Schimpansen

Schimpansen
Bonobo (Pan paniscus)
systematics
Order: Primaten (Primates)
subordination: Drying nose ape (Haplorhini)
partial order: Old world ape (Catarrhini)
over family: Human being-well-behaved (Hominoidea)
family: Anthropoid (Hominidae)
kind: Schimpansen
scientific name
Pan
kinds

The Schimpansen (Pan) are a kind from the family of the anthropoids (Hominidae). To this kind two kinds belong. The common Schimpanse (Pan of troglodytes) with its three subspecies westAfrican Schimpanse (Pan t. verus), Central African Schimpanse (Pan t.troglodytes) as well as eastAfrican Schimpanse (Pan t. schweinfurtii) and the Bonobo (Pan paniscus) or also Zwergschimpanse.

While the three subspecies of the common Schimpansen in large parts of Africa anzufinden are, the circulation area of the Bonobo is limited to a small part the democratic one Republic of the Congo. Both kinds are considered as of becoming extinct threatened.

Table of contents

relationship to humans

Schimpansen are genetically close the next relatives of humans and with themrelated. Genetic investigations permit the conclusion that the evolutionary ways from humans and Schimpanse separated approximately 6 million years ago. Humans and Schimpanse agree after newest investigations in approximately 98.7% of the hereditary property. Leipziger researchers reported in the summer 2005 on theirInvestigations to the activity from altogether 21,000 genes heart, liver, kidney, testicle and brain in the two species. The result: In the testicle 32 per cent of the genes is differently active and in most other fabrics on the average eight per cent.

behavior

Schimpansen are Allesfresser, which nourish themselves predominantly of fruits, sheets, insects and occasionally small vertebrate animals, in addition, make (except Bonobo) occasionally hunt for other apes, which are torn up and eaten with alive body. Schimpansen (except Bonobo) have also within the group a relatively high aggression potential,in acts of violence opposite females expresses itself in particular. The female has a 35 days continuing Menstruationszyklus and can the whole year over become pregnant. The carrying time amounts to approximately sieves until eight months. The groups live promiskuitiv.

Selbstheilung

like other animals alsoSchimpansen found a way to free itself from health-endangering and annoying parasites to. This discovered anthropoid expert smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Wrangham already in the year 1972 in a national park of Tanzania. He observed like a Schimpanse purposefully from a tree a handful of its rough, sharp edged sheets tore off.After these were carefully folded up swallowed the animal it whole down. One stated that Schimpansen up to 90 of these sheets can take at one time to itself. Investigations of the excrement of the Schimpansen resulted in that the sheets were indigested again separated. Became partial in the Exkrementennumerous large intestine parasites found. It is assumed the fact that the rough and stinging leagues of sheets work such as Sandpapier and scrapes loose worms off of the intestine walls. Many worms were proper aufgespiesst by the sheet hair. In addition the exhausting effect of the Gerbstoffe contained in the sheets comes. By theseKind of the intuitive self medication is significantly reduced the infestation by tapeworms and by African “modules worm”.

Wranghams research for many years resulted in that Schimpansen swallow giftstoffhaltige, rough sheets with hackenförmigen hair of over thirty different tree species. Schimpansen turn this form of the self treatment particularly at the beginningthe rain time on, because then the worm infestation is largest. So far one observed Schimpansen and gorillas with sheet sips.

figure

Schimpansen meters become large up to 1.70. The size of a Schimpansenhirns corresponds half of a human brain and resembles it in the form.In order to stress the similarity to humans, both kinds in the kind Homo arranged , also due to the arbitrariness of the generic term in view of the modern phylogenetischen research is disputed this classification sometimes.

Etymologie and history

the name “Schimpanse” come from the angolischen Bantu - word“Tshiluba kivili chimpenze” off and can be translated with “illusory human being” or simply “ape”. The name was used for the first time as can be prove 1738.

The first living Schimpanse was brought 1641 to Europe. The Zwergschimpanse became 1928 of H. Coolidge described. It received only 1933 to the name Bonobo after oneCity at the Congo.

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