hits are called completely generally easily in-usual instrument-valley-accompanied pieces of singing with little fastidious, often humoristic or sentimental texts. For years also ever more becomes the 1940er the influence of jazzigen rhythms and harmonies apparent with the hits. Thus the hit is an ear worm, an industrially made peoplenear Liedchen, a harmonious melody with simple text, those at the public " strikes " and is it also as sentimental song so mentioned.

Table of contents

the Gassenhauer or the attempt of a definition of the hit

Der Fonograf ermöglichte das Schlagerhören auch zu Hause
of the Fonograf made possiblethe hit hearing also at home

provable starting from the outgoing Middle Ages gave it jokeful or also crude songs, which circulated to z in the simple people and by the art music either were ignored or assimilated -. B. as church song with new text or as hidden musical basis ofreligious Figuralmusik. The invention of the Notendrucks with type bars in 16. Century made for the first time the massive and European-wide spreading possible of music, so that melodies like “Pavane de Spaigne/La Spagnoletta”, “La Follia” and. v. A. became notorious.

The term of the hit in the today's sense developed toward end19. Century. The invention of the Grammofons as well as the arising film industry contributed fast to its spreading. It is thus a product of the industrial company. However its Schnelllebigkeit shows that he represents rather a commodity, as a work of art setting in the long term. The hitthe mass public searches, by addressing dreams, which he repeats again and again as messages in Kehrreimen in the texts. The hit depends in music usually on the dominant in each case dance form. Simple rhythms and melody sequences, which are put on on fast recognizing, determine its character.

InFrance as well as in the French speaking part of Belgium hits are called against the German linguistic usage not chansons (this is rather an expression for songs with literary requirement), just as few chansons à la mode (one if necessary still finds this outdated expression in old encyclopedias), but variétés; according to the hot hits in the Italian not CAN zone (this is rather the correspondence of the French chansons), but brani (singular brano).

Theodor W. Adorno, the well-known Frankfurt music scientist, philosopher and sociologist, said once about the effect of the hit and itssocial function:“Hits supply between enterprise and reproduction of the worker clamping with replacement for feelings at all, of which their I ideal revised up-to-date says, it must it have. ”

As always one also to the critical theory to stand likes, the definition of hit, like her originalonce existed, today became extremely heavy. The hit, which hit as music piece and which finds from a broad social class also as such acceptance, does not exist to no more. The music taste became more differentiated. One should refrain therefore from a valid definition and nowadays rather from Hit for Popliebhaber, hit for people music fan or also hit for Ethno skirt Fetischisten and which everything still at style directions gives it, speak. The development there however was only one.


“I loads gladly me guests” or: Like everythingbegan (1900 - 1919)

..ich lade gern mir Gäste ein (1907)
. .ich loads gladly me guests (1907)

the first German-language hits are into the numerous Operetten, which “hit “ around 1900 into Vienna. Johann bunch, son and father, supplied the maintenance-addicted better conditions with Operettenmelodien. However “The bat “, the summit of the classical Viennese Operette gushes only so over from ear worms: Alfred's song Täubchen, the distance rubber strip ore is, count Orlowskys Couplet 's is times with us like that custom, Rosalindes Csárdás and Adeles Ariette play I the innocence of the country, Alfreds' drinking song drink, sweethearts, drink fast and the Abgesang lucky is, who forgets. Nearly 500 works enclosure its life's work.

But also Berlin, the German Operettenzentrum had its Gassenhauerkomponisten. The most well-known was Paul Lincke (1866-1946), that with “Mrs. Luna” 1899 its largest successhad. Individual songs of Lincke were for many decades “hits”:That makes the citizens of Berlin air, air, air, the Glühwürmchen idyll Glühwürmchen, Glühwürmchen glimmre, Glühwürmchen, Glühwürmchen gleams from “Lysistrata” and locks, which lie in the moon. Eduard Künnekes (1885-1953) the cousin from Dingsda, 1921 in Berlin uraufgeführtwith the song of the stranger I are only poorer move-associate and the Tango a Kindchen, you do not have not so terriblly much to think.

