Battle with Marignano

Battle scene
battle with Marignano
conflict of May land wars
date 13.- 14. September 1515
place in close proximity to Melegnano
southeast from Milan
result of crucial ones French victory
Republic of Venice
duchy Milan
of commanders
Franz I.
Gian Giacomo Trivulzio
Louis II de La Trémoille
Charles d'Amboise
Maximilian Sforza
cardinal Schiner
of 45,000 30,000
approx. 10.000 12,000

Pavierzug - November era - Dijonerzug - Marignano - Bicocca - Pavia

the battle with Marignano (today: Melegnano) found to 13. and 14. September 1515 in the Italian Lombardei instead of and was a military conflict between the oath comrades and France around the duchy Milan. This was one of the last large battles, in which the oath comrades were involved.

King Ludwig XII. from France Milan wanted, which it had lost in the battle at November era (1513 ), to back-conquer. It died however before. Its son-in-law, Franz I. mounted the king throne and wanted now this plans into practice to put. First he tried to negotiate with Swiss, these rejected this however, because France had not yet completely fulfilled the contract of Dijon. The oath comrades closed a federation with the German emperor Maximilian and with the king of Spain and joined also the Pope for the protection of Milan the federation later.

King Franz I. from France wanted to reconcile itself on it with the oath comrades and in the contract noted 400,000 crowns to pay, if for it the oath comrades the duchy Milan let it conquer. These rejected the offer.

As itself thereupon Franz I. with a considerable army of over 45.000 foot people and riders into the Poebene went, sent the oath comrades, for the protection of Milan, 30,000 men to upper Italy.

The king counted still to reach this conquest without war. Therefore it suggested the oath comrades:

  • 400,000 crowns of the Dijoner of contract and ever 300,000 crowns to the costs of the campaign and for the occupied mailändischen areas, together thus 1.000.000 crowns to pay.
  • Duke Maximilian Sforza is to get a French duchy as replacement for Milan.
  • the oath comrades transfer all country south of Bellinzona to the Frenchmen.

This enticing money rain was sufficient, in order to sow under the oath comrade discord, and many wished the acceptance of the French suggestions. Some conditions accepted it and pulled immediately home. , By cardinal Schiner than papal Legaten accompanies and motivates the others, advanced against Milan.

With Marignano war cunning of the cardinal probably released the battle. The Swiss federal infantry had few to align against the new and powerful cannons and the riders of the Frenchmen. The fight remained however despite large reciprocal losses undecided, no side wanted to yield, the armies bivouaced on the battleground. When by day on it the battle was again taken up, the easy Reiterei Venice , led from the experienced Condottiere Bartolomeo d'Alviano, preschte on the battleground, in order to support the French army, and fell the oath comrades under loud “San Marco! ” - Shouting in the backs; there their defeat was not to be turned away any longer, it pulled itself back (this retreat was pictorial heroisiert by Ferdinand Hodler). Owing to the numerical and weapon-technology superiority of the French army this won the battle and caused to the oath comrades large losses, over 12.000 dead Swiss lay on the battleground. But the Frenchmen had nearly just as high losses.

The Frenchmen took Milan into their possession, and the oath comrades withdrew themselves over the God hard into their homeland. They were allowed to keep however all ennetbergischen Vogteien, and these form today the canton Tessin. Only the ash valley had they at France transfer.

The battle was a turning point in the war guidance of the oath comrades, since it proved that the infantry was not in form of the mercenary troops any more the alone war-crucial weapon. They climbed down from their great power position and did not interfere any longer into the war around Milan. They swore themselves to never interfere more into the trade of the world. This was the first step for the policy of neutrality of Switzerland.

In Duerrenmatt's novel “the judge and its Henker” the word “Marignano” finds to application as curse.

Still for a long time the fight for the duchy Milan lasted, because the German Reich and France argued about it. In the year 1521 entriss it the German emperor the Frenchman in the battle with Bicocca, and belonged it to 1859 to the having citizens in such a way. Since at that time Milan belongs to the Kingdom of Italy.


  > German to English > (Machine translated into English)