidates for the world championship tournament of 1948, with which it itselfhowever to intersperse was not able.
the world championship tournament of 1948
by death Alexander Aljechins became the way freely for the adjustment of the world championship fights by the world chess federation (FIDE). Of the FIDE gekürte and as such alsogenerally recognized world champions (the FIDE appointed already 1928 Efim Bogoljubow the official champion of the FIDE) in the world championship tournament 1948 one determined, which could decide Mikhail Botwinnik for itself.
At the tournament, organizes from the 1. March up to 18. May 1948 in the Hague and Moscow, participated beside Mikhail Botwinnik Paul Keres, Wassili Smyslow, Samuel Reshevsky and ex world champion max of Euwe. That originally also as a participant planned American large masters Reuben Fine did without. The five participants played everyone approximatelyeach 5 portions. Final result:
the world championshipsthe FIDE until 1990
the new Weltmeisterschaftsregelment planned that the world champion had to defend its title every three years. The respective challenger was determined by zone, interzone and candidate tournaments.
Until 1963 applied besides the rule that the world champion in case ofa title loss a revenge right one year later to be entitled should.
6. World champion: Dr. Mikhail Botwinnik (1948 - 1957, 1958 - 1960, 1961 - 1963)
after the FIDE regulation played offering vienna NIC the following title fights:
- Of 15. March up to the 11. May 1951 defended offering vienna NIC its title in Moscow against the winner for the first time officially of the FIDE of aligned candidate tournament David Bronstein. The world champion kept his title after undecided fight. Final result: 12-12 (+5-5=14)
- of 16. March up to 13. May 1954 playedOffering vienna NIC against Wassili Smyslow undecided, which it just like 1951, which title secured. Final result: 12-12 (+7-7=10), play place was Moscow.
- 1957 lost offering vienna NIC its title at Smyslow. Final result: 9,5-12,5 (+3-6=13). One played of 2. March up to 27. April in Moscow.
- of 4. March up to 8. May 1958 succeeded to offering vienna NIC in Moscow the revenge against Smyslow. Final result: 12,5-10,5 (+7-5=11)
- of 15. March up to 7. May 1960 began offering vienna NIC against Mikhail Tal . Final result: 8,5-12,5 (+2-6=13). Mikhail Tal became new world champion.
- 1961 succeeded to offering vienna NIC, of 15. March up to 12. May in Moscow out easily, again the revenge. Final result: 13-8(+10-5=6)
- 1963 began offering vienna NIC to the last WM-fight. The FIDEthe regulation changed and took to the world champion the privilege of the revenge fight. Offering vienna NIC was subject of 23. March up to 22. May in Moscow the Armenian large master Tigran Petrosjan with the final result 9.5-12.5 (+2-5=15).
7. World champion: Wassili Smyslow (1957 - 1958)
the runner-up of the world championship tournament of1948 could defeat offering vienna NIC 1957 in the world championship fight, were subject to the old world champion however one year later with the revenge fight planned by the statutes.
8. World champion: Mikhail Tal (1960 - 1961)
young Mikhail Tal was considered as “fire head” underthe chess masters of its time. 1960 it succeeded against world champion offering vienna NIC. At the general surprise however owing to its precise match preparation again the revenge succeeded to the by far older offering vienna NIC.
9. World champion: Tigran Petrosjan (1963 - 1969)
1963 succeededit Petrosjan, one of the best defensive players of chess history to strike offering vienna NIC. Afterwards Petrosjan played the following matches:
- 1966, of the 11. April to 9. June in Moscow, he successfully defended his title against Boris Spasski. Final result: 12,5-11,5 (+4-3=17)
- in the matchof 1969 (14. April to 17. June likewise in Moscow), he lost the title to a this time far better prepared Spasski. Final result: 10,5-12,5 (+4-6=13)
10. World champion: Boris Spasski (1969 - 1972)
Spasskys world championship took three years up to thatmuch-considered match with the American chess genius Robert James “Bobby” Fischer.
- Of the 11. July up to 31. August 1972 found in Reykjavík the world championship fight between the Soviet citizen Spasski, high-representative by the mass media for the fight of the systems and match of the centuryand the American Fischer instead of: Robert Fischer became high-superior new chess world champion with the final result 12.5-8.5 (+7-3=11, whereby Fischer the 2. Portion because of nonappearance combatless lost).
