Ship

of these articles is concerned with the vessel ship. Further see: Ship (term clarifying).
Passagierschiff Queen Mary 2
Passenger liner Queen Mary of 2
Boote
boats

table of contents

function

a ship is each larger vessel (demarcation to the boat with boat), which swims according to the Archimedean principle.

Ships are built on shipyards (see shipbuilding). After completion of the trunk the ship with the launching of a vessel becomes tooWater calmly, only then takes place the final equipment. The first travel of a ship is called young remote travel. The repair of ships takes place in particular in dry docks and floating docks.

Ships are most important means of transport both for bulk material and for bulk. The latter is transported today before all in containers on container ships. The largest ships are oil tank ships, to over 560.000 tdw (ship loading capacity in English “clay/tone”; 1 clay/tone = 1.016 t) DW (English. deadweight = load-carrying capacity) or approx. 100,000 gross register tonsto measure can. The passenger liner travel faces the competition of the air traffic for the 60's increasingly and shifts from pure means of transport more to the range that experience travels.

With appropriate building method ships can achieve a high life span. One the highestadmitted ages reached the English ship “Besty Canes”. It existed already 1688 as a king of William III. Yacht and suffered 1827 shipwreck. Them became as can be prove 139 years old. The English “Royal William” reached 113 years, to 16. March 1700 ran out and 1813 one dismantled. In November 2004 the “Cutty Sark “becomes 135 years old. It is the only remaining Klipper and is in the dry dock to Greenwich, London, England. Those is 28 years older“Charles W. Morgan “of 1841. It is designated the only received whale-catching gel ship, after Charles Waln Morgan, their main owner. Originally as Vollschiff in new Bedford, mA (Massachusetts), from wood delighted, became it 1867 Bark umgeriggt and stood 80 years in service. Today it is as museum ship in Mystic, CT (Connecticut}, the USA, to visit. Record owner is the English HMS VICTORY (launching of a vessel 1765), admiral Lord Nelsons flagship with 239 years (2004),followed of the frigate USS CONSTITUTION in bad clay/tone, mA, the USA, of 1797 with 207 years (2004).

Also, rarely, medals and honors for ships were assigned. The gunboat “Iltis” the” Pour became le Mérite “by emperor William II. (1900) because of its employment during the boxing up conditions lent. The “meteor” 1870, the “Emden” and the “U9” received the “iron cross “in the First World War.

history

the first boats (raft, Einbaum, Kanu, Kajak) were moved by people strength or water flow.

Egyptian ship (around 1422-1411 v. Chr.)
  • to the earliest well-known shipbuilders belong the Phönizier. The Egyptians were first, who built larger ships. The ships became from short sewn planksmanufactured and still had no Kiel. For stability along strained rope provided. Apart from wind and current the paddle served as power plant.
  • The advancement of the sail led to the seaable sailing boat, which permitted further travel, both the tradeand served martial purposes. The navigation took place usually - due to the rudimentary navigation possibilities - in the proximity of the coast . As particularly efficient sailors promptly the Phönizier did out.
  • In the Mediterranean the antique one gave it inPrinciple two types of ships: Narrow, fast warships, which were gerudert in combat and which had large influence on the political dominance of certain states/realms, as well as bulgy trading vessels, those were gerudert rarely and those nearly complete commercial transport completed and enormousMeaning for the supply had (e.g. Grain transport from North Africa to Rome)
  • the traditions of antique shipbuilding last still the typical elements of medieval shipbuilding in the Mediterranean lived on with the Byzantinern, the connection with rising Arab influence created, howthe Lateinersegel and the Kraweelbeplankung
  • Roman and medieval Lastschiffe for the inland waterway craft travel, are called also Prahme. Here it concerns flat soil ships in the river system branched out far for the transport of heavy loads to the employment came oneself.
  • The Wikingerschiffe has itself independentlydeveloped of it in Northern Europe and the fastest means of transport of the world were in the early Middle Ages. So the Wikinger on its raids could often attack cities without preliminary warning.
  • For the Hans time the Hansekogge, a more or less bulgy sailing boat was typical,that the central instrument of the remote trade became. It was based on the Wikingerschiffen, with which it had the large Rahsegel and the Klinkerbeplankung in common. The centrically arranged tail rudder was new for control.
  • At the same time the Chinese developed under admiral Zheng He extremely large sailing boats, with which they equipped large fleets and undertook far expeditions in the west Pacific and in the Indian ocean.
  • NorthEuropean and mediterrane elements combined themselves latemedieval Europe, and there particularly Portugal, to the Karavelle, from laterthe larger Karacke developed. With these ships the first European discoverers (Ferdinand Magellan, Christoph Kolumbus, Vasco there Gama) undertook their journeys.
  • Colonizing the world required large high-seaable cargo boats, around humans and goods between the continentsto transport. In addition made possible innovation in the armament and their list the building of warships with battery deck. From it resulting the development of the Galeone in 16. Century marks the beginning of the modern times in shipbuilding.
  • With the development of an improved Takelage andthe spreading of the Besansegels, as well as a nearly industrialmoderate throwing organization post and next to each other determined the sea powers Portugal, Spain, the united provinces of the Netherlands as well as England and France the making and commercial policy in overseas up to the beginning of the 19. Century. At the Grundtyp of the high-seaable Vollschiffs for a long time no substantial improvements had taken place.
  • With the invention of the steam engine also the first by machine propelled ships were sketched (steam ship). These were in substantial sailing boats with an auxiliary drive, toDrive with zero wind or to maneuver in the port served. Only with the invention of the marine propeller, those the inefficient impellers in the middle 19. Century replaced, had the new technology the potential to displace the sail drive.
  • A further large innovation of the industrial agethe introduction of iron and late steel were as material in the shipbuilding, which displaced the wood gradually. All new technologies were developed and introduced due to the high acquisition and maintenance costs primarily for the military range. This development wentparticularly in the second half 19. Century extremely rapidly in front, where in few decades the transition from the sail warship carried out itself to the battle ship.
  • Within the civilian range made possible beyond that the scientific development of hulls and Takelagen as last bloom for thatCommercial sailing boats the building of efficient cargo boats, which Klippern so mentioned, usually Vollschiffen with up to 4 masts, which transported dte, wool or Guano against each other in the hard competition to Europe or North America. In the first half 20. Centurythe sailing boat was then replaced completely from the machine-driven ship.
  • After the Second World War the diesel engine became generally accepted the before pervasive Stückgutfrachtschiff as marine engine and by container ships was replaced, the development of cooling ships made also the transport possible of perishable goods overthe world.
  • In the warship building the battle ship disappeared completely and by the aircraft carrier was replaced, to ship artillery and armoring plays a subordinated role, rockets and a missile is the preferential weapon systems. Electronic war guidance and the employment of atomic reactor-driven submarines created new dimensions of the naval warfare guidance.
  • The invention of radar, direction finding and government inspection department in 20. Century facilitates navigation substantially.

speed

the speed of ships is generally indicated in knots (kn). A knot corresponds nautical mile (sm) per hour.

The speedoriginally measured with a log (measuring instrument), which was thrown at a Logleine over board. The line had in firm distances (usually all approx. 7 m) Knot.

The measurement counted the knots, while they slid it by the hand.The number of the measured knots for each time unit (measuring period were approx. ) Then the speed in nautical miles per hour resulted in 14 seconds. Therefore also the term agitates “knots “as unit for the ship speed.

More modern designs of the Logs measure the speedover the rotational speed of a after-dragged propeller (Patentlog), Impellers fastened one at the ship soil or by means of a pitot tube (stagnation pressure log, tubing log).

The maximum speed of a ship is determined substantially by the trunk speed. This is nothing else as thosePropagation speed of the wave system consisting of the ship produced of nose and tail wave. The propagation speed of a wave in water rises with its wavelength. The ship is thus “imprisoned” between its nose and tail wave.

With ships with normal restrictor trunk those leaves itselfSpeed also with increased engine performance over the trunk speed do not increase. This certainly by the length, with which the ship lies in the water.

Higher speeds can be obtained with ships with a glider - a trunk. That becomes by engine performanceThe Bugwelle overcome, the nose of the ship resisted rises thereby.

Also modern restrictor ships reach speeds, which can lie slightly over the theoretical trunk speed with raumem wind under sails. Reason for this are modern, smooth, long stretched trunks, the partialhardly still produce Bugwellen.

Since the speed depends in addition substantially on wind and current as well as the varying loading (by fuel consumption), the ship speed is indicated frequently in larger units than the Stundengeschwindigkeit.

A Etmal is from a shipone day of 12.00 o'clock up to the next day around 12:00 clock put back distance. The Etmal is generally indicated in nautical miles (sm).
In the times, when the passenger liner travel was exclusive overseas mass means of transport, the fastest Passagierdampfer the symbolic became in each case Blue volume, later a cup, awarded. Yardstick was the average speed during a complete Atlantic crossing from a European to a North American port.

Exemplary speeds of some ships and boats:

Speed ship
6.7 knots wheel steamer Sirius, 1838, Great Britain
briefly 11Knot running rowing boat (figure eight; see to rudders)
approx. 15 knots Flying P liner Potosi, 1902, Germany
approx. 18 knots Klipper around 1870
18.5 knots Flying P liner Prussia, 1904, Germany
over 20 knots match sail yacht
approx. 27 knots container ship, 2004
approx. 25-28 knots (under water) submarine
approx. 28-32 knots (under water) nuclear-powered submarine
34.5 knots passenger liner United States, 1952, the USA
41.28 knots double trunk - ferry Cat left V, 1998, Denmark
approx. 48 knots hydroskimmer

of record boats see Speed world record on the water

ship existence in Germany

in the year 2000 gave it in the Federal Republic of Germany

  • of 3752 inland waterway crafts:
    • 1333 motor ships
    • of 1236 lighters, punts and Schuten
    • 450 thrust and dragging ships
    • of 733 passenger liners
  • of 689 sea-going vessels (trading vessels with more than100 gross space number (BRZ)):
    • Ship types container ship
    • Segler it
    • meets 520
drying freighters of 131 passenger liners

of 38

tankers [work on

] gives numerous ship types.

according to operational area

after the operational area one differentiates

according to intended purpose

Schiff der Wasserschutzpolizei Konstanz auf dem Bodensee
ship of the water protection police Konstanz on the Bodensee

after the intended purpose one differentiates

  • historical ships

according to drive

one can differentiate ships according to the drive generally by the fact whether they are propelled by wind and/or muscle power OR by a machine.

of ships from special material

according to building of trunks

after the hull one differentiates:

Schiffswrack an der Küste Albaniens bei Durres
ship wreck at the coast of Albania with dry

famous one of ships

of sailing boats

steam and motor ships

characteristics with the navigation

particularly dramatic shipping casualities

see also: Disasters of the navigation

computations to shipbuilding and navigation

see also

Wikiquote: Ship - quotations

ship's class vessel ship fund

work on []

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Ship - word origin, synonyms and translations
Commons: Ship - pictures, videos and/or audio files
 

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