Tanz zum Schlager:...schau doch nicht immer nach dem Tangogeiger hin...
Dance to the hit:… do not look nevertheless always toward the Tangogeiger…

“a Miezekatze has 'SE” or: From the ballroominto the Filmtheater (1920 - 1933)

the 20's and the beginning of the 30's was coined/shaped of the invention and rapid spreading of the Tonfilms. Thus the most diverse hits and melodies now also a broader public became accessible. The texts of the songs often are from ratherdoubtful quality and remind in beginnings even at the Dadaismus. In addition z belong. B. Reime like which makes the Mayer at the Himalaya and under the Pinien of Argentina as well as my uncle Bumba from Kalumba and my parrot does not eat hard eggs.

Die Ziegfeldgirls (aus den USA engagiert) tanzen in den Ballsälen Berlins auch zu Schlagermusik
The Ziegfeldgirls(engaged from the USA) dance in the ballrooms of Berlin also to hit music

also a certain ambiguous Frivolität (see heading: A Miezekatze has SE) cannot one to the texts not deny. If it in a piece means: Veronika of the asparagus grows or I has MsHelen bathe long and why are a woman no relationship to have, then that testifies on the one hand the wild ones in such a way specified twenties, on the other hand in addition, an arising clearing upness and emancipation. Very popular and also today to still often hear is the well-knownHit I is adjusted from head to foot to love. In the ballrooms Swing and Charleston as well as the scandal dance Shimmy one danced.

Well-known representatives of this kind music were above all the Comedian Harmonists, Marlene Dietrich, Fritzi Massary (Josef, oh Josef, whichyou are like that keusch), max of Pallenberg, Zarah Leander, Liane Haid and Lilian Harvey. It was also no miracle that the straight churches pulled sharply against this kind of the pleasure to field, if texts like the following on the road orMeetings were sung:

“Dear treasure”, he, “you spoke is my Süs.
Becomes nevertheless mine, in quotes.
Dear treasure, which I am to tell you.
Look, I könnt' for you from the dog the fodder steal.
Faith to me, I say that not to everyone. “,
he spokeleis' and a feather/spring kissed.
“Is nevertheless dear and wird' not always brittle.
It is May, comes leg' with me an egg. “

Nevertheless soon it should be past with text passages like your nature was once faithful-German Germanic. It is expressed Spanish at one time from thatHit of the Comedian Harmonists my dear treasure are you from Spain. Many Jewish artists left Germany, partially because they suspected, what would happen or also because it was affected by appearance prohibitions already. Up to the Olympiad in Berlin 1936 the Nazi regime gave way itselfoutside still liberally. Afterwards a merciless pursuit began.

“lily Marleen” or: The Nazis and the hits (1933 - 1945)

Schlager und Propaganda aus dem Volksempfänger
hit and propaganda from the people receiver

in the third realm also the hit of synchronising fell to the victim and had to hold for propaganda purposes.The easily frivolous texts of the past years disappeared, the film and record industry fell under national supervision, as it is descriptive described in the motion picture film Comedian Harmonists of Joseph Vilsmaier. Above all Jewish musicians like the Comedian Harmonists received appearance prohibition. Fritz Löhner Beda, the author of Operetten how the country of the smile and the flower of Hawaii, that the texts for numerous hits, calculated under it bananas, what you with the knee dear Hans make? Where is your hair, August? and in Nischni Nowgorod , 1942 wrote in Auschwitz were murdered. Fritz green tree,the author of the famous title I has Ms Helen bathes longs in DAK-strikes murdered. The Jews Alfred green forest, Fritz Rotter (Maier at the Himalaya) and walter Jurmann (Veronika, spring is there and Olga, daughter of the Volga), Robert Gilbert, On Sunday my sweet with me wants to go to composer and Texter also still of the hit many sung after the war to sails as well as Robert pride (which can the Sigismund for it that it is so beautiful?) emigrierten and with them also the Anzügliche emigrierte,Frivolous one and funny one. Back only a sound that remained arischer humor. Other interpreters and actor, like Marika skirt or Johannes Heesters were clamped often unknowingly for propaganda purposes.

Straight ones toward end of the war, when the allied ones had already begun with bombardment, were looked for explicitly texts, thosethe German population again courage to make should.Goebbels let a proper competition align even. Texts developed as of it do not go down the world not. Also the songs I white, it once a miracle geschehn, likewise sung of Zarah Leander, and thatharmlessly sounding Song of Heinz resting man: That cannot shake a sailor nevertheless became, although already 1941 and/or. 1939 for the first time taken up, again often in the radio easily. Also world-famous the hit lily Marleen, first sung of Lale Andersen, one become, fell into this time.That already 1915 written the text and 22 years later toned song should according to Goebbels first than march be played. Mrs. Andersen refused, and than it 1941 in the broadcast was played, was the triumphant advance of the melody any longer to be stopped. Because of its dire character playing becamefrom lily Marleen in the largeGerman realm already soon forbade. However that did not prevent the German soldier transmitter Belgrade to spread it further and soon developed also not-German versions.

“I fahr' with my Lisa” or: Otto ordinary consumer and its music (1945 - about 1955)

When after the war the first broadcasting stations were again approved, also the disk industry began to produce again. Sometimes as carnival songs composed Songs, which maintained ground beyond the närrische time , was simple. In addition also the song addressed in the heading counts, first of Jupp Schmitz was sung 1949: I drive with my Lisa, to the inclined tower from Pisa or later also who is that to pay and to 30. May is the world fall.

In the post-war period the musical taste Otto of the ordinary consumer ( figure from the film was Berlin Ballade (1948), represented mixed by a slim Gert Fröbe) multicolored. The songs extended over as different ranges of topics as the Mariandl (1947), which rather Austrian came along, over the Theodor in the fussballtor (1948 first sung of Margot Hiel, later became Theo Lingenthus much admits), up to the rather kabarettwürdigen Couplet: We are the natives of Trizonesien. With Trizonesien at that time still three-divided West Germany was meant.

Plattenspieler nach "Dauereinsatz bei Teenagerparties" (ca.1955)
Record players after “continous use with Teenagerparties” (ca.1955)

interpreter of this time were Ivo Robic (mornings 1959), Bruce Low (the oldHouse of Rocky Docky, Pferdehalfter), Margot Eskens (Tiritomba 1956 and Cindy, oh Cindy 1957), as well as straight Peter Alexander as well as Leila Negra and their much played title, starting with its career: The sweetest fruits eat only the large animals (the GermanVersion of the Italian Papaveri e papere of Nilla Pizzi).

Also Caterina Valente and Lys Assia tried with songs like Paris dream completely about the love (1955) to spread or Oh my dad (1954) after the lost war the tendency of a sound world. “Going it alsothe economic situation " was called the request in the economic situation Cha Cha of Hazy Osterwald Sextett and humans adhered to it. The record player became soon in demand equipment.

“homeless” or: In the Goggomobil after Rimini (approx. 1955 - about 1962)

which moved of the German Federal Republic toward end that50's and at the beginning of the 60's, its vacation in the south, prefers in Italy spending?

On the one hand it was the Wirtschaftswunder in such a way specified , which rinsed the workers and employee more money in the purse, on the other hand was surely it in addition, the longing after Bella Italia, to the country, where the lemons blühn. Friedel Hensch & the Cyprys had already prognosticated it 1953 in their hit, for a travel to the Mediterranean.
...eine Reise in den Süden...
… a journey to the south…
Thus about 4.5 million Germans rode along in the year 1956 Heinkel - scooters, Volkswagen beetles and Goggomobil into the south on the search for a heileren world. Also in the hit world this finds its precipitation.

Possibly Rudi Schuricke with that had already 1943 taken up, but only to 1950 to the hit hit was promoted: If with Capri the redSun in the sea sinks (also admits become under the title: Caprifi) already the basic stick for the search for harmony, the south, sea and luck put. Arrivederci Roma and O mia bella Napoli sung of Lys Assia, Rocco Granata with its hit Marina or alsothe Caterina Valente with Ciao, extremely popular in Germany, ciao Bambina is only few examples. René Carol received with red roses, red lips, red wine the first golden record of the post-war period. Even in the GDR there was Italy hit, thus z. B. A-mi-amore of Günter Hapke.

Sehnsucht nach Sonne und Strand
Longing after sun and beach

of sailor songs and Meeresballaden had boom. To call here in particular Freddy Quinn, that is lasting for weeks the hit parades with its hits: The guitar and the sea, boy come soon again and under strange stars kept occupied. Butalso the Austrian Lolita with their hit, which arrived even into Japanese and into the US-Charts: Sailor, your homeland is the sea and Lale Andersen one with: Under the red lantern of pc. Pauli, blue night at the port or a ship will come. InEast Germany was at this time for example Jenny Petra with white clouds, blue sea and you popular.

A hit, which schallte 1962 from each music box, is here again representatively of the category of the hit separately mentioned: Hot sand sung of Mina. The text is as obscurely as ambiguous and nevertheless the dte rodents of this time meet in the middle in the heart:

Black Tino, your Nina/was already with the Rocco in the word
because the Rocco it now found/black Tino must you away ",
hot sand and a lost country anda life in danger
hot sand and the memory of the fact that it was once more beautiful.
Black Tino, your Nina/dances in the port with the Boys
only the waves sings quietly/which from Tino of everyone white.
Hot sand… etc.
Die Musikbox "schluckt" (die Groschen) und "spuckt" (die Songs).
The music box “swallows” (thoseGroschen) and “spits” (the Songs).

This only as an example, which, as a hit fan once noticed, clearly show that hits can tell something in three minutes, to which a novelist needs often 300 sides.

Other large hits of this time, those not necessarily in the “south, sun,Sea " - pattern fit, were among other things:

to likewise mention is here the models at that time of the dte rodents Conny (two small Italians) and Peter Kraus (Sugar Sugar baby), which were successful with several films and hit titles both in the Duett and solo. Ted Herold with titles was not less successful as I is a man or a Moonlight.

This era with first successes was terminatedthe Beatles into Germany with come give to me your hand and you loves you, yeah yeah yeah. While only Elvis Presley could break through more frequently times the Phalanx of the German Nummer-1-Hits before, this happened now ever more frequently with English-language titles. The hit industry reacted to it.

“MEMORies OF Heidelberg” or: German, but ask with “Accent “(approx. 1960 - about 1968)

the tide of the foreign interpreters and hit texts were not any more to stop. The “globalization “of the music industry began beginning to center of the 1960er thus already years. Nowto do, in order the public taste are sufficient, sent English, French, Scandinavian and Italian interpreters, who were already successful in their country, with German texts on the market. By the numerous singers and singers are here some mentioned (enumerating contains no valuation and raises noneRequirement on completeness):

  • Alma Cogan, threshing floor lake Waltz
  • Peggy March, with 17 one has still dreams; Gus Backus, there the old
  • chieftain and many different spoke MEMORies OF Heidelberg (1967). The artist spoke at this time no word German.
  • Bill Ramsey, Pigalle; Sugar doll - Bill Ramsey was before a jazz singer and arose in night clubs.
  • Rita Pavone, if I were a boy
  • Siw Malmkvist, dear grief am not worthwhile myself not and many different.
  • Petula Clark, Casanova kiss kiss
  • Billy Mo, I purchase me rather oneAnimal oiler hat
  • Nana Mouskouri, white roses made of Athens
  • France Gall, spoke no German and sang the German version of its Grand Prix success Poupée de cire, poupée de son: Rose-pink ballon
  • Françoise Hardy, ask the evening wind
  • Adamo, it goes a tear on journeys
  • Esther Ofarim, Cinderella Rockefella
  • Wencke Myhre, bite not directly in each apple; Bang-red rubber boat; It is located in the gate
  • Connie Francis, the love is a strange play, of beautiful strange man, Paradiso, Barcarole in the night

simultaneous triedmany sportsmen as hit artists. While the hurdle runner Martin Lauer was successful already in the years before with a certain musi potashty and songs such as taxi after Texas and I seat so gladly at the campfire, successes of the ice art runners Marika Kilius were if the cowboys dreamed, Hans Jürgen Bäumler Honeymoon in pc. Tropez and Manfred high-speed villages if you times alone are as well as the football player Franz basin farmer property of friends and the Torwarts Petar Radenkovic are i Radi, am i king their sporty career to be probably only owed.

“however ask alsoCream " or: with the 60ern is still long not yet conclusion (1968 - 1980)

the German hit had its wedding in the 1950er, 1960er and 1970er years. Center of the 1960er began to decrease/go back the meaning of the hit. Regards one both the sales figures and those, One states hit parades of the individual transmitters that the portion of the German hits approached toward end of the 1960er years of the lower limit. 1962 if still nearly all Nummer-1-Hits on German was sung, the portion already of 1966 sank on 50% and end of the decade layit straight times with five to ten per cent. The Beatmusik, the skirt and the Pop conquered the German hit market and the interpreters celebrated before fristeten a niche existence. Which it is not to be called that not also times or other title a place into thoseTop Ten created.

But into the 1970ern the hit flowered again up, which also on the increasing spreading of television sets (Olympiad Munich 1972; Soccer world championship 1974) and relevant music transmissions exerted by it to lead back was. The Second Channel of German Television hit parade, into the 70ern quasi the first instance in things hit musicon the television, presented weekly old and new interpreters and songs. Also with it Michael cross-beam (Mendocino , tears did not lie , barefoot in the rain, Lucille) were often, Udo Jürgens (however please with cream and with 66 years) with its numerous hitsor its Namensvetterin Andrea Jürgens (and I love you both), one from view of the music industry “hopeful representative” of the completely young new generation hit singers. In addition, Chris Robert (you cannot be always 17), Cindy & Bert (again and again Sundays), Bernd Clüver (the boy with the harmonica), Jürgen Marcus (a song pulls outside into the world) or Katja Ebstein (it was once a hunter, theatre) belonged to the German hit scene to the “long-lasting phenomena”. Straight one into the 70ern was thoseNumber of hit One hit Wonders enormously highly. Even if determined the Top-10 of the usually-sold titles in Germany ever more frequently English-language Songs at the front places, determined weekly by Media control, the hit seemed nevertheless to take a safe position in the music taste of the Germans. Starting from 1971 of Ilja judge in the Second Channel of German Television moderated transmission “Disco” seized therefore on one mixes initially from national and international singers back. But the arising Disco - wave provided also in Germany for a changed music taste. The hit singers took care of partly the new and above all faster rhythmsand tried to transfer these to the concept of the hit music.

Here remained however also the expenditure on the distance, for which up to then into hit production one had put. In former times still sophisticated arrangements were written and with Studio - Combo - often also still alsoBackground choir - brought in (e.g.Then already rather the Piano Player of France Gall), then took over more and more a simple Synthesizer the complete company of the interpreter. Thus the individual titles lost their special unmistakableness in favor of a fast and low-priced production.

new developmentsor: “Everything has an end…”? (1980 - today)

Guildo Horn ließ den Schlager noch einmal aufleben.
Guildo horn let the hit revive again.

Starting from beginning of the 80's the “new German in such a way specified wave “(NDW) began, which had hits together with the term only very little. Ever more hitfrom the Media control Hitparade to favour of the NDW Songs were displaced. And in such a way soon English Songs and NDW songs the hit parades divided. The hit slipped in the hit parades, and also in the radio less and less hits were played, so that it fristete soon an edge existence. Around it, tried both the interpreters concerned and the music industry “save” him in the numerous transmissions of the people music to position again. In the 90's there was z in Germany, released by new “old mode trends”, thus clothes and accessory of the 70's, a hit Revival.B. by Guildo horn, Dieter Thomas's bold or Petra bead. Furthermore then - the umpositionierten - large successes had to register rather popular hit. 1997 were introduced for the first time to Germany a format hit parade for titles of this category. The “German hits Charts” appeared in theirfirst expenditure in November 1997 with support of Uwe Hübner (at that time moderator of the Second Channel of German Television hit parade). Here title of the hit Revivals was, “classical hits” as well as German-language Popnummern under a roof united. The Schlagercharts belongs meanwhile to Media control, where they are led as pure Verkaufscharts.

The hits of theGerman hit became and/or. become z. T. in the course of the Retro trend still strengthens in the radio or television easily. The Second Channel of German Television hit parade was stopped however in December 2000.

An international competition for the simple song absolutely is the Grand Prix Eurovision de la chanson, also“Eurovision Song Contest” mentioned, which took place for the first time 1956 and since that time is organized annually. In the last years increased Pop titles participated in it. With the conventional term “hit” had to do this competition thus nearly nothing more.

Hits can develop from nearly all music directions. Thereforeone can become fündig also under the following references:March music, dance music, maintenance music, blowing music, Beat, Blues, chanson, Country, electronic music, Folk, Soul, jazz, Popmusik, Drum&Bass, Hip Hop (music), popular classical period, Reggae, Skirt, Operette, musical, revue, Vaudeville, Varieté, Kabarett, Couplet, chanson, Gassenhauer, Moritaten, film music, jazz.


  • calls trivial hit starting from center 19. Century liked melodies from opera and Operette,then also new preparations. (Dtv Atlas to the music)
  • Ey, as tastes the Caffe sweet, lovely as thousand kisses, moderates as Muscaten wine. Caffe, I must have Caffe; And if nobody wants to refresh me, oh gives in such a way me Caffe. ... The cat does not leave that to mice, young far fromremain Coffeeschwestern. The nut/mother loves the Coffeebrauch, the large mummy drank such also, who wants now on the daughters lästern! (out: Johann Sebastian brook, “Kaffeekantate”, BWV 211, “is silent satisfies, does not chat not”)
  • to Bona nox! A of right Ochs, Bona is notte, love Lotte, Bonne nuit, Pfui, pfui,.. (from Canon Bona nox; Text and music: W. A. Mozart)


  • Theodor W. Adorno: Introduction into the music sociology. Twelve theoretical lectures. II. Easy music, into collected writings volume 14 Suhrkamp, 1973
  • Mathias Bardong (Hrsg.): The encyclopedia of the German hit, 1993,Series of music, bulkhead, Mainz, ISBN 3-7957-8208-2
  • Moritz, Rainer: Hit, 2000, dtv, Munich, ISBN 3-423-20362-5
  • Näther, Stephan; Regauer, Ernst: Grand Prix d'Eurovision and German hit competitions since 1956, 2001, Berlin
  • Peter, Christian; Longer, Barbara: Lily Marleen. A hit makes history, 2001, Bonn
  • haven leRoi, André:Hits do not lie: German hit and policy in their time, 1998, meal, ISBN 3-88474-657-X
  • Seiler, Christian (Hrsg.); Becker, Reinhilde [Ill.]: The most popular hits of the 20's, 1998, Vienna, Munich; ISBN of 3-85223-412-3

hit films (selection)

see also

Wiktionary: Hit - word origin, synonyms and translations

Web on the left of

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