11. World champion: Robert James (Bobby) Fischer (1972 - 1975)
the world championship of Fischer was strongly cheered in the west. To the fascination, thosethe chess genius Fischer radiated associated the satisfaction over the fact that an American had succeeded to penetrate into the domain of the Soviet chess school.
Fischer's conquest of the chess throne proved very surprisingly at the same time as the end of his career: The American pulled himselffrom chess back and in the year 1975 not against from the FIDE determined challenger Anatoli Karpow defended its title. Long negotiations preceded the renouncement of Fischer over the modalities in the match regulation. The FIDE was not ready for FischerTo align conditions (play on 10 profits, Remis do not count, with the conditions of 9-9 the match as undecided broken off) the match.
12. World champion: Anatoli Karpow (1975 - 1985)
after Fischer did not begin to the world championship fight 1975, becameChallenger Karpow of FIDE president Euwe combatless to the world champion proclaims. As a world champion Karpow played the following matches:
- Of 16. July up to 17. October 1978 played Karpow against Viktor Kortschnoi in Baguio on the Philippines around the world championship. The FIDE changed thatRegulation - no more 24 portions easily to separate a match on 6 profits, Remis counted not. The final result read 16.5-15.5 (+6-5=21) for the title defender.
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 result 1 ½ ½ ½ 0 ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ 1 0 0 ½ 0 1 16 ½ 0 ½ ½ ½ 1 ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ 1981 Karpow won 0 1 1 ½
- 1 0 15 again against Kortschnoi. Final result: 11-7 (+6-2=10). One played from the 1. October up to 19. November in Meran.
- a 1984 world championship fight begun against Garri Kasparow was broken off at the beginning of of 1985 after a multiplicity of portions. In the case of abort of the match Karpow lay in guidance, was however obviously fastened, sothat the abort as a promotion of the world champion opposite its young rival was generally regarded. One played, like 1978 and 1981, on six profits, Remis counted not. Final result: 25-23 (+5-3=40). Play place was since 1969 for the first time again Moscow. The matchbegan to 10. September 1984 and became to 14. February 1985 of the FIDE president Florencio Campomanes (against FIDE regulation) broken off.
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 result ½ ½ 1 ½ ½ ½ ½ 0 ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ 0 0 25 ½ ½ 0 ½ ½ ½ ½ 1 ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ 1 1 23
- of the 3. September up to 9. November 1985 became the match under a new regulation (24 portions. Winner was repeated, who made 12 ½ points) in Moscow. Karpow had itself Kasparow struckgive. Final result: 11-13 (+3-5=16).
13. World champion: Garri Kasparow (1985 - 1993)
under the line of the FIDE played Kasparow the first following matches:
- Of 28. July up to 8. October 1986 played Kasparow in London (first 12 portions) and Leningrad(last 12 portions) a revenge match against Karpow. Karpow was subject again. Final result: 12,5-11,5 (+5-4=15).
- 1987 it defended its title again against Karpow, this time by an undecided. Play place was Sevilla, one played of 12. October up to 18. December. Final result: 12-12(+4-4=16).
- Of 8. October up to 31. Decembers 1990 played the two continuous rivals their last match around the world championship. The first half took place in New York town center , the last 12 portions in Lyon was played. Final result: 12,5-11,5 (+4-3=17) for Kasparow.
- 1993it came to the break between Kasparow and the world chess organization. Kasparow refused, under which financial conditions of the FIDE around the world championship to play again and became thereupon together with Nigel Short, its challenger for 1993, of the FIDE this-qualifies.The two players were in the consequence considerably involved in the establishment of their own chess federation, the Professional Chess Association (PCA). From this in both federations rivaling world champion was determined.
the world championships outside of the FIDE (classical world championship)
13. World champion: Garri Kasparow (1993 - 2000)
- of 6. September up to 21. October 1993 its title (in one of the PCA veranstaltenen match) in London against the Britisher Nigel Short with the final result of 12,5-7,5(+6-1=13).
- 1995 (of the 11. September up to 13. October in New York town center) the next PCA supported match took place: the Indian Viswanathan Anand began against Kasparow. Final result: 10,5-7,5 for Kasparow (+4-1=12).
in the year 2000
- Kasparow its title defended 7 again. The fall of the PCA led with itself that no challenger for the world champion was determined. Kasparows opponent Vladimir stuff NIC was since Aljechins days the first challenger, that the world championselected itself. That and like - to reach without only one victory - Kasparow lost his title at stuff NIC, generally as sensational one regarded. One played of 8. October up to 2. November in London. Final result: 6,5-8,5(+0-2=13).
14. World champion: Vladimir stuff NIC (since 2000)
- of 15. September up to 18. October 2004 defended stuff NIC against by the candidate tournament of Braingames qualified Hungary Péter Lékó its title in Brissago by an undecided. Final result: 7-7 (+2-2=10).
FIDE world championships since 1993
after the FIDE the acting world champion and his determined challenger this-qualifies, at the same time with the PCA Weltmeisterschaftskampf “replacement” had - a WM was accomplished. The FIDE nominated the two last opponents of Nigel Short in the candidate fights, January Timman and Anatoli Karpow.
- 1993 defeated Karpow the Dutchman Timman with 12,5-8,5.
The FIDE let its world champion intervene already 1995 in the semi-final of the candidate fights. Karpow defeated Boris gel-found with 6-3, before it
- came 1996 to the world championship fight (at the same time the candidate final) Karpows against Gata Kamsky (10,5-7,5), which was the last WM-fight in the history of the FIDE at the same time.
From 1997 to 2004 K found. - o.- Tournaments around the FIDE world championship instead of(the FIDE has this WM in the meantime for future meetings to the “World Cup” renamed), of the “classical” world championships by the fact it differed that without a comprehensive qualification and was lowered clearly the portion number did. A tournament after K. - o. - Rules with 128 participants, accomplishedwithin fewer weeks, should the FIDE world champion determine. One played on a very short distance (in the first rounds two tournament portions per match, starting from the semi-final 4 tournament portions, in the final 6 tournament portions). On getting ahead with resembling and fast very often decidedand lightning portions.
With the first tournament in this form, in Groningen, in December
- 1997, Karpow received the privilege as a title defender still into the final, which was out-played in January 1998 in Lausanne, to be set. It defeated Anand, thatWinner of the K. - o. - Competition, in two 25-Minuten-Partien with 2-0, after the regular match ended after tournament portions of 3-3. This privilege of the title defender became with the following K. - o. - World championships no longer applied, since by the players it was heftigst criticized that the world champion underother physical conditions start and a tremendous advantage over the challenger, which has several weeks of heaviest qualification fights behind itself, possesses. Karpow participated since then only once (2001/02 in its hometown Moscow) in this meeting.
The second K. - o. - Tournament around thoseFIDE world championship found
- 1999 in read Vegas . None of the favorites could become generally accepted. Alexander Chalifman , which defeated Vladimir Akopian with 3,5-2,5 in the final, became surprising world champions.
The third meeting found
- 2000 in New Delhi, the final in Teheraninstead of. This time one of the favorites became generally accepted: Anand struck Alexei Schirow in the final with 3,5-0,5.
The fourth K. - o-competition took place one year later. To the turn of the year
- 2001/2002 in Moscow there was again a surprise: the young Ukrainer Ruslan Ponomarjow won in the final against its compatriot Wassyl Iwantschuk with 4,5-2,5.
- Violently the FIDE was criticized after the WM-tournament for the introduction of a new, drastically shortened, considering time: the play speed amounts to since 2002 with official FIDE tournaments (WM, Olympiad, youth WM etc.)90 minutes for 40 courses and 15 minutes for the remainder of the portion, additionally are added 30 seconds for each implemented course. The “classical” considering time, those still on international (not FIDE) tournaments applies and from the predominant majority for thatPlayer is favored (in accordance with a ChessBase - inquiry 80%) is 2 hours for 40 courses, 1 hour for the next 20, then 1 or a half hour for the remainder. With some tournaments it gives in the 7. Play hour still oneadditional impact of 30 seconds per course, like z. B. with the two world championship fights, which stuff NIC played.
The fifth and last one of these meetings 2004
- in Tripoli took place itself , where there was the up to then largest surprise, than the Usbeke Rustam Kasimjanov the title got. It defeated the Britisher Michael Adam in the final with 1,5-0,5 in two due 25-Minuten-Partien become, since the conditions were after regular tournament portions 3-3. At this most disputed all FIDE-K. - o. - Tournaments participated however only very few world class players.On the one hand by the Libyan government all Israeli and Jewish chess players were boycotted, on the other hand one a disputed contract of the FIDE, which left the participants in the uncertain one over a remuneration of their expenses, was reason for numerous refusals.
