the Schlagzeug, also Drumset (takes of the English designation drums), is a combination of different percussion instruments. To the today's form of the Drumsets Snare ( old belong dt. Designation 'small drum '), the bass drum (also “Bassdrum” mentioned), Tom Tom (umgangsspr. plural “toms”), different basins and small perkussion like e.g. Woodblock, Cowbell or clip ring. This combination can by the respective musician individually arranged and by stands (so-called. Hardware) to be arranged. For the emergence of the Schlagzeugs patenting of the first Bassdrum pedal is relevant in the year 1887 by J. R. Olney, the production of the first series product by William F. Ludwig in the year 1899 and - in soziokulturellem area - which led “NO-Drumming-Laws” in the USA, which it to the slaves it forbade their traditional hand drums to play and thus to the fact that the African, strongly rhythmic music culture with European and/or. eastern percussion instruments one maintained. The first complete Drumset came 1918 by the Ludwig Drum corporation into the trade.

In the course of history were established different standard superstructures, which can be regarded for their respective music category as typical. Besides today an electronic counterpart, whatever one calls E-Drum briefly , in innumerable configurations exists. Generally linguistic usage are the entrance terms synonymously, academically however is the Schlagzeug, as synonym for rammer, the generic term for all impact and/or. Perkussions instruments.

The Drumset is noted within the usual note system. For the marking the so-called serves. “Neutral Notenschlüssel”.

structure of standard of the Drumsets

table of contents


the choice of the instruments depends particularly on the musical context, in addition, on the Stilistik and the conceptions of the Schlagzeugers, why different Drumsets in the reference to extent and structure can deviate strongly from each other. Usually however a combination of the following instruments is to be nearly always found:

Snare (drum)

the Snaredrum (snare drum, small drum), briefly “Snare”, forms the main instrument and thus (centrically platziert before the player) the heart of the Drumsets. She comes from the European military music and from different forms of march and agitating drums developed.

It possesses a boiler made of wood or metal, which is covered on both sides with 'skins '; on the impact skin side with an easily roughened up, usually white or light-grey coated skin, on the lower surface with a smooth, clearly thinner resonance skin (originally animal skins/skins begun, today are actually used only industrially manufactured products from plastics with metal tires).

The Snare receives their characteristic sound by a number of parallel strained wire turns, which are strained over the resonance skin from downside. This also Schnarrsaiten called Snare carpet shifted with each impact in oscillation, whereby they cause the typical sound of the Snaredrum and when whirling close, laminar sounds develop to let. With the help of special mechanics (the Snare removal) the Snare carpet can also switched off, i.e. taken off from the skin, it becomes whereby the Snare effect is omitted. The tension of the Snare carpet can besides differently be adjusted, which makes a multiplicity possible of different tone qualities.

The skin diameter amounts to usually 14 tariff, usual boiler depths is 5 or 6.5 tariff. Meanwhile also pico-loose acre with only 8 or 10 tariff diameters have themselves or relatively flatten boilers interspersed, which are used frequently as additional instrument (“simmering it acres”); also with the main instrument in the meantime more frequently more unusual dimensions are to be found, e.g. 13 tariff times 7 tariff or 15 tariff times 4 tariff. Large agitating drums, as they find occasionally in the orchestra use, bring it also on mass of 16 tariff times to 16 tariff.


bass Drum
a bass Drum Rosette with 2 holes

the Bassdrum (bass drum, large drum, bass drum, ugs. also „Kick “) is a further important main instrument in the Drumset. It consists of a large, usually reciprocally covered wood boiler, which rests in side situation and is held by 2 legs hinged (in the case of transport) on the front (=dem player turned away) end in its position, which are provided with thorns or skid-proof rubber feet. The Bassdrum becomes with the help of a pedal, which serves Bassdrum Fussmaschine, which is fixed at the impact skin side with a clamping device at the clamping tire of the drum. When alternative to the use of 2 Bassdrums knows a double pedal is used, by mechanical transmission playing with both feet on only a Bassdrum makes possible.

The resonance skin at the front side is frequently with one, sometimes also several holes provided, in order to affect and the microphone acceptance facilitate the sound accordingly, occasionally is missing it also completely. Beyond that frequently cushions or other absorbing materials are put into the Bassdrum, in order to achieve a desired sound. In the start time of the Drumsets the bass drums with a diameter of 28 “or also 30 “were very large, before gradually also smaller sizes interspersed themselves. Long time was a boiler with 14 “depth and 22 “diameters standard, nowadays 16 “or 18 “deep Bassdrums is preferred. Depending upon style direction (and desired transportation expenditure) more modern sets are equipped with differently large Bassdrums, of 16 “or 18 “up to 26 “skin diameters.

Bassdrumrosette the securing clip is called, which is needed for the assembly by basins and Toms on the Bassdrum. The Bassdrumrosette is offered usually with two or three tooling holes and is usually in the scope of supply of the Bassdrum contained.


Toms are wooden, reciprocally covered drums with a diameter of approximately 6 “to 18 “. Depending upon kind of the suspension and/or. the list becomes occasionally in rack toms (dt. “Hectar GET COM”), which require a stand or a mounting plate over the Bassdrum, and floor toms (dt. “Condition Toms”), which differentiated on own, at the boiler installed extendable legs. The boiler depths are very variable, Floortoms are frequently deeper (diameter corresponds to boiler depth) than free-hanging Toms of same diameter.

Concert Toms, which do not possess resonance skin, sound somewhat more tonal (perhaps comparably with Timbales) and were v.a. into the 70ern quite far spreads. Outside of the classical rammer they are however still used hardly (famous exception of the rule: Phil Collins).

Depending upon format, kind of the skin and the tendency can sound very different to Toms; from rather one it in the jazz or meanwhile also again in the Popmusik finds, is usually 2 Toms, a smaller (10 “- 13 “) over the Bassdrum and a larger (14 “- 16 “), which are platziert laterally by the player. Most standard sets are delivered with 3 Toms; some Schlagzeuger avail themselves of a whole arsenal of Toms, while others do again completely without them.


