Battle at the Thames River

the battle at the Thames River (also admits as battle with Moraviantown) of 5. October 1813 between British - indianischen and American troops took place during the war of 1812 at the Thames River (Ontario) in Canada and ended with an American victory.

Table of contents

prehistory

after the British fleet on the Eriesee by an American squadron under olive Hazard Perry in the battle on the Eriesee to 10. September 1813 destroyed was, came the British troops under major general Henry Procter, standing at the east end of the lake in Amherstburg , into a difficult situation. They had already before suffered the effects of the defeat from lack of supply, in addition came. Away Malden and the other positions on both sides Detroit the River - v.a. the 1812 conquered Detroit - were to be hardly still held now, since many cannons had been used for the equipment of the fleet. In the sea-battle also a third of the British troops had been imprisoned taken, since they had been used as crews of the ships. In addition it came that the rule over the Eriesee permitted now also landings behind the British positions to the Americans. In addition came the demoralizing effects of the defeat, hunger and doubt about the loyalty of the Indians. Their leader Tecumseh Procters was furious to deceive it over the result of the sea-battle over an attempt and there were rumors over a conspiracy, which had a massacre at the soldiers as a goal.

In view of the lack of supply, the supply routes over the lake, blocked by the US fleet, and the approaching winter Procter decided the task of the positions at Detroit River and a retreat along the Thames River after Chatham (Ontario), where it wanted to place itself to the fight. This retreat was a very complex enterprise, since it covered about 10,000 humans together with the allied Indians and the women belonging to the army and children. To 24. Septembers 1813 vacated the British Amherstburg, the task of Detroit and sand-yielded (on the Canadian side Detroit of the River) took place to 28. September. Between the British commanders it came to heavy discords, so that Procter its officers over its plans not informed and these pushed allegedly his deputy lieutenant colonel Augustus Warburton to replace it from the command.

meanwhile

the Americans by an extremely fast advance the British had caught up process of the battle nearly. To 4. October came it to a skirmish with Moraviantown, in whose process the Americans captured nearly the entire supply of the British. In coming combat these were now limited to the ammunition, which they carried at the body. At the following night Procter made a further heavy error. Instead of preparing the imminent battle, it left its soldiers and spent the night with his wife. On the next morning it stationed its tired, hungry and badly equipped soldiers about two miles river downward from Moraviantown. Its left flank was protected by the Thames River, the right by a sump, the center by a field gun. Tecumsehs Indians stationed themselves at the edge of the sump and should fall the Americans into the flank. The Americans had however one more than three-way supremacy, since the British had only 450 soldiers and Tecumseh had 500 Krieger.

Harrison, to which the bad combat morale of the British admits probably was, instructed a substantial Kavallerieangriff on the British line. It succeeded to the Americans immediately to break through these and after only five minutes their opponents took flight. The field gun was given up, without a shot would have been fired. Procter fled the road along, when its position was run over, and left its cars and its papers. The British lost numerous prisoners and about a dozen dead one and hurt one. Sources of US state, with this attack not one their soldiers one killed. It succeeded to the Indians to repel a first American attack whereby they profited from the Unterholz and the swampy soil, which forced the US soldiers to fight to foot. Since the British had however already fled, Harrison could throw its entire army on the Indians. After a hard fight Tecumseh was killed, whereupon the Indians gave up the fight and withdrew themselves. They had lost only 15 dead ones and to the Americans at least just as high losses had caused, but death Tecumsehs broke their strength. After 55 minutes combat was to end.

Tecumsehs Indian army dissolved after its death. Only about 300 Krieger followed the British in of this region held at the Ontariosee. The 2,000 women and children, who had followed the retreat, had to keep there with begging alive. Harrison forced the trunks on the American side Detroit of the River to a peace treaty and the position of their families as hostages. Procter and the remainders of its army were formed in Burlington at the Ontariosee again. Since the beginning of the retreat 600 of its soldiers was into the hands of the Americans pleases.

consequences

the battle was the first clear land victory of the Americans in the war of 1812 and had extensive consequences. It was a crucial impact against the alliance of the trunks developed by Tecumseh. Its death was a tragedy for the Indians, because with it also the project of an independent Indian state had died, the British retreat prevented a further support for this project. The country was open thereby to the American settlers, a serious resistance of the Indians was no longer to be expected. At the same time the battle eliminated finally each British threat for the American northwest border. This again was an important factor for the fact that the war of finally 1812 ended in a status quo peace. By this victory the Americans their goal of a conquest of Canada as close came as never, playful this opportunity however by two blamable defeats at the Chateauguay River and with Chrysler's farm against British troops which were subject far. The victories of Tippecanoe (1811) and of the Thames River justified the fame and the political career Harrisons, which finally led it also into the office for president. Procters military career ended by its defeat. It placed before a court-martial and dishonorably from the British army to dismiss.

See also: List of wars, list of battles

Web on the left of

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)