The FIDE Schachweltmeisterschaft
- 2005 found of 27. September to 16. October in San Luis (Argentina) instead of. The FIDE took distance from the disputed K.O system and organized for the first time since 1948 a round tournament, which should the world champion cures. Also on the violently criticized shortened considering time those did withoutFIDE in dem Turnier, das mit der klassischen Bedenkzeitregelung von 2 Stunden/40 Züge danach 1 Stunde/20 Züge und 1 Stunde für den Rest ausgespielt wurde. Eight players were invited; beside the title defender Rustam Kasimjanow also Vladimir stuff NIC and Garri Kasparow.Since stuff NIC this tournament not when WM and the combination contract of the competitive world championships regarded as of the FIDE broken, he did not accept the invitation, equally also Kasparow, which had terminated its career, called off. Eight players participated,in 14 rounds in each case two the portions to play against each other had. The Bulgare Wesselin Topalow won the tournament ungeschlagen with 1,5 points projection/lead on Viswanathan Anand and Pjotr Swidler, after it an outstanding achievement in the first half requiredhad, by obtaining 6.5 points from the first 7 portions, and in the second half all remaining portions remisierte.
Sign VA HP AT the PL RK mA JP points Wesselin Topalow ## ½ ½ 1 ½ 1 ½ 1 ½ 1 ½ 1 ½ 1 ½ 10 Viswanathan Anand ½ ½ ## ½ ½ 0 ½ ½ 1 01 1 ½ 11 8 ½ Pjotr Swidler 0 ½ ½ ½ ## 11 1 ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ 1 ½ 8 ½ Alexander Morosewitsch 0 ½ 1 ½ 00 ## ½ 1 ½ 1 ½ ½ ½ ½ 7 Peter Leko 0 ½ ½ 0 0 ½ ½ 0 ## ½ 1 1 ½ 1 ½ 6 ½ Rustam Kasimjanov 0 ½ 10 ½ ½ ½ 0 ½ 0 ## ½ ½ 01 5 ½ Michael Adam 0 ½ 0 ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ 0 ½ ½ ½ ## ½ ½ 5 ½ Judit 0 ½ 00 0 ½ ½ ½ 0 ½ 10 ½ ½ ## 4 ½
List of the chess world champions (in continuity of the person since Steinitz)
(note: This organization is disputed, since to “continuity” partly different standards are imposed. Thus Fischer refused defending its title against Karpow whereupon the title 1975 combatless at Karpowwent. 1993 Kasparow and its challenger Short of the FIDE this-qualified, after they created a Konkurrenzorganistion to the FIDE, those the patronage over their match took over to aquirieren (around more prize moneys for itself (Kasparov&Short)). The FIDE led with the executiona “replacement WM” to splitting of the chess world prevailing today. Attempts to introduce a combination of the titles failed so far.)
|William Steinitz||the 1886-1894||Austria Hungary/USA|
|José Raúl Capablanca||1921-1927||Cuba|
|max of Euwe||The 1935-1937||Netherlands|
|Bobby Fischer||the 1972-1975||USA|
|Vladimir stuff NIC||since 2000||Russia|
list of the chess world champions (determines by the FIDE)
|Bobby Fischer||the 1972-1975||USA|
|Wesselin Topalow||since 2005||Bulgaria|
Remark: 1928 arranged the FIDE their first official world championship out: a match between Efim Bogoljubow and max of Euwe (result: 5,5-4,5), again 1929 between the two same opponents (result: 5,5-4,5). Bogoljubow won both world championships. On that 5. Congress of the FIDE, 1928 in Amsterdam - at that the world championAlexander Aljechin also participated -, Bogoljubow of the titles champions of the FIDE was lent. (see. Isaak and Vladimir Linder: The chess genius Aljechin, Berlin 1992, S.197.)
chess world champions
|Vera Menchik||1927-1944||Czechoslovakia/Great Britain|
|Nona Gaprindaschwili||1962–1978||UdSSR (Georgien)|
|Maja Tschiburdanidse||1978–1991||UdSSR (Georgien)|