/that rear-has consists of a co-ordinated pair of basins of different clay/tone situation, which rear-has on one machine is installed and over pedal mechanics with the foot be played can. Depending on, as long and/or. the contact of the two basins is short, develops different noises. If the Schlagzeuger keeps the pedal stepped, the two basins remain producing closed and with the stick easily very short, dry accents. By combining different impact techniques and differently strongly opened basins (Openings) many different effects can be obtained. On that usually a continuous pulse, or firm rear-has rhythmic figures („pattern “) is played. Most rear-Hats has a diameter from 13 to 15 tariff, some effect rear Hats is also smaller.


in principle can be differentiated 4 basin types, which fulfill different functions in the Drumset according to their sound characteristic:

Ride basin

the Ride basin (ride cymbal) has usually a diameter of 16 “- 24 “and can from the material be very differently strong. Depending upon treatment they have a relatively defined notice („Ping “), which is underlaid by a background noise. Some basins sound relatively to drying, other one (thinner) produce for more „white noise “and produce a rather undefined sound carpet. If one alludes the crest („bell “), then a bright, penetrating, clear bell-like clay/tone sounds, plays one against it at the edge, becomes the overtone portion accordingly more largely, and the basin „swings itself up “. According to their applications are there some special forms, like e.g. To produce Sizzle Rides, which are equipped with some rivets, around a flowing, pronounced background noise or the Flat Ride, which has no crest. On the Ride basin usually a continuous pulse, or firm rhythmic figures („pattern “) is played.

Crash basins

Crash basins (crash cymbal) are compared with Ride basins usually more thinly and smaller (about 14 to 20 tariff diameter) and from their treatment for a clearly higher portion of „white noise “appropriate. Their sound is rather noise-like and is also accordingly used, i.e. for accents or (for example with Filzschlägeln) for swelling Crescendo - effects. Dependent on size and treatment different Crash basins resound differently for a long time. Larger/heavier Crash basins are suitable partly also for Ride figures.

China basin

the China basin (China cymbal, Chinese basin) represents to that extent an exception, since it differs clearly - under another cultural background - in the shaping from the other basin types. It has likewise an exposed crest, however it is round contrary to the other described basin types frequently not, but rather cylindrical. Most obvious characteristic is however the high-curved edge, which lets the basin in the cross section look like a kind long pulled Gugelhupfform. The diameter is for instance with 14 “- 24 “. The Klangbild is comparably with that of a Crash basin, however rather „more dirtily “or „more roughly “and less defined, usually also shorter. They are used frequently for short, explosive accents or Staccato figures. Larger, often with Sizzles provided of China have also in the jazz/bend volume entrance than Ride basins found.

Splash and effect basin

Splash basin (splash cymbal) are comparable in kind and function with Crash basins, however they are in the diameter clearly smaller (about 6 “- 12 “), why they exhibit also another sound characteristic: Splash basins respond rapidly, sound brightly, spritzig and hardly resound. They are used for short, bright accents (frequently e.g. are they. particularly in the Dixieland to hear, often by hand stopped, what produces the typical „Pscht “.) Stewart copilot country and Manu Katché established the use of Splash basins.

Beyond that there is a whole number of most diverse effect basins with different special features such as holes, Sizzles, clips, etc., in order to extend the sound spectrum of the Drumsets. Creativity (and marketing activity) various basin manufacturer is almost inexhaustible, just as few as the list at names, under which mentioned products on the market are. Thus the pallet becomes on „Cups “, „Bells “, „stacks “, „mini China “, „Jingle Hats “or similar instruments ever more largely, whereby not all from these clearly to one of the groups specified above are to be assigned.


under hardware all necessary control elements become such as rear having and fussmaschine, basin stand, stands, various mounting plates etc. summarized. Also with the boiler firmly connected parts such as Spannböckchen, Snare removal, Tomhalterungen or Bassdrum feet fall under this term.

impact things notation

from the multiplicity of the possibilities shown above suggests itself already that it standardized „“set does not give; each Schlagzeuger develops his own, most individual composition, which he can vary in addition still in different situations in the course of the time.

Consequently also to today still no generally binding notation way for the Schlagzeug it became generally accepted which leads to the fact that at the beginning each composition, each Transkription and each text book the notation are described. One calls this with the English technical term drum the key.

Some relatively wide-spread write conventions can be worked out nevertheless: thus in place of the usual Notenschlüssel so mentioned „more neutrally a “Perkussionsschlüssel is used, since many components of a Drumsets are not been correct on an exact pitch. Furthermore it is a usual practice to represent the metallic single instruments (basin , bells etc.) with x-förmigen Notenköpfen while the actual drums receive usual Notenköpfe. Also approximate relative pitch relations should be readable in the note picture. Is also usual, the parts of the set, those with the feet to be played (bass Drum, rear-has) into the lower part of the note system to set, while with the hands (and/or. Sticks and Schlägeln) played figures to be noted further above. This can partly lead to complications, since those rear-has both with the fussmaschine and with sticks to sounding is brought. In such cases is tried to find a as clearly as possible readable notation since a completely written out impact things figure in the note picture can look fast very complex, even if it concerns a Groove simple in the reason.

A typical drum key could look for example in such a way (instrument designations and their abbreviations are nowadays usual practice):

Drum Key
Drum key

to the illustration before of the saying a practical example. A very rudimentary eighth note Beat, which a beginner would already learn in one of the first lessons, sees noted nevertheless already comparatively complicated out:

Einfacher Achtelnoten-Beat
Simple eighth note Beat


the skins - in former times from nature skin, nowadays usually from in or two-part plastic foil - on the drum boiler stretched by means of clamping tire (Hoops), which is predominant made of metal, sometimes from wood. This happens with the four to twelve tightening screws, dependent on the boiler diameter. In this way the skins can be been correct both in taut heating degree the fitting the music style, and tonally. The upper, taped skin is called impact skin, the lower resonance skin.

The boilers of the large drum (Bassdrum) and the Toms mostly are from wood. The most popular wood is maple (Maple), which offers a warm, balanced sound. Birke is “in natural way equalized” and therefore in the Tonstudio much likes. As further woods beech, Pappel, lime tree, knowing oak and some other, also non-native woods, find use suitable for different klangliche targeted applications and claims of quality. Wood mixtures occur. Plexiglass - boilers, knallig in the sound, extravagant in the optics, remained rather a niche phenomenon, are however closely connected with the name John Bonham (former Drummer of LED Zeppelin). The small drum (Snaredrum, Snare) consists often of metal, e.g. Steel, brass, copper, aluminum or again from wood. But straight hands the creativity of the masters of building of drums here far; thus there are Snaredrums from as exotic materials as hemp hard fiber. The fewer sound a boiler swallows (sound loss) so much the better is the drum sound. By it good quality of the drum boilers and Drumsets shows itself, because the sound is produced actually only by the skins and evenly wrong-proves not by the drum boiler.

Basins or Cymbals usually consist of alloys such as brass or different bronze like cupro-nickel bronze and tin bronze, whereby the latter is considered as the better material to basins. The tin content varies from 8% up to the bell bronze with 20%. The sticks are manufactured rarely from wood, less from plastic or carbon fiber and made of metal. Impact things brooms are usually made of plastic or metal. Other Schlegelarten consists mostly of wood.

The sizes of the drums and basins are indicated in tariff (inch, 1 tariff = 2.54 cm). Typical drum diameters are:

  • Bassdrum: 22 tariff (16 to 26 tariff)
  • Snare: 10 to 15 tariff
  • Tom Tom: 8 to 18 tariff

typical basin diameters are:

  • Ride: 20 Tariff (18 to 24 tariff)
  • Crash: 16-18 tariff (14 to 22 tariff)
  • Hihat: 14 Tariff (8 to 15 tariff)
  • China: 18 Tariff (12 to 22 tariff)
  • Splash: 10 Depending upon style direction different combinations can seem to tariff

(6 to 14 tariff).

Sizes of standard impact things:


  • Standard Crash: 16 "
  • standard Ride: 20 "
  • standard-rear-has: 14 "


  • Bassdrum: 20 "
  • Tom1: 10 "
  • Tom2: 12 "
  • Tom3: 14 "
  • Snare: 14 "

sizes of a typical Heavy Metal of Schlagzeugs:


  • Several Crashes zw. 16 " and. 22 "
  • up to 2 of China zw. 16 " and. 18 "
  • Splashes zw. 10 " and. 12 "
  • Ride zw. 20 and. 24 "


  • 2 Bassdrums 22 "
  • Tom1 10 "
  • Tom2 12 "
  • Tom3 13 "
  • Tom4 14 "
  • Tom5 16 "
  • (event.) Tom6 18 "
  • Snare 14-15 "

the most well-known manufacturers from Drumsets are among other things Brady [[1]], DW [[2]], Gretsch, Ludwig [[3]], Mapex [[4]], Pearl [[5]], pioneer, Prime Minister, talk skirt, skirt solid, Sonor [[6]], Tama [[7]], Yamaha (in alphabetical order)

play way

stick, broom, rods, Schlägel

Drum stick

drums and basins of the Schlagzeugs become by hand with two drum sticks (English “sticks “) mostly made of wood and the Bassdrum by foot and/or. Fussmaschine with a Schlägel easily, which possesses felt, a wood or a plastic head. By hand (hardly by foot) rods or brooms are used , if special effects, quieter impacts or constant wiping (by Jazzbesen on the Snare) are to be produced. Besides Schlägel with felt or Flanellköpfen for moderate or dull/musty play are for the hand play. With the play with the hands reflecting above all the sticks, in addition, the Schlägel of the swinging surface used, above all the more closely the impacts will become (up to a close impact carpet or eddy, particularly from press impacts). The utilization of the reflecting effect preserves besides the joints.

basic rhythm and basic rhythm, high low/light dark principle, Backbeat

the art of the impact things playing in volume is producing a rhythm, that the volume carries and together with the other instruments of the group of rhythms (particularly bass, Percussion, key board and/or. Piano, guitar, among other things) the basic Groove results in. In addition the Schlagzeuger usually uses a going through rhythm, with which the different ochestras use themselves supplementing. Starting point is usually the basic rhythm simple under the following “basic rhythms and kinds of clock” (see 3.1). Its core is the evenly struck dark light and/or. Low high change between only the Bassdrum (darkly, deeply: Impact or beat) and then the Snare (brightly, highly: Counterstroke or backbeat), in the Grooves however usually up to the indiscernibility, derived from it, varies. In very free styles, for example in the Free jazz or in Noise -, one breaks to styles with the basic principle of the simple basic rhythm however durably. Or as exception the simple basic rhythm rang out quasi in reverse in the Reggae of the 1970er: the Backbeat with Bassdrum.

form, speed, kind of clock

for producing a basic rhythm belongs that the Schlagzeuger plays as well as keeps the speed even not too slowly and not too fast that it controls above all the respective kind of clock and steers the form. Most frequent popular-musical form is the song or the Song. This and/or. this consists of the skillful lining up (arrangement) per the two basic forms: Bluesform (two 12-taktige Strophen, ever with clay/tone stages II VI VI or low high low high low) or A-A-b-A-form so mentioned (four 8-taktige Strophen, clay/tone stages for each Strophe A = I-IV-v-i or low high high low, clay/tone stages of Bridge b = IV-I-Iv-v or high low high high) or of both basic modules derived form components. A such component or run is called also Chorus (in contrast to Chorus as solo one, etc.). Form-referred task of the Schlagzeugers is here z. B.: each Strophe altogether a suitable space-filling background noise or - “chick” through particularly basin or Hihatspiel to give with brooms of played Snare, etc., and to give or suggest thus the arrangement of a piece; each Strophenanfang as well as thus mostly the employment of another musician (singing part, guitar-solo, etc.) to prepare with the help of the starting from/increase of the dynamics of the impact things play, of, “turn arounds”, eddies, etc. would throw in; to stress the emphasis; BREAK or, more comprehensively, a impactthings-solo to drums. Basierend auf der Hoch-Tief/Hell-Dunkel-Wiedergabe der Tonstufen einer Strophe, dem Hoch-Tief/Hell-Dunkel-Umspielen einer Melodie, usw., lassen sich Schlagzeugsoli aufbauen; see/hear z. B. Thelonious Monk (p), “Blue Monk”, different photographs, End-1950er, Drum Solos. Also different melody, chord or clay/tone stage patterns can be reconstructed in such a way. However thereby the drums keep their character as noise instruments. That is, no certain clay/tone is assigned to them, but they keep their nonspecific Klangcharakter, evenly high low and/or. Light dark gradations.


by a impactthings-solo would like to prove the Schlagzeuger its musical and technical being able at the Schlagzeug or “to heat” with a concert the public up. Either during a Songs in the solo part or as own piece can be played. With first it has usually a firm length and defines itself only by the applied rhythms and Patterns. With the latter the Schlagzeuger more free space has solo ones for experimenting and can that arbitrarily long continue. Depending upon style direction the Soli of the artists differs much. However a successful impactthings-solo is characterised by as accurate and often fast a play of partly very complicated rhythms as possible, which is often seen as visiting card for being able and talent of the Drummers. In the traditional jazz a good impactthings-solo is characterised particularly by its Stimmigkeit in itself and the purchase to the played piece. Particularly in the new Orleans jazz often reminds that solo ones of the melody of the piece. Usually there e.g. help knowledge of vestige to a versatile presentation. the double impact with eddies and fast rhythms is helpful.

simple basic rhythm,

company, 4/4

, 8/8 with the simple basic rhythm in the today

most usual kind of clock, that 4/4 (8/8 ), one accompanies basic rhythms and kinds of clock [work on],

  • by the “guidance hand” (with right violaters: right) evenly 8 Beats (Zählzeiten) on (Ride) the basin (or Hihatbecken) strikes or lining-adapted,
  • which “guidance foot” (with “right-foot-learn”: right) on (deep, dark) the Bassdrum also, then the third Beat
  • (Backbeat) the “Nichtführungshand” stresses the first Beat (with right violaters: left) on the Snare (highly, brightly) and at the same time the “Nichtführungsfuss” (…: left) by pedal-stepped Hihatbecken latches or - “Chick”,
  • then the fifth Beat again the guidance foot on Bassdrum,
  • then the seventh Beat (again Backbeat) again the Nichtführungshand on the Snare and at the same time the Nichtführungsfuss by pedal-stepped Hihatbecken latches or - “Chick”.

That was the first clock, and the following clocks follow exactly the same. The simple basic rhythm and developing from it complex Grooves explains among other things exemplary: Elvin Jones (D), difference Drummer, video, approx. 1979.

one would like eddy

, vestige at the end of z. B. one twelfth share towards Strophe, with which one could play a Blues, a Fill in, roll or eddy]], goes into 12 inserts. Clock the guidance hand on the Snare with the even 8 Beats. And between them the Nichtführungshand strikes exactly on the Snare the 16tel (both hands strike thus alternating and evenly), while both feet further-play before at the same time as. Both hands reach this eddy (roll) from 16 even impacts alternating with 8 individual impacts each, in addition, with 4 double impacts each or with combinations of single and double impacts (Paradiddle), z. B.: Double impact right, double impact left, single impact right, single impact left, single impact right, single impact left, repetition of the whole one. About 25 fundamental kinds of eddy are internationally standardized as vestige.


feet what the hands played before with eddies, play double Bassdrum play with Doppelbassdrumspiel, while the rights pierce the Beats (basin/HiHat) and the left Backbeats (Snare) evenly. From doubling, shifting or omitting a single or a double impact on Snare, in addition, straight Bassdrum as well as not only with the eddy, but above all also when accompanying, whereby the regular Beats of the guidance hand on basins/HiHat keeps running continuously here, most diverse impact figures result and particularly with companies the different styles from the simple basic rhythm. The eddies (by hand) are however almost alike in all styles. Accordingly one proceeds in other kinds of clock, in slow and fast speed, in the ternary one and in the free play, but whereupon no more cannot be entered here.

Because it is so important, appropriate double Bassdrum figure is represented to the above simple basic rhythm nevertheless here. From this figure the Doppelbassdrumspiel developed also historically, one can it nearly everywhere use, also for instance in the change with above simple basic rhythm. One can do it, if one is good then “drauf”, even z. B. even toward to straight Paradiddle mentioned develops, evenly as the hands eddies further plays.

  • The “guidance foot” (with “right-foot-learn”: right) evenly the above-mentioned 8 Beats (Zählzeiten) on right Bassdrum (or right or main pedal of the double foot machine) strike,
  • which “Nichtführungsfuss” (with “right-foot-learn”: left) exactly between them, i.e. 8 Sechzehntel strike on left Bassdrum (or left or secondary pedal of the double foot machine). Both feet strike alternating and evenly.
  • The guidance hand (with right violaters: right) at the same time 1 strikes. , 3. , 5. and 7. Beat of the right Bassdrum (the guidance foot) also, on basins (try also basin center or - “bell”) or HiHat, i.e. on their upper basin, either openly or down calmly on lower Hihatbecken (closed) or “half-open” (depending on, which pleases one) is.
  • The “Nichtführungshand” (with right violaters: left) strikes at the same time (stressed) on the Snare the Backbeats also, i.e. third and the seventh Beat.

That was the first clock, and the following clocks follow exactly the same. The guidance hand (with right violaters: right) it does not play thereby certain impacts of the two Bassdrums also, whereby one of the hurdles is taken in learning the impact things play, more exactly the improvement of the hand foot Kordination: One learns to play Bassdrumschläge “between them” without the hand takes part in it! If I along-play nevertheless the impacts of the right Bassdrum with the guidance hand, I learn still not to along-slam the impacts shut of the left Bassdrum with this hand. I could do that, also hardly there much too many and/or. much to fast impacts would be. In particular by omitting individually or several the above continuous Doppelbassdrumschläge can one some figures themselves develop.

12/8, 6/8, 3/4, 5/4, 7/4, etc., Metrum in Metrum play

place one “of eight impact” (8/8) are offered further usual kinds of clock, z. B.: “4er impact” (4/4), “of 12 impact” (12/8); “3er impact” (3/4), “6er-Schlag” (“half of 12” or 6/8), “5er impact” (5/4), “7er impact” (7/4), etc. With the 3/4, 6/8, 5/4, 7/4, etc., catches with the simple basic rhythm and here allegedly second Bassdrumschlag contrary to 8/8, 4/4 and 12/8 actually the new clock already. That is, in these kinds of clock a unit has or a clock a only one fundamental Bassdrumschlag, i.e. that, that the 1. Beat of the guidance hand on basins stresses: one of the hurdles in the impact things play, caused historically in this case. The Backbeats (on Snare/HiHat) lies with: 4er to 2 and 4, of 12 on 4 and 10; 3er to 2 and/or 3, 6er to 4, 5er on mostly 4, 7er mostly on 5, etc.

For example “emergency Fade Away”, a hit of The Rolling Stones, at the beginning of of 1964, in a relatively fast 4/4, was the basis an accent figure, which sounds bad SA new fact similar like Clave Beat or and which, it not “into shape-supported” by two clocks or straight number of clocks, continuously actually over three clocks in the four-quarter runs. With these Dreitaktigkeit knows the regular - the four, eight or Zweitaktige, briefly: the symmetrical -, works it too rigidly, to be overcome, without leaving the geradtaktige basis. The whole calls itself Metrum in Metrum play (turn arounds) and comes among other things complex forwards with Elvin Jones (D, modern jazz; McCoy Tyner, The material McCoy, LP, center D. 80's, simmer 1, “passion thanks”) or in the Salsa, where the Bassdrum is played, as if one uses a “third hand”, or with Jack DeJohnette (D, Neobop, skirt jazz; Jack DeJohnette…, The kind OF decaying jazz Drumming, 3. pr., 1989, S. 16-18). Metrum in Metrum play is beside high low clay/tone stage or - melody interpretation a further important means for the development of a Schlagzeugsolos as well as the impact things play and music making at all.

ternary the Beats or Zählzeiten, with

companies on Ride, Hihat basins and occasionally Standtom, other drums or cow bell, the Schlagzeuger pierces Beats or Zählzeiten, binary, usually, lining-adapted marked and her in such a manner for the volume. Beats or Zählzeiten are latently present, i.e., the per abstract music are, z. B. in the decaying jazz or during a schlagzeug or different Solos or in tracing, the more “ticks” the Beats or Zählzeiten like a common “internal clock” in all with one another playing musicians. Thus these do not come from the clock. The Beats or Zählzeiten becomes binary (evenly, latin well-behaved, rockig) or ternary (“dots”, triolisch, shuffle moderately: blues more rockiger 12/8, “more swingender” - somewhat inaccurately - jazz, many Reggae and some RAP and Hip Hop pieces) felt and easily.

analyzing and learning

analyzing and learning stand first in special connection with the structure of a Drumsets. The Schlagzeug or Drumset differs from the mass of other instruments by the fact that it is played not only with both hands, but additionally with both feet. The Schlagzeug or Drumset is not an individual instrument, but a system from several instruments, which must be for both hands and feet constantly comfortably attainable and as soon as possible noticable without exception: a condition system from (usually) percussion instruments. The main partial instrument, which can play Snare, however, is not called yet, to be able to play Drumset. The Snare is played with only two hands and the Drumset additionally evenly with both feet. On the Snare that is in principle learned drums of the impact figures, must be transferred however then only to the whole Drumset and its partial instruments and be particularly converted into the interrelation Snare Bassdrum. This transmission process is described with hand foot co-ordination and is a substantial component of impact things schools. Those are books for learning the schlagzeug or Drumsetspiels; z. B.: Joe Morello, Rudimental jazz, A modern application OF of vestige ton the drum outfit, 1967. Joe Morello, that was considerably involved in the hit “Take Five” (to Dave Brubeck, p, 1959, see 5.2.3), its 5/4-Takt not only for the jazz impact things play, but the schlagzeug or Drumsetspiel at all from enormous influence was, transfers here vestige (see 3.2 eddies, vestige) of the individual Snare to the whole Drumset. Special impact things schools are offered to etc. in the meantime for that transmission process on a double Bassdrum set, Latin Drumset.

Analyzing and learning take place then mostly at the music piece concerned. Who wants to play Schlagzeug or Drumset in volume, the kind of clock and above all form (see above, 2,3) must a piece hear. Then and learns one analyzes it on/with thatDrumset, plays it collectively with volume and takes best, in order to control and improve it. Sometime the Verselbständigung follows this phase of the Nachspielens or copying to the own style and play. The work on the computer, uncoupled by this practical experience and self-development, presupposes actually that practice and self experience, i.e. no theory without practice and in reverse. Here meaningfully impact things instruction can in and set. That can also mediate that with everything is important to determine calmly and hear, where impacts lie exactly and fall like them, this to note, in order to have it before eyes - z. B. assistance of Schlagzeug notes. Above all if the groups of music are complicated more largely and the arrangements, one does not get along without notes. At the latest starting from this stage also basic knowledge of the general music teachings becomes essential concerning form, clay/tone stages, etc., the Song analysis (S. 2.3). Importantly with learning further the correct body attitude to exclude (in particular in order health damage) is, to become again and again loose and in the long run with everything look good like initial cramping when learning, finally plays one sometime in all rule before public.


18. to beginning of 20. Century

already in 18. Century took over European orchestras from the Turkish military music the so-called Bassdrum Cymbal effect, by at the same time striking the Bassdrum with then a pair of basins mounted above, which becomes forerunner of the later HiHat. This effective effect does not only apply in classical or to E-music, march music, traditional one and decaying jazz, but for impact things play in skirt - and popular music became almost substantial. While earlier of Mark hanging volume had distributed the individual percussion instruments on several players, as it is this very day at march music orchestras, at the beginning 20 had. Century first jazz volume only the Schlagzeuger. The united most important percussion instruments on itself and this played new as uniform instrument, the Schlagzeug.

starting from 20. Century


to approximate to the 50's affected the jazz the Schlagzeug crucially. Starting from the Sechzigern the influence of the skirt music on the Schlagzeug became determining. Starting from the 80's increasingly electronics won such as Drumcomputer and E-Drums opposite the conventional - “acoustic” - Schlagzeug at meaning. Around 1990 electronic impact things play reached in almost completely digitally produced Techno, which conquered the popular music in the storm, mass effectiveness. Besides the acoustic Drumset continues to exist nevertheless. And in a kind reaction refers world music - “global village music” - acoustic percussion instruments out all Mr. Länder straight today, in times of the Internet and the globalization, also.

traditional jazz and Swing style (1917-40)

1917 are considered as starting point of acoustically documented jazz history, since in this year the original Dixieland jazz volume brought the first clay/tone admission in of this new style. The time up to the end of the actual Swing - era (around 1940) represents an epoch unique in music history, to that extent we developing an at that time completely new, nowadays extraordinarily widespread instrument and the pertinent play ways on the basis some ten thousand plates to very exactly document can. Contrary to all other instruments usual in the jazz the Drumset did not know direct forerunners in the European and African music.

The conventional partitioning of this epoch into the two large Substile of the older jazz (Traditional jazz and Swing) is only limited suited thereby for the description of the development of the impact things play. Also carried out itself, like Gunther Schuller proved, the transition of the older, march-moderate 2/2-Takt (so-called. „Two Beat “- Feel) to the more modern „Walking “, thus 4/4-bezogenen style rather gradually and far less break-like, than this older jazz historian (Panassié, Berendt among other things) had assumed.

Something simplifying said, the first two and a half decades of the jazz Drumming are coined/shaped by four main tendencies:

  • the development of the instrument as such: only end of the 1930er years had become generally accepted a certain uniform conception, which instruments a jazz set should include in approximately (whereby the range of variation, as mentioned up to which today's day is very large). In favor of that as essential regarded bass/Snare/Tom Tom combination with and basin rear-has without some before important effect instruments (Woodblocks, cow bells) rather was finally done.
  • the development from play techniques to the company of the improvisatorischen view of making music smaller volume (Combos). Important stylists in this surrounding field is the Drummer from Louis Armstrongs surrounding field, mainly baby Dodds, Zutty single clay/tone and Paul Barbarin, later also simmers Catlett.
  • The latter had also part at the development bends volume - Drummings, which put its main accent in a orchestrale play way, which carried and supported the arrangements the jazz of the 1930er years dominating large ensembles. This branch of the impact things play took its beginning with emperor marshal, to the Drummer of the Fletcher Henderson - orchestra, and brought the important bends volume Schlagzeuger out, among them Cozy Cole (with Cab Calloway), Jo Jones (with COUNT Basie) and the picking up vein Chick Webb.
  • Finally the Schlagzeug emanzipierte itself also as solo one - instrument during the Swing era. Although everyone developed the aforementioned (black) Drummer solistische ideas (in particular Webb is to emphasize here), was nevertheless the soloist Benny Goodmans Drummer of genes Krupa most popular at the broad ( white) public with distance.

The straight view of the quasi natural rhythmic authority of black musicians, spread in Europe, and some myths perpetuated in the jazz literature adjust often the view of some musical facts of a fundamental character, how it darbietet us the evidence of the extensively delivered clay/tone photographs:

  • The rhythmic concept of the Groove and in special that of the Swing existed at the beginning of the jazz only in embryonalster form. Both developed only in the run about one decade and found then gradually its would impactthings-in accordance with-eat forming out. Also the black musicians had to only learn „the Swingen “. The outrider in this regard was not e.g. Drummer, but Trompeter Louis Armstrong. in the famous Hot Five - and Hot Seven Studioaufnahmen far more rhythmic consistency to the day puts than any its Mitmusiker.
  • In the special established first Bläser such as Armstrong and Coleman Hawkins the asymmetrical element of the Swing Feels and the triolische Phrasierung. Those today completely naturally as plate working Offbeat - Akzentierung that rear-has on the Zählzeiten „2 “and „4 “as well as that the Viertelnoten triolisch out and umspielende rhythm of the Ride basin was established only end of the 1930er years as being certain rhythmic sample.
Rhythmisches Grundmuster der Swing-Begleitung
Rhythmic basic pattern of the Swing company
  • the excessive quantity, with Studioaufnahmen without the bass Drum one did, so that the needle does not jump out of the stencil, can on the basis countless photographs as myth be disproved. Probably there was this restriction in individual cases, which would explain, why anecdotes of this kind the veterans of the early jazz in its memories noted many later seemed worth mentioning; a usual practice it did not concern under any circumstances.

When the tuba was replaced as bass instrument in the jazz by the retort bass, the music lost a main element of its march-similar sound. The retort bass is beyond that substantially quieter than a tuba, is suitable however better for the realization that at that time than very modern felt 4/4 Walking bass - lines.
The musical trend went thus anyway to a quiet, more elegant, less „to plattfüssigen “bass Drum. The groups of rhythms of the epoch learned also fast that (with according to discrete volume played) continuous quarters on the bass Drum (four on the floor) the Sonorität of the retort bass could support enormously, which in these times before arising the electrical reinforcement of expressed importance was, in order a solid, dancable rhythm to produce.

Straight one by the example much-praised genes of the Krupa shows up, how complex this task is. Illuminating the comparison between Krupa and Jo Jones is with Benny Goodmans Carnegie resounds - to concert of 1938. Krupa bent always to it, through too according to played bass Drum quarter (and Tom Tom of accents) the bass too „ersäufen “, which that Goodman volume one quite „top-heavy “, badly „grounded “ensemble soundlent. On the other hand the Basie Rhythmusgruppe (with Jones at the Schlagzeug, walter PAGE at the bass, Freddie Greene at the guitar and Basie at the Piano) presents a substantially more balanced, more transparent, in addition, rhythmically more advancing sound.

The tradition four of on the floor kept to that extent, this very day with bend volume impact things voices, which are to be played in the Swing Feel, all four quarters the bass Drum are noted.

that penetrating rhythmic and thus particularly well dancable bending volume jazz of the Swing too rather listening jazz of the smaller Combos

changed itself decaying and Freejazz, Dixieland Revival, Rhythm and Blues, skirt “n” roll (1940-60), to the style of the Bebop than first of the styles the modern jazz beginning now - era around 1940 (Bebop, cool jazz, hard Bop, Modal). Modernjazz Schlagzeuger such as Kenny Clarke are characterised by abstrakteres impact things play. Snare or Bassdrum accompany no longer continuous, but combined a Snare Bassdrum throwing in commentate the improvisations of the other musicians and shift the stresses on exact between the otherwise usual rhythmic emphasis. The Beat at first still continuous basins or HiHat, both mark change however into dissolved play up to Elvin Jones and the sixties. Regular Beats “ticks” as common orientation then only like a “internal clock” in each musician of a Jazzcombo. Around 1960 then jedwede order in the completely free play ways of the developing Freejazz' dissolves .

Nevertheless determined proceedings turn out, e.g. in the Freejazz: Avoidance all its that constitutes sound, well-being sound or music so far at all, thus dominance noise clinging and dissonance (“European direction”); spontaneous including of the respective environment, for instance the stage soil or the Bestuhlung in the hall and all its that instrument is not in the traditional sense, but with certain noise something determining expresses (Han Bennink, D, among other things); increasing density to the “center” now and then density acceptance on the way in the “end”, whereby this happens spontaneously from all involved ones or has to happen; Audible making otherwise Nichthörbaren (“outrageous”), so the movement of a “pin in heap of hay” with the help of electronic reinforcement (Tony Oxley, D, among other things). To hold out and play to the end, highest musical being able requires such principles consistently and spontaneously to several, even if the seduction is quite large to cover Nichtkönnen with so-called free play. As a versatile Freejazz master internationally the German Schlagzeuger Günter summer is considered.

The modern jazz is considered to reaching highest possible abstractness because of its “bindingness” (contrary to the Freejazz) and here quasi as head of all popular music, whereby this is then therefore as “belly” to designate not devaluation. Rather it the Wechselverhältnis between “belly and head” to be, popular music would have never experienced and would have turned around important influences without its section modern jazz. Thus does not only belong to hit “Take Five” (Joe Morello, D) since Dave Brubecks (p) its 5/4-Takt and odd kinds of clock like the 3/4 beside that 4/4 to the standard level in the jazz impact things play, but in the impact things play at all.

Simon Phillips (Toto) behind its Schlagzeug with two bass Drums

the modern jazz has individual popular successes (e.g.: “Lullaby OF Birdland”, George Shearing, p, 1952, or “Take Five”, Dave Brubeck, p, 1959) and enormous influence on the Schlagzeug altogether between approximately 1940-60 (e.g. in the skirt' n' roll - hit: “Skirt Around The Clock”, Bill Haley, voc, g, 1954). But modern jazz applies from the outset occasionally even than elitär and releases reactions, so the return to traditional jazz, the Dixieland Revivals, and advancements of the Swing style particularly to the Rhythm and Blues and then for skirt' n' roll of the 1950er years. Contrary to the simply piercing Swing Bassdrum and to the multiplicity commentating Snare Bassdrum throwing of the modern jazz in and Blues and skirt' n' roll compact impact figures develop with the help of mobile played Bassdrum in the Rhythm: Different Bassdrum Doppelschläge in the interrelation with the regular Snare Backbeat results in so-called ostinate (regularly returning) impact figures. An example for this is “roll Over Beethoven” from Chuck Berry (voc, g), 1957. On basins and particularly now closed HiHat also again the Beats or Zählzeiten is pierced clearly to drying heavy.

skirt music, Soul, radio, skirt jazz, Reggae, Neobop (1960-90)

starting from end of the 1950er wins the new style of the skirt music more strongly at outline. The isolated change was to be noticed to the fact that one played the eighths evenly (binary) contrary to the dotted eighths (ternary) skirt' n' of the roll and Modernjazz reason Feelings, which prevailed up to then. Crucially for this the influence can have been evenly played Latinstile, so the “invention” of the Chacha around 1956. That change takes place to the beginnings of even skirt music still mainly in the USA, the world center of popular music up to then, thus with pieces as “Peter Gunn” from Duane Eddy (g), 1958, or “Tallahassee read leave” from Freddy Cannon (voc), 1959.

But shifts with groups such as The Shadows and then above all the international break-through of The the Beatles (Ringo rigid, D) into the early 1960ern the center of popular music to Great Britain. The Beat or the Beatmusik develops, with which the even skirt music play way dominates itself interspersed from Great Britain now internationally and everywhere. The jazz stopped with affecting mainly the Schlagzeug in its development. The Beatmusik or early international skirt music takes over the ostinaten impact figures from the Rhythm and Blues and the skirt' n' roll of the 1950er, which had been already transformed with the first skirt music pieces still in the USA ansatzweise by the ternary one into the more binary. With the Beatmusik became salient then the intensive interaction of E-bass (- guitar) and ostinaten impact figures, which reached its by more direct recording technologies then starting from The Kinks, The Yardbirds and The Who to today well-known “full” sound. Together with the metallic sound of guitar typical occupation the Beat volume coined/shaped and then the skirt volume absolutely: Leadgitarre, rhythm guitar, bass guitar and Schlagzeug, singing usually at the same time by the guitarists. The key board was added only later.

Schlagzeug, Schrägansicht
The USA its

popular-musical dominance a piece recovered Schlagzeug, diagonal view in the second half of the 1960er with the Soul music. The binary play or impact way began themselves to differentiate particularly by the Soul from James Brown (voc) and turned into toward end of the 1960er into the jazz skirt . The soulig rockige 4/4 or still “Proto-8/8” will slower, it can for each unit or clock quasi more Beats, Zählzeiten or impacts be accommodated, to the continuously pierced 8tel-Begleitebene of the Beats (on HiHat or basins) can better the impacts “between them” be played, i.e. particularly 16tel-Schläge on the Bassdrum. At that time successful Soulstücke shows that like “Hold on I'm Coming” from SAM & Dave (aluminium Jackson, Jr., D?), 1966, with which ostinate impact figures become very popular from 16tel Bassdrumschlägen for the first time. Thus the “genuine 8/8” (16tel Bassdrumschäge) were complete as only Soul and then however above all typical kind of skirt music clock.

Into the 1970-80ern radio and skirt jazz led to also slower 8/8 with pierced 16teln on HiHat/basins, e.g. in “Use ME” and “Ain't NO Sunshine”, Bill Withers (voc), 1972-74, as well as “Stratus”, Billy Cobham (D), 1973, and rockjazzig ostinate impact figures separated again somewhat on toward dynamic Snare Bassdum throwing in as in the modern jazz. The Reggae of the 1970er (Carl clay/tone bar-save, D, with Bob Marley, voc, and. A.) carried again the ternary Feeling inside, and rockig shuffle moderately 8/8 developed, e.g. with “Rosanna”, Toto, Jeff Porcaro (D), 1982. Starting from the early 1980ern itself developing RAP that radio rockjazzige and reggae affected development particularly continued. Starting from end of the 1970er the modern jazz a Revival (Neobop or new Bop) experiences, thus with The V.S.O.P. Quintet, Tony Williams (D), approx. 1977, and the Chick Corea (p) Acoustic volume, Dave Weckl (D), end of the 80's. Since approximately 1970 Latin win - play ways influence in the skirt music particularly by Carlo Santana (g). Particularly the Bassdrum keeps turned around in Salsa as well as other Latin styles introduction and is then played into the 1980ern, as if one did a “third hand” used, as it to Elvin Jones (D) before it in the modern jazz impact things play and shifted in this course the emphasis between the Beats. In the however whole range of even play ways, binary as also again ternary and latinhaft, skirt music forms the 70's 80's now with an unbelievable style element supply quasi classical kinds of play out (Deep PUR-polarizes, AC/DC, Motörhead, Jethro Tull, among other things). The Schlagzeuge achieve largest extents in the structure. Doppelbassdrumspiel or double foot machine play gains significance (Terry Bozzio). Doppelbassdrum pioneers were up to then rather exception features (Louis Bellson 1940er-50er, Keith Moon, Ginger Baker 1960er).

starting from 1990

one plays new skirt

and Doppelbassdrumspiel into the 1990ern in the skirt music, on the basis of the RAP and colored US-Schlagzeugern (Dennis Chambers, and. A.), which do not further pursue however then, Doppelbassdrum or double foot machine increasingly flexibly. I.e. Doppelbassdrum or double foot machine impacts sound no longer only continuous, but artful with accents as well as tracing. This way one forms new concise ostinate impact figures. Despite this development thrust the skirt music seems to have occurred such a thing like a zerfaserte late phase, since it looks first, as if as on a multicolored repaired carpet innumerable skirt directions developed. But with temporal distance, now in the center of the 2000er, the multicolored patch carpet yields itself more clearly drawing outlines. Are geographically seen at the strong propagation of the Doppelbassdrum and/or. Double foot machine play, which became thereby the standard, volume from the USA, Latin America and Europe (here particularly still from Great Britain, then Scandinavia, Germany, Poland, France, among other things) takes part. Here and there one begins to describe the style or the style bundle carefully with new skirt and summarizes with it, despite all differences and evenly carefully, volume like Iron Maiden, Tourniquet, Slayer, Metallica, Limp Bizkit, Deftones, Sepultura, The Pissing Razors, Pantera, Rammstein, among other things As Doppelbassdrummer does among other things Eddy Garcia, The Pissing Razors, Texas, out, probably as Arrangeur and a pianist in the Salsa works at the same time.


starting from center of the 1990er find 32tel of Bassdrum impacts entrance into the impact things play, thus that the 8/8 dominate, in skirt and remaining “more popular” music since the 60ern, are also still more slowly played than so far. That takes place over Doppelbassdrumspiel of more differently US, Latin American and European skirt volume, in addition, over Einzelbassdrumspiel, e.g. in different newer Songfassungen of Whitney Houston, with other one, often colored US interpreter inside or such, which hispanischer origin and in a kind new Reggae is. A current example of that Doppelbassdrumspiel US skirt volume is the piece “giant & Oppose” from Diecast, 2004; a current example of Einzelbassdrumspiel mentioned is the Song “Oh” from Ciara, featuring Ludacris, 2004. The dropped or very slow 8/8-Tempo finds expression in the fact that as Beats or Zählzeiten on HiHat, in addition, on the basins 16tel are particularly pierced (with 32tel “ornaments”), the Snare Backbeat on that 5. and 13. Beat to take place and above all ostinate Bassdrum figures be formed, whatever are combined on the Bassdrum from a mixture from 8tel, 16tel and now 32tel-Schlägen. Or one is limited, in order to hold with the double Bassdrum play of swift feet, the basic rhythm by the two hands, the hand struck HiHat or basin Beats and/or. count times on even only heavy 8tel and gets so a special contrast to the energy-loaded Doppelbassdrum figures, which consist of up-whipping 8tel-16tel-32tel-Kombinationen. Straight ones with Songs with 32tel-Einzelbassdrumspiel one hears the production by computers clearly, which quality loss does not have to be called, as well as stronger including global and/or. world in music working perkussiver effects and Verfremdungen.

Opposite the 32tel-Doppelbassdrum-Spiel the 32tel-Einzelbassdrumspiel gains lately significance. the Einzelbassdrumspiel has the advantage, the simple basic rhythm (S. opposite the Doppelbassdrumspiel. 3.1) to contain by interrelation of both feet (and not hands as with the Doppelbassdrumming). That is physiologically simpler, whereupon the Drumset play is based traditionally, and it takes all Drumstile off. So seen the expenditure of controlling the Doppelbassdrumspiels, which occurs essentially only in the hard & Heavy or new skirt, and there not yet times with all pieces, is disproportionately high.

The aforementioned, actually extremely slow 8/8-Stücke is overlaid often by double time play, which develops additional attraction or unbelievable tension of faster play within slow borders, which one cannot leave actually and wants (similarly swing in the jazz, occasionally smallwritten contrary to the 30's-year style of the Swing); see/e.g. hear: “Bills, Bills, Bills” or “Say My name” of Destiny's Child, 1999, probably Khari Parker (D). One understands more exactly by double time play, which is to be found in the traditional jazz that above all the melody-prominent (singing, Leadgitarre, Bläser, key board, among other things) play or become twice as fast. Remain particularly however Schlagzeug and bass, in addition, others like rhythm guitar, accompanying key boards, accompanying bläser or group of strike ago in the rhythmic akkordischen foundation. I.e. the rhythmic akkordischen instruments hold in this case the “super long seed” 8/8 and support that quasi over it twice as quick melody play at the most with fast would throw in (ornaments). Attempts that e.g. the Schlagzeug by twice as fast Snare Backbeat sometime completely “goes along”, brought however already in former times the whole building of the tension by double time play to the collapse and confirms only the contrast receipt through to stops of the rhythmic akkordischen basis.

function of the Schlagzeugs

the completion of the 8/8 with 16tel Bassdrumschlägen for the characteristic kind of clock of the skirt music, particularly on the basis of “Hold on I'm Coming”, SAM & Dave, 1966, and the Hinzutreten of 32teln on Bassdrum starting from 1990er center, pointed out before, permits following statement: An impact things style and the impact things play completely or one develops if except the Begleitebene that in addition-steps constantly and evenly struck as well as orienting Beats a second level, which lets also faster impacts play or add. This second level makes possible to insert and accompany more interesting with continuous company ornaments up to complex Snare Bassdrum throwing in in the modern jazz. The Beat on basins or HiHat keeps running at the same time, and the beatführende hand makes the Snare Bassdrum impacts between them not with (see above)! If one interrupts the company nevertheless and changes completely on the second level with faster and closer impacts, one trommelt roll or eddy or thus the BREAK or a impactthings-solo.

One of the hurdles in the impact things play to take, and actually in all style directions, not only in the modern jazz, consists in the art, impact things plays as little as possible to interrupt by that second level, but nevertheless its eddies or roll as ornament in the first level of the flowing company (or better: to bring in in the play river) skillfully. That always depends on the respective music piece or the respective game situation. This presupposes play-technically high hand foot co-ordination to be able to accordingly react in order to be busy no more with itself, in order the others listens and to it directly as well as the expression. To hold the play river and steer the form to mark thereby for the volume the basic rhythm and to coordinate their rhythms to speak but at the same time with that second level or ornaments themselves as musicians with the other musicians and those with it anzufeuern: the function if not even the task of the Schlagzeugs lies.

impact witness gutters

Schlagzeug a man domain seems to be. Mrs. z are actual. B. in the jazz mainly as singers represent, afterwards as pianist inside and more rarely at other instruments. Well-known impact witness gutters were, and/or. are Meg White, Karen Carpenter, Maureen Tucker, Terry Lyne Carrington, Cindy Blackman, Sheila E., Marilyn Mazur and Inga Thiessen .

see also

to literature

  • Anthony Lush: Drums step by steps. The modern impact things school for self-instructions and instruction. PPVMEDIEN, mountain churches 2004, ISBN 3-932275-67-5
  • Carlo Bohländer among other things: Reclams jazz leader. 5. , durchges. and. suppl. Edition. Reclam, Stuttgart Reclam, 2000, ISBN 3-15-010464-5, S. 375, 404, 416f. among other things
  • Jack DeJohnette, Charlie Perry: The kind OF decaying jazz Drumming. 3. printing. D. C. Publications, North Bellmore 1989
  • Joachim fox Charrier: History OF drumsetplaying. The history of the Drumset in 20. Century. Impact things schlagzeug-Lehr and play book with CD. Thus the best Drummer played. Leu, Bergisch Gladbach 2001, ISBN 3-89775-041-4
  • James Holland: The Schlagzeug. (= Yehudi Menuhins music leader). 2. durchges. and. updated edition. Edition Bergh in the publishing house Ullstein, Frankfurt/Main and others 1994, ISBN 3-7163-0136-1
  • Elvin Jones: Difference Drummer, video, approx. 1979
  • Joe Morello: Rudimental jazz. A modern application OF of vestige ton the drum outfit. Jomor, Chicago 1967
  • Geoff Nicholls: The Drum Book. A history OF the skirt drum kits. Miller Freeman, San Francisco 1997, ISBN 0-87930-476-6
  • Peinkofer/Tannigel, manual of the Schlagzeugs, 2. , rev. and. suppl. Aufl., 1981
  • Hugo Pinksterboer: Pocket info. Drums. The ideal reference book for beginners and advanced Drummer. Bulkhead, Mainz and others 2000, ISBN 3-7957-5127-6
  • Christian Wenzel: Bag encyclopedia Drumset and Percussion. PPVMEDIEN, mountain churches 2002, ISBN 3-932275-32-2
  • Peter Wicke, Kai-Erik and Wieland Ziegenrücker: Manual of the popular music. Over work. and erw. New edition, 4. Edition. Atlantis bulkhead, Mainz 2001, