single record
A record is a round, usually black disk, on the clay/tone is similarly noted. The Schallsignale are stored in a spiral, for the center of the plate running groove, whose deflection the sound corresponds to amplitude. Usually becomes both on thatFront and on the back of the record noted. The formats long playing record (also LP for Long Play called) are most frequent and single, on which per side only one music piece is noted usually. During the recording becomeweakened from physical reasons the heights raised (pre-emphasis) and the depths, with which rendition must the frequency response is again rückentzerrt. In addition there is a standardized characteristic after RIAA. For the Entzerren one uses a Entzerrvorverstärker or a special pick-up. Crystal sensing systems do not need additional Entzerrvorverstärker, since them the frequency response by their physical characteristics of itself from entzerren.

table of contents

history of the record

to prehistory

Edison Home Phonograph mit Wachswalze, ca. 1899
Edison Home Phonograph with wax roller, approx. 1899

forerunners of the record was theoretically first of Charles Cros described, 1877 independently of Thomas Alva Edison of Cros again invented and Phonograph announced to the patent. The tones were stored thereby on a wax cylinder with more helically clay pure, whereby the principle of amplitude deflection first directly acoustically without electricalTransformation was used.

Charles Sumner Tainter

already in the year 1880 makes the US-American physicist Charles Sumner Tainter the discovery that many technical disadvantages of the Edison' rollers could be eliminated, if one clay-purely spiral into the surfacea flat, round disk would engrave. Tainter developed the prototypes of an appropriate photograph apparatus and manufactured some taped wax plates, gave the attempts however due to technical problems after short time. Tainters wax plates are today in the Smithsonian of institutes inWashington; they are considered as the first records of the world.

Emil citizen of Berlin

independent of Tainter, which had not published its ideas, arrived in the year 1887 the inventor and Industrielle Emil citizen of Berlin with its attempts with the Edison Phonographen tooa similar improvement concept. It had been concerned several years long with the Edison Phonographen and in former times as Edison recognized that the future of the sound recording lay primarily in the maintenance range. As a businessman he saw that in the missing duplication possibility of the wax rollersand its time and trouble used crucial weak point of the Phonographen with priority on the solution of this problem.

1887 succeeded to it the crucial break-through of its inventor existence: it designed equipment, that the acoustic waves not as with Edisons Phonographen into vertical, but inhorizontal movements of a needle converted; these mechanical oscillations let he into one thickly with soot covered glass plate scratch. After chemical hardening of the soot it was in the situation, on galvanoplastic way a zinc positive and from this a negative of the plateto be made, that as stamps for pressing as many as desired positives be used could - the record was invented. To 4. May 1887 became citizen of Berlin for its idea US patent No. 372,786 gives.

The oldest to citizen of Berlin record received today is into 25. October 1887 zinc made by citizen of Berlin - positive. The public became the new recording method for the first time in a report of the magazine Electrical World of 12. November 1887 presented; the earliest for the purpose of demonstration made Zinkplatten had a diameter of 28cm and with approximately 30 UpM one Spieldauer of four minutes. In the following months citizen of Berlin continued to develop his procedure in co-operation with the technician Werner sweet, by he the soot-coated glass by a zinc or a copper plate covered with waxreplaced. After the engraving of the Schallrille into the layer of wax the plate was exposed to a Säurebad, which did not attack still with wax covered the parts of the plate, which etched opened grooves in however into the metal, so that after distance of the waxa durable metallic Ur-plate developed, which could be used for the production of the press stencils.

To 16. May 1888 presented first functional equipment, which it called the time-typical preference for Gräzismen following Grammophon, to citizen of Berlin the scientists of the Franklin of institutes in Philadelphia.In August 1888 he began for the first time to test actually from the outset the intended duplication of its Zinkplatten by presses of the negatives into soft material. First it used Zelluloid, which it directly of the inventor of this material, John W as molding compound.Hyatt, referred and soon as technically unsuitable proved. From as Hyatt the disks first experimental Zelluloidplatten admitted only very few copies remained.

In July 1889 citizen of Berlin came due to materialkundlicher attempts to the conclusion that vulcanized hard rubberwhen press material exhibits the most favorable characteristics, and its invention for developed enough judged, in order to introduce the beginning of series production. It went on investor search, encountered however at the US-American industry little resonance. Therefore it traveled in August 1889 to Germany,in order to demonstrate the Grammophon potential prospective customers. To 26. It demonstrated the equipment the being astonished expert of the citizens of Berlin electrotechnical society, which accepted it immediately as a member to November 1889.

quantity production

encouraged by this success it decided end1889 to initiate the quantity production of the plates first on own calculation. The renowned play goods factory chamber & Reinhardt in walter living / Thuringia, manufactured very simple Grammophone with crank handle drive for it - probably starting from July 1890 - anddeveloped also a speaking doll with miniature Grammophon in the trunk. The suitable plates were given at two German companies in order: one of the two manufacturers was the Rheini rubber and Celluloidfabrik in Mannheim; is from the other one only that so farnot decoded firm contractions „“admits of GFKC. Plates with 8 cm diameters for the speech doll and 12.5 cm diameters for the Grammophon were manufactured; thereby stencils at least developed partly probably came to the use in the USA. The pressing were in rubber, zelluloidand zinc execution available, whereby it does not admit is to what extent Zelluloid and rubber stood too each other in temporal succession; the Zinkplatten were obviously sold against surcharge.

These first series records of the world were from so inferior sound quality that notes with the complete textthe respective admission on the disk back were stuck, so that the buyer could reconstruct contents of the plate. Altogether 1889-90 in Germany about 25,000 plates were pressed, from which today world-wide only very few copies admits are. The only received one Citizen of Berlin speech doll is in the doll museum of the city walter living. Briefly the German citizen of Berlin products were exported also to England; the business with the unausgereiften system proved however as a little lucrative, why citizen of Berlin 1891 let the manufacturing adjust and into the USAreturned.

To 23. April 1889 it created the American Gramophone of cost, which should take over the utilization of its invention, but broke down after short time. Citizen of Berlin spent the following two years to improve the Grammophon technically; it left from a new one Yorker Uhrmacher a feather/spring drive develop, which did not prove however as practice-suited, and engaged a technician named Edward L. Wilson, which designed a Grammophon with Münzmechanik for it.

Only in April 1893 citizen of Berlin as well as the brothers Fred dared andGeisberg, which had been active before already with the Columbia Graphophone company, wants a new foundation of a firm: the United States Gramophone company with seat developed in Washington (1205 G Street size), those the invention commercially to use should and to thoseit its patents transfers had. The company produced some few Grammophone and records from Vulcanite and/or hard rubber, came however soon into financial difficulties.

1895 succeeded it to citizen of Berlin to inspire a group of investors from Philadelphia for its invention; it cameto the establishment of the citizens of Berlin Gramophone company, whose portions belonged however only to the smaller part of citizens of Berlin; the United States Gramophone of cost. continued to exist however parallel to it as an owner of the patents. The new enterprise opened in Baltimore (109 North CharlesStreet) a factory together with show room and began with the manufacturing of devices and clay/tone carriers.

The diameter of the plates was specified 1894 on 10 tariff = to 25,4 cm; up to the autumn 1894 about 1000 Grammophone and 25,000 plates left thoseFactory. Berlin one the published first printed order list of the available photographs; the enterprise offered also two luxury models with electric motors beside the hand-operated Grammophonen. one changed the disk diameter on 17.5 cm for 1895; in the same year citizen of Berlin received after long legal argumentsthat US patent for its horizontal writing photograph procedure, whose existence should justify the monopoly-like position for many decades of the company Victor later on the North American disk market.

The conversions of the company were first modestly, there the potential customers in citizen of Berlin primitive, crank handle-claimant Grammophon still rathera Kinderspielzeug as serious maintenance equipment saw. Lively by appropriate developments on the Phonographen sector busy itself citizens of Berlin again with the thought to equip its devices with feather/spring engines. He assigned the mechanic Eldridge R. Johnson from Camden town center, with the developmentand quantity production of a suitable feather/spring work, whose introduction on the market took place 1896 and which product actually help to an enormous increase in sales. In October 1896 citizen of Berlin the use of hard rubber gave up as disk material and replaced the substance by one of the Duranoid cost,Newark, new jersey, manufactured molding compound, which essentially consisted of shellac and whose introduction sound quality and durability of the plates improved enormously - the shellac plate was born.

In the same year citizen of Berlin engaged the publicity man franc Seaman, its task it itsshould to take over the selling of the citizen of Berlin products. Seaman created Gramophone company its own enterprise under the name national and closed with the citizens of Berlin Gramophone company on fifteen years running time a laid out contract, that it the exclusive rights at the selling of all products of citizen of Berlinsecured. Seamans brilliant Werbekampagnen announced the Grammophon within shortest time world-wide and let the sales figures of the plates and devices formally explode - in the financial year 1898 citizen of Berlin could set already 713,753 shellac plates off. Citizen of Berlin invention lay now in the hands of threeof each other independent companies: the United States Gramophone company held still the patents, the citizens of Berlin Gramophone company produced plates and playing devices; national the Gramophone company controlled the marketing.

Berlin expanded by establishment of foreign subsidiaries, as their the most important in the yearoriginated in to 1898 the British Gramophone company; this created for its part as daughter subsidiary company the German Grammophon society with seat in Hanover, led again from citizen of Berlin brother Joseph. The first very successful business concept should prove for citizens of Berlin soon as fatal, becauseSeaman, to which as a little trustworthy character was considered, was dissatisfied in view of the enormous profits, which flowed into citizen of Berlin cashes, with its long-term contract. It began 1898 secretly with the production of its Zonophone, which represented technically only plagiarisms of the citizen of Berlin devices. Seamancitizen of Berlin offered, he may in the future the Zonophone buy and under his name drive out let. Berlin this leaned indignant off, particularly since he did not want to endanger the contract with Johnson and Seaman generally distrusted; besides was the Zonophone of worse qualityas the past products of citizen of Berlin. Seaman revalued the refusal of citizen of Berlin as abolition of its contract, designated its company in United Talking Machine company (UTMC) and began on own calculation plates and Zonophone to manufacture. Berlin sued Seaman because of breach of contract; Seaman tookthereupon confidential negotiations with the roller manufacturer Columbia up, which held the patents at the inventions of Chichester Bell and Charles Sumner Tainter. 1899 raised Columbia on Seamans operation complaint against citizens of Berlin with the reason, the citizen of Berlin patents of 1887 are underInjury of older Bell and Tainter patents given and thus futile.

The complicated legal arguments, into which also Eldridge Johnson was complicated and played in those the star lawyer Philipp Mauro a crucial role engaged by Columbia, successfully ended for Seaman, whichin addition it led that citizens of Berlin starting from that 25. June 1900 the use of the name Gramophone in the USA was forbidden and it also otherwise for its American enterprise no more future saw. It dissolved its companies, sold all its US-AmericanAnd moved to patents at Eldridge Johnson, with which it had again reconciled itself, to Montreal. In the following decades it very successfully led the Canadian address of its Imperiums and exerted also relevant influence on the development from its BritishBranch developed Gramophone company; besides it employed with aero-nautical problems and was involved in the development one of the first useful helicopters.

emergence of the record industry

the large commercial success of the citizen of Berlin record and the relatively bad patentrechtliche protectionthe invention encouraged starting from approximately 1900 particularly in Europe numerous entrepreneurs to take up the production of own records and playing devices. Within fewer years developed such an extremely innovative, schnelllebiger branch of industry, as whose centers London, Paris, Hanover, Berlin and Vienna were considered.Inexpensive Grammophone of simple design came into various forms on the market and let the record one also for the lower layer affordable maintenance medium become. To 1914 alone about 500 competitive record marks developed in Germany. Technical improvements constantly left the sound qualityrise; gradually also large musicians began themselves such as Enrico Caruso to interest Nellie Melba and Hermann Jadlowker in the medium record and help with their bringing in the disk companies to considerable profits. Particularly the first independent, later of the company of theSwedish „record king “Carl Lindström taken over label Odeon did with technical innovations out and brought the first large sized plates (25, 27 and 30cm diameter) as well as the first double-sided pressing on the market.

development into the 1920er years

The First World War let record production decrease/go back world-wide strongly, which was due primarily to the temporary collapse of the international commercial net for Rohschellack. After end of war the record industry recovered first only slow; the economic crises of the 20's and also the emergencethe first broadcasting stations impaired the disk paragraphs world-wide substantially. In the opposite this development turned itself however, when starting from 1925 several US-American, Dutch and German companies approximately at the same time electrical photograph procedures presented, which displaced the old acoustic-mechanical photograph apparatuses within short time completely, thoseCosts of the Schallplattenaufnahme dramatically reduced and the sound quality enormously improved. The introduction of the electrical admission let a large number of short-lived small disk companies, which were technically and in music often very experiment joyful develop in Germany again. The 1928 of the inventor collectiveTrichloroethylene Ergon developed photographic sound recording procedures permitted for the first time a cutting and a working over again of photographs. First electrical record players came on the market; the enthusiasm for music of the late 20's guaranteed the record companies excellent conversions.

the 1930er years

the year 1933 broughtfor the German record industry dramatic changes: numerous up to then enterprises which were in Jewish possession were expropriated and dissolved in the first years of the LV dictatorship; against many prominent disk artists, like z. B. the Comedian Harmonists, was issued out „rassischen “and politicalReasons of professionals disqualification; the import of foreign plates to Germany was hardly more possible. Until 1939 the number of the record marks present on the German market reduced therefore considerably. During the Second World War record production should after the will of the LV regimeby a large-scale old disk utilization system to be guaranteed; German record production actually broke down nevertheless to a large extent starting from approximately 1943. Only for the need of broadcast and cinema up to the end of war one further-produced.

after that 2. World war

after 1945the record factories took, as far as undestroyed remained, their work quite soon, whereby first the shellac technology was maintained. In the west of Germany developed many new disk marks, which tried particularly to cover the need according to US American, developed again, for coined/shaped Swing and jazz.In the Soviet zone of occupation the record production was completely put under state control against it as one of the first branches of industry; it remained as only record manufacturers the VEB song of the time, late VEB German records, with „the unit labels “ AMIGA, Eterna, Litera, NEW FACTS, AURORA and SCHOLA.

In the Federal Republic and most other western countries the manufacturing was given up by shellac plates around the year 1958. The GDR carried out this step in the year 1960.

technical progress after thatShellac era

Vinyl - single - LP

already in the beginnings of the record production had given it - for instance in Great Britain by NIC oils records - unsuccessful attempts to replace the expensive natural product shellac by more inexpensive synthetic plastics. The break-throughin this area it succeeded 1948 with the production of the first records from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with clearly narrower grooves than in the shellac era whereby also smaller styli became necessary. Hereby again a clear increase of the clay/tone quality and the Spieldauer becamepossible.

speeds and formats

of two electronics manufacturers brought formats out deviating first: 1948 presented Columbia record to 12 inch (30 cm) the long playing record with 33 1/3 revolutions per minute and small central hole. 1949 followed RCA Victor with that7 inch (18 cm) record on 45 revolutions per minute and large central hole; in order to achieve with the LP comparable play times, for this format automatic Plattenwechsler were offered. Both were common the use of PVC as disk material and the Mikrorille.The two formats were marketed to each other first in competition. Record players controlled only in each case one of the two formats, so that consumers had to decide for one of it, what to uncertainty among the customers led. It concerned a classical examplefor a format war, also OF admits the speeds” as “Battle.

Only since for instance in the middle of the 1950er years record players became usually, which controlled both speeds, and by adapters plates of both central hole sizes to play could. Columbias 33-UPM-Platten became for long playing recordsused, while the 45-UPM-Platten opened its own market as Singles. Thus those originally became as intentionally incompatible arranged competition formats variants the same format, when that they are still noticed today.Mixing formats in many variants were added since then.The Entzerrung after RIAA was standardized likewise only in the middle of the 1950er years.

After these, mainly in the USA format clearing taken place the Vinylplatte was ready to conquer the record world market. Shellac plates were taken parallel to it gradually from the offer. In Western Europe andNorth America were they approx.1960 from the shops disappeared. Until end of the 1960er years they were still produced however in some countries. Admits e.g. are. Shellac pressing of the Beatles' - plates from India from this time.


of late becameby the introduction that Stereo - record a further increase of the hearing quality obtains. The Stereodekodierung required a special Stereoabtastsystem: Instead of during the rendition only the pure lateral movement of the pick-up to evaluate was consulted deep and lateral movement for the production of the sound signal. Here competedshort time the so-called „+ “- and the so-called „x “- system with one another. „+ “- the system set further the lateral movement directly into the sound signal of a channel, which depth movement into those of the other channel over - which pick-up movements for a sound signal only for the left,then only for right channel described thus „+ “. „The x “- system, which interspersed itself later, converted against it the sound signals of both channels into oscillations bent around ±45° against the Senkrechte and was so full compatible for mono recording.

Such mono andStereoschallplatten were called long playing records (LP = Longplay) or album. The styli were now no more steel needles, but special sapphires or diamonds. Beyond that there was the small Singles, those when 45 revolutions per minute (0.75 s -1)it was played (whereby the clay/tone quality is somewhat better than with LPs) and only, as well as, the larger Maxi Singles played with same speed contained one piece per side (also with EP for Extended Play designates). Maxi Singles contained typically 2 pieces per sideand had the diameter of a long playing record.

As special form still the prototype of the EP is mentioned, some diameter of 25 cm (contrary to the 30 cm of the LP and 17,5 cm of the single) exhibits here and with likewise 331/3 revolutions per minute of 15 to 20 minutes play time per side offer.

the Vinylplatte since the 1980er years

LP „Super Trouper“ der schwedischen Popgruppe ABBA mit Hülle und Inlay
of LP „super Trouper “the Swedish Popgruppe ABBA with covering and Inlay

with the introduction of the digital Compact disk (CD),calls itself which in the technical language audio CD, 1983 the sales and the production numbers of records decreased/went back rapidly. 1990 was sold twice as many CDs like LPs. The most important companies of the Phonoindustrie announced beginning of the 1990er common the death of the record. From now on only on the audio CD and/or the DVD audio and other advancements one set later.

A small consumer group of the record still holds the loyalty. Here play among other things nostalgic aspects, in addition, individual aesthetic and technicalAdvantages of the record opposite that CD, a role. Numerous music lovers prefer the record because of their „more alive “and „warmer “sound. Record lovers explain this preference frequently also before-bleached to inadequacies of digital recording, as for instance quantization errors. More probable it is however that similar sound recording, in particularbring during mechanical scanning, some subjectively as pleasantly felt sound falsifications with itself, which are preferred to the distortion-poorer sound that by these persons CD. In addition count in particular harmonious distortions, gentler Clipping - behavior of the record with overridden photographs, smaller over speech - absorptionsimilar sound recording etc.

Also under the DJs, particularly within the ranges House, Techno, Hip Hop, Drum'n'Bass etc., is the record still not only from aesthetic reasons likes, but also because her itself due to theirTechnology to uniting individual TRACKs (music pieces) best is suitable. The record is moved thereby on a special record player, with which one can regulate the playing speed steplessly, by hand alternating in and against playing direction (Scratchen) and/or. into the other TRACKs mixed(Mix). This preference of the DJs opposite also briefly the “Vinyl” records mentioned led even to the development of systems, with which MP3s and other digital recordings with normal record players can be mixed. In addition special records are used, on those instead ofone noted to the sound signal a “time code”. A special hardware converts this time code into signals, with which then a software the playing speed and - direction of a digital music piece steers.

In the last years is the number both the sold andagain long playing records and Singles, on the basis of a low base factor, published strongly risen.

In Europe today annually again approximately 15.000.000 records are manufactured. Some enterprises manufacture recently on customer's request also individually brought in plates in small baptizing situation, whereby usually noneDisk pressing takes place, but clay-purely by means of special cut equipment directly on a Vinylrohling is engraved.

technical data

the Schallspeicherung takes place mechanically via noting the sound in a spiral groove and belongs to the needle clay/tone procedures. The recordingthe signal takes place via engraving on a plate with a Schneidstichel. For the rendition different mechanical or electrical pick-up systems can be used. The technical characteristics of the record in the form used today are in the DIN standards DIN45536, DIN45537, DIN45546 and DIN45547specified.


the technical execution of the record during its development was constantly changed, in order to improve Spieldauer, frequency response and durability further. Beside various special formats some formats could themselves establish as standard. The following formats are to find when present publications:

  • Single (7 "): Diameter: 7 " (approx. 17,7cm); Central hole: mostly ca.38 mm, sometimes also 7 mm; Playing number of revolutions: usually 45 UPM, rarely also 33 UPM; Spieldauer (with 45 UPM) approx. 4 min/side (a TRACK/a side).
  • Single (10 "): Diameter: 10"(approx. 25,4cm); Central hole: 7mm; Playing number of revolutions: usually 45 UPM, rarely also 33 UPM. 10 " - single format is selected only very rarely for new publications.
  • Maxi single (12 "): Diameter: 12 " (approx. 30cm); Central hole: 7mm; Playing number of revolutions: 45UPM; Spieldauer to approx. 16min/Seite (totwo TRACKs/side). This, when Maxi single developed format frequently also for EPs used.
  • Longplayer (LP): Diameter: 12 " (approx. 30cm); Central hole: 7 mm; Playing number of revolutions: 33 1/3UPM; Spieldauer to approx. 40 min/side.

The indicated play times are only rough appoximate values, there the actualPlay time of the rejection of the recording depends.

three substantial engraving procedures give disk character fonts, by which two are this very day used. The size of the groove was continued to reduce in the course of the years ever. Today the generally usedMikrorille has unmoduliert width of 40µm, which is groove reason thereby with a radius of 8µm rounded. The groove distance amounts to with linear feed motion without use of filling writing for instance 70µm.

Tiefenschrift (vertical writing)
with the Tiefenschrift used by Edison becomes the informationby the submergence of the Schneidstichels into the record stamped. The depth is directly proportional to the amplitude of the noted signal. The maximum amplitude which can be noted is small, since submergence cannot be of any size. In order to be able to show high frequencies, must the needle the recesses of the groove besides very fast follow. In order to reach this, the weight of the pick-up must be increased, which leads however to a increased disk wear.
with the 1877 Seitenschrift imported from Emil citizen of Berlin is the informationin the horizontal deflection of the groove stamped. The advantage over the Tiefenschrift is a larger Dynamikbereich and the simpler production of copies. The Seitenschrift is used today still for mono recordings.
Flank writing
of Alan the Bluem flax already around 1930 developed, butonly 1957 of the EMI marketed flank writing made possible for the first time monocompatible Stereo-Aufzeichnungen. The sound information for the left and right channel is stamped thereby into the 45°-Flanken of the groove. In the flank on the inside thereby the left channel becomes, in the external groove flankthe right channel stored. The direction of the deflection of the Schneidstichels is selected in such a way with the fact that a mono signal, which is noted with a Stereoschneidkopf produces a Seitenschrift. Thereby downward compatibility is ensured to mono systems: If a Stereo record on mono playing equipment is shown,the vertical deflection of the groove is only shown. This corresponds to the sum (L+R) of both channels. When playing a mono record in Seitenschrift with a stereophonic sound customer on both rendition channels the mono signal is shown.
Filling writing
the filling writing was presented to 1950 by Eduard Rhineand no disk character font is strict-taken, but designation rather the control-dependent controlling of the groove distance on the clay/tone carrier. It was developed, in order to increase the Spieldauer further. Since those depends width of the noted Mikrorille on the volume of the clay/tone material, the groove distance can with quiet passages to be reduced. In practice for this the material which can be noted is heard still before the cutter head and affected with the information the groove feed motion won from this. The additional Spieldauer won by the use of the filling writing in relation to a linear groove distanceis program-dependent and amounts to with a 30cm-Langspielplatte up to 8min per side.


Industrielle pressing
for the production of a record in large number of items becomes in accordance with branch ores the program material first with a heated Schneidstichel into the lacquer of a coatedFoil (sometimes also copper plate - DMM for direct metal mast ring) cut.
This Lackplatte is coated first with silver, so that it is electrically leading, and then galvanically copper plated or nickel plated. One receives approx. 0,5mm thick negative, the father.
Ofthis father can in a further galvanic procedure several positives, which are taken off mothers. These can be played as a check of the admission.
The actual press stencils (sons) are manufactured again by a galvanic process from the motherboards. Around thoseDurability of the press stencils for larger numbers of items to increase, these are chromium-plated. This procedure must be repeated for both sides of the record.
As raw material today polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is used, that approx. 20% Polyvinylacetat and further additives to be added. The actual raw materialmilk industrial union transparency is and can by additive by coloring materials be dyed. Historically soot was attached to the raw material (Schelllack or earlier plastics) for chemical reasons - this is with used the meanwhile material-mixes not necessarily.
There are generally no qualitative differencesbetween black and colored pressing, however the exact composition of the material between different press works varies.
The Pressvorgang of a record lasts approx. 30 seconds: A proportioned quantity raw material is brought, as well as the labels, between the two press stencils and with onePressure of approx. 8·10^6 Pa (for instance 80Kg/cm ²) and a temperature of for instance 150°C pressed. After a short cooling phase, in which the stencils with water are cooled, the supernatant edge of squeezing is cut off and the press is opened.
Injection moulding
for the production ofsmall formats (7 " - Singles and smaller special formats) also an injection moulding procedure can be used. For this the hot plastic material (polycarbonate) is brought in liquid form between the stencils. The material cools down the form in the hollow form and solidifies and can are opened. An advancement of the injection moulding is the press injection moulding, which is used also in that CD - production.
for very small numbers of items (e.g. for Dubplates) the clay/tone material is cut directly with a Schneidstichel into a playable blank.
Originallythere were only lacquer Dubplates (as carriers one with Polyvinylacetat coated aluminum plate used). This kind of Dubplate consists of a thin aluminum plate, which is coated with acetate, into which the audio material is cut. A so-called lacquer Dubplate has a limited life span,depending upon use/wear.
Meanwhile there are also Vinyl Dubplates. This kind of Dubplate is a genuine long-lived Vinyl record, i.e. contrary to lacquer Dubplates the plate wears itself out by repeated use not and differs when professional and professional production inkeinster way of pressed commercial Vinyl and by deeper cuts these plates, contrary to pressed Vinyl, are even still better suitable for the Scratchen and have a clearly pressure-fuller sound. But special Vinyl Cutter (Vinylrecorder) were developed, hereblanks from a polyvinyl chloride Polyvinylacetatgemisch are used. Cutting Vinyl Dubplates becomes for some time as alternative to the acetate-coated and/or. Lacquer Dubplates offered.
The possibility of manufacturing unique pieces is in particular for producers and DJs interesting, the produced pieces as fast as possible on meetingsto try out would like or even if a record lover liked to have a zerkratzte plate “restored”.

special forms

vertical writing plates
starting from approximately 1900 used different manufacturers, under it above all the French company Pathé, the so-called vertical writing format. The recording did not take place hereby lateral excursions, but by an up and down. When pick-up did not function a needle, which would fast have destroyed the depth differences of the groove, but a tiny, mobile stored sapphire ball, which moved rolling by the groove. Systems of this kind particularly remained in Franceand the USA into the 20's popular.
Diameters there
were unusual disk diameters beside the standard disk formats with 25 cm and 30 cm in the shellac era a multiplicity other commercially used disk diameters. The smallest series plates of the shellac era were, see onefrom advertising and toy plates, the American Durium junior - pressing from the year 1930 with a diameter of 10,2 cm. As the largest series plates the enormous Pathé Concert is considered - to pressing from the time 1914 ago, some diameter of 50cm exhibited. The broadcast used plates with 40 cm diameters, which required also an unusual clay/tone arm with 12 " length into the 1960er and 70's.
There were
unusual materials in the process of the first seventy years of the record production again and again attempts,the expensive, raw material which can be procured with difficulty shellac by others to replace cheaper materials. The British company Nicole records presented briefly after 1900 records from one with Zelluloid coated synthetic material. The first „sounding postcards appeared a little later with Zonophone in Berlin “with glued on sound foils from Zelluloid. The steel needles of the Grammophone destroyed these clay/tone carriers however very fast, because the necessary abrasion resistance was missing to the used Zelluloid. The British Neophone company manufactured plates made of pasteboard, which covered with a waxlike substrate around 1906 temporarilyand certain problems were in things heatproof quality exhibited. In the 20's in Berlin resident enterprise Metallophon records from painted steel sheet - which were advantages of this concept rather limited, produced the conversions obviously also. Particularly in the studio technologyin the 40's records from coated glass were used. The strangest ever material used for the disk production might have been however chocolate - around 1910 the sweet goods manufacturer Stollwerck its records, which were pressed from chocolate actually, presented well-known child songs containedand after - only few marks possible - playing to be up-eaten could.

Occasionally there were picture postcards, which contained Schallplattenaufnahmen on the surface.

Die grüne und transparente Single „Phuture Vibes“ von Mellow Trax.
The green and transparent single „Phuture Vibes “of Mellow Trax.
Unusual forms and colors
above allwithin the range of the skirt music, which becomes RAP, and the electronic music records made, which stand out by their appearance against the standard plate. So e.g. are. the so-called. picture disk quite spreads, with those transparent material around a printedPicture around is pressed. Colored and/or transparent PVC is likewise common. These plates often appear in a limited edition and have a high collecting tank value. A further variant are the so-called.shape vinyls. Differently than usual records are not theseapproximately, but the most failed forms can have.
The British
audio engineering pioneer Michaelis already undertook early long play formats the first attempts with micro groove formats, which should make a longer Spieldauer for the record possible, in the year 1906. Its enterprise Neophone produced 25cm-Platten with a running time ofabout 12 minutes. 1929 presented Thomas Alva Edison as one of its last inventions a long playing record with extreme Mikrorille (see dia. moon disk), those with 80 rpm and 24cm diameter a running time of more than twenty minutes per side (!) exhibited.The plate could be shown only with a special diamond - customer and was thick a half centimeter, in order to eliminate any flexibility. The sensitivity of the Mikrorillen, whose walls could be damaged by normal affecting of the plate, prevented each commercialSuccess of the system, which remained long only some months on the market.
Aretino-Schellackplatte, ca. 1907-14, 2 Eurocent zum Größenvergleich in der Mitte
Aretino Schellackplatte, approx. 1907-14, 2 euro cent to the size comparison in the center
plates with atypical central holes
a phenomenon particularly spread in the USA 1914 ago were records with particularly largeCentral holes. Disk manufacturers such as Aretino and Busy Bee tried to set own standards on this area; Background were no technical considerations, but bare marketing strategies. Unusually small central holes, which resulted from an industrial standard deviating from the western standard, were Soviet against it a characteristicRecords from and the 30's 20's.
Plates with constant linear speed
the way, which the needle puts back with the playing procedure on the plate, becomes smaller by the spiral process of the Schallrille from revolution to revolution. There with conventional plates the number of revolutionsthe Plattentellers, drops the speed of the needle remains always constant relative to the disk surface of the outside edge of the plate up to the inside continuously. This change is acoustically perceptible under certain circumstances. In order to eliminate the phenomenon, became since the 20'sYears with plates experiments, which exhibited a constant linear speed in permanent adjustment of the number of revolutions. However each playing equipment had to be equipped and adjusted with a special device. One of these devices was in the USA the World in such a way specified disk record CONTROLLER. Became generally accepted such systems never.
Records as digital data media
something similar as on magnetic tape cassette (DATA-set) can be noted digital computer data theoretically also on records. In fact this possibility was used only rarely; the only one in larger number of itemsproduced data record was a pressing of the GDR youth radio DT64, the software for the small computer HC900 contained. Also the German volume wave: Globe pressed a program for the home computer Commodore 64 on their first Vinyl publication horizon extensions from the year 2005. ThisProgram can be implemented over a DATA-set on the C64.
Dubplates are special records manufactured as unique piece. To test it used by DJs in particular around new music pieces at the public. Lacquer Dubplates consist of one with acetate coated aluminum plate. Itnot by means of a stencil pressed to separate are cut directly. The acetate is relatively soft, so that a lacquer Dubplate can be played only few marks. Vinyl Dubplates however are genuine long-lived Vinyl records, i.e. contrary to lacquer Dubplates the plate uses itself throughrepeated use not off and differs when professional and professional production in keinster way from pressed commercial Vinyl and by deeper cuts are even still better suitable these plates, contrary to pressed Vinyl, to the Scratchen and have oneclearly pressure-fuller sound.
Virtual Vinyl
with systems like finally Scratch or Scratch LIVE ONE one can play digital audio files ( for example MP3s) with the help of special Vinyl stencils. In addition becomes the relative movement of the needle in the groove of a special plate ofa software registers and converted, so that thereby the playing speed can be steered and - direction of the audio files. Like that it is possible to scratchen and mix for example for MP3s (nearly) like genuine Vinylplatten. It is used mainly by DJs.
On so-called videodiscs also a picture signal is beside the clay/tone.
Flexible disk (Flexi)
a record from a flexible material, usually a kind foil. Flexis were used for example as supplement in Fanzines.

see also

Web on the left of

This article was taken up to the list of the articles worth reading.

  > German to English > (Machine translated into English)