Battle with Culloden

The battle with Culloden. Painting by David Morier, 1746
battle of Culloden
conflict second rebellion of the Jakobiten
date 16. April 1746
place Culloden, (Scotland)
result victory of the Englishmen
Contractor
British government troops Jakobiten
of commanders
William August von Cumberland Charles Edward Stuart
Truppenstärken
approx. 9,000 men approx. 1,250 pleasures
1,000
wounded 5,400
men of losses
300 pleasures
259 wounded
558 prisoners

rebellion of the Jakobiten
battle with Prestonpans, battle of Falkirk, battle of Culloden

the battle with Culloden of 16. April 1746 between British government troops and insurgent Jakobiten took place on the Culloden moorland (also well-known as Drummossie moorland) close of the locality of the same name in close proximity to Inverness in Scotland and ended with a victory of the government troops.

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prehistory

prince Charles Edward Stuart and its about 5,000 men counting, particularly army consisting of Scottish high countries was after his victory in the battle with Prestonpans, which had it the supremacy in Scotland secured, to 8. November 1745 over the border to England advanced. The army arrived over Carlisle and Manchester to Derby. Here one decided the retreat however on urge by lord George Murray led of the councellors and against the resistance of the prince to Scotland, there the position of the Jakobiten by two armies under general George calf and the prince Wilhelm August, Herzog von Cumberland was threatened. Under the command of Murray the Jakobiten secured the retreat to Scotland by victorious combat with Clifton and reached Glasgow to 25. Decembers where provisions and reinforcement on them waited. Charles remained to 17. January 1746 in the battle of Falkirk against general Henry Hawley a last mark victoriously, had to withdraw itself however under the pressure of superior government troops northward, whereby its soldiers began to defect in view of the precarious military situation and the bad supply situation.

the battle

to be familiar became that Cumberland with its army on Inverness marched, stationed Charles its army on that close convenient Culloden moorland. It counted still about 5,000 men and was weakened and demoralized by diseases, hunger and bad armament. To it predominantly high countries belonged. In addition came Scots from the low country, some Irish, a handful of English Jakobiten and French recruits. Cumberlands government army covered 8,000 infantrymen and 900 Kavalleristen, to whom beside English soldiers also German mercenaries, Hannoveraner as well as several regiments of government-faithful Scots belonged. Cumberland was no highly gifted strategist, however in the fight against the Frenchmen some experience had gained and was with the combat technique of the high countries trusts, there to its army in Flanders also Scottish units like the famous Black Watch - regiment had heard. It had left nothing during the preparation of crucial combat the coincidence. In particular its infantrymen had been gedrillt on the defense of the notorious assault of the high countries and had learned to attack with the bayonet not them facing man, but right of it and so covering by the traditional sign deal. In view of the unfavorable conditions Murray struck 16 for the night before that. April a night attack on the government troops forwards. Since it lasted to for a long time, until the army absent-minded on the search for food was met, and then the camp of the enemies was found punctual, did not give one the project up. Murray and some other officers demanded thereupon a retreat into less accessible area, were however outvoted. Charles decided to expect Cumberland on the flat level of Culloden moorland. He took over the command of the center, Murray of the right and lord John Drummond of the left wing. Cumberland stationed its army in two rows, which were deep in each case four men. The artillery was located in the gaps between the regiments, the Kavallerie at the wings, in order to be able to fall the Jakobiten into the flanks.

At the beginning of the battle the far superior cannons Cumberlands opened a destructive fire on the lines of the Jakobiten, which could not answer their weaker artillery effectively. In view of the rising losses Charles gave the instruction to lord Murray to instruct the attack. Only one part of the jakobitischen troops took part in this attack. The Macdonalds, which stressed traditionally the right for itself to place the left wing had been stationed on the right wing and refused from anger over this offense to a large extent following the attack instruction. The main load of the fight fell therefore on the Camerons, Macleans, Chattans and Machlachlans. Despite heavy losses by the artillery fire and the mash ketene salvos of the government troops the high countries could break through the lines of two regiments. The second line held however. It came to a hard close combat, but in view of the numerical superiority of the government troops and the heavy artillery fire the Jakobiten had to finally begin the retreat under heavy losses. Since parts of the army had remained intact, them could begin an arranged retreat. The losses of the defeated ones were enormous: approximately 1,250 Jakobiten and only 300 government soldiers had been killed.

Cumberland

Denkmal auf dem Schlachtfeld von Culloden
instructed consequences monument on the battleground

of Culloden after the battle to exekutieren all wounded and caught Jakobiten. Its soldiers killed about 450 men, several are even with alive body to have been burned. Some höherrangige prisoners to be first spared, in order in Inverness from court be placed and executed later. One held this also for conditions at that time barbarian procedure by the fact for justified that it concerned with the Jakobiten high traitors, opposite whom the usual war rules did not apply. On the following day Cumberland sent patrols on the battleground, in order to take up and kill survivors. Here according to contemporary sources approximately 70 Jakobiten died. Exekutiert became also 36 deserters from the British army, who fell into the hands of the winners. One brought and placed further prisoners to England her because of high treason before court. It came also here to further executions. The captured flags of the Jakobiten were publicly burned. Only one flag, on which still the blood-pure of the banner carrier are to be seen, outlasted in a hiding place and today on Edinburgh Castle is issued. Murray undertook still another attempt to form the struck army in Ruthven new but the absence of food and supply prevented a continuation of the fight. The jakobitische army dissolved, which participants of the rebellion hid themselves or tried to flee abroad. Prince Charles escaped after a five-month, adventurous escape by Scotland despite a head money of 30.000 Pound - at that time an enormous fortune -, suspended on him, to France.

Cumberland proceeded with its troops in the consequence with extreme hardness against those, which one suspected of the support of the rebellion. Came to further Exekutionen, arrests, plunderings and destruction. Efforts government-faithful Scottish civil servant and aristocrat to reach with Cumberland a moderation of the drakonischen procedure which met also many innocent ones, did not cause anything. Duncan Forbes OF Culloden, one of the most faithful trailers of the house Hanover in Scotland, was verhöhnt with such an attempt of Cumberland as „the old woman, me something of humanity to tell wanted “. Its Erbarmungslosigkeit, its brutality and its cynicism brought in the durable hate of all Scots and him the Butcher to surnames adhering today ( „the butcher “) for Cumberland. By military force and with laws those of clan were disarmed in the following months, which traditional clan - system destroys, even the Kilt, to which Tartan and the Dudelsack forbade.

The battle with Culloden was the last battle on the soil of the British islands. She is noticed in Scotland until today often as national disaster, whereby cruelties Cumberlands and the following destruction of the old social order of the high countries play a substantial role. As such it was received also in the literature and the seal, e.g. in Robert Burns' poem The lovely leave OF Inverness. Here it is however pretty often surveyed that it did not concern a battle between Scots and Englishmen, but that fought to Scots on both sides. Charles Edward Stuart did not have by any means the undivided support of all Scots. The Städter and the low countries, which profited economically from the union with England, did not only reject the Jakobitenaufstand, also parts the high land clan supported the house Hanover. Even a victory would therefore have brought probably only one breathing space to the Jakobiten. Nevertheless the battle forms an important cut in the history of Scotland. It terminated the last attempt of the Stuarts to back-conquer the throne introduced the fall of the traditional clan company and the powerful special position of its leaders and sealed the integration of the country into an English dominated Great Britain.

William August, Herzog von Cumberland, was celebrated despite committed cruelties as a British national hero. On the occasion of the victory celebrations George Friedrich trade received the order for the composition of the Oratoriums Judas Maccabaeus.

see also

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historical novel /Trivial

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