Battle at the Smolinasee

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1502 battle at the Smolinasee in live country

at the Smolinasee in Russia (not far of today's village the Palkino in Pskovskaja oblast') triumphed to Wolter of Plettenberg to 13. September 1502 as land masters of the German medal in live country again over the opponents of old live country. By the crucial employment of the tank riders this fight became the last large battle of a knight army in history. Into the knight army of the medal, like already for 3 centuries, the estnischen and lettischen tank riders and foot troops were integrated.

culture-historical meaning of the battle

after the battle of fir mountain 1410 had lost the German knight medal until 1466 increasingly its prominent role in Prussia. In the Baltic conditions lay differently. Land master Freytag of Loringhoven had terminated the 200-jährigen civil war in live country by its diplomacy and 1492 by his victory with new mills. Land master of Plettenberg succeeded it at the battle at the Smolinasee 1502 to create by his politics the conditions for the fact that the German medal in live country still in 16. Century in a the position was to be embodied, uniting and protective Kraft of the country. The direct meaning of the battle of 1502 resulted from cooperating Germans, Esten and Letten in the fight and from the following peace treaty 1503 with Iwan III., the large one of Moscow. Both together and the further negotiations Plettenbergs led with extreme intelligence led in old live country to an internal and outside peacetime of nearly 60 years. That had never given it before in livländischen history. Under this condition it came for a cultural high bloom in the country and for the unblutigen introduction of the Evangelist Glaubensbekenntnisses with Germans, Esten and Letten. The effect after 1502 of ideas of the reformation spreading in live country remained itself unbroken also after the fall of old live country 1561. The Protestant ministers of live country and its succession states showed themselves over centuries - later also under the influence J.G.Herders - as the first German promoters of the lettischen and estnischen emancipation. In a 500-jährigen process succeeded to induce it you also - also positively supports with the Landreformen by foresighted Russian Zaren - the members native knight shanks to increasingly cleared up handling the population. In the time of the Russifizierung in the Russian Baltic Sea provinces 1880-1918 numerous Esten and Letten crossed to the Russian-orthodox, starting from 1990 to the Greek-orthodox faith. With the assumption of the power of the knight and landscapes (in the Russian Baltic Sea provinces live country, Estonia, Kurland and on Ösel) by Letten and Esten after that 1. World war showed up however that ideas of the reformation had not been lost. The work of the protetantischen ministers participated in aufklärerisch positive way on the condition of the recent democratic States of Estonia and Lettlandein. After the release of these countries from all earlier suppression by the Germans possible and fruitful thereby - after all wrong - living together between Esten, Letten and Germans remained further. The 2. World war and its terrible consequences could wear to these good relations little in the long run.

historical meaning

from today's viewpoint begins to today continuous positive effect of the reformation in live country with Plettenberg. Even its catholic faith faithfully, he became by his politics the most important religion and Völkerversöhner of live country. In it also the Russifizierungspolitik could not change 1880-1918 anything fundamental. The day of the livländischen victory at the Smolinasee was committed annually up to the fall of old live country in Riga like a national holiday. This last victory of live country had appeared to the contemporary like a miracle. It appears retrospective like the beginning of the today still continuous positive communication process between Letten, Esten and Germans.


  • Leonid Arbusow: The introduction of the reformation to Liv, Est and cure country. in: Research to reformation history, Bd. 3, Leipzig and Riga, I 1919, II 1921
  • Liv, Est and Kurländi document book. 2.Abt., Bd. 2, No. 382
  • Carl Schirren (Hrsg.): Eyne Schonne hystorie…. in: Archives for history Liv, Est and cure country VIII, 1861
  • Astaf of Transehe Roseneck: History of the family of roses. in: Genealogi manual Baltic knight shanks, part live country, Bd. 2; Görlitz 1931
  • pure hard joke RAM: Baltic history 1180-1918. Munich 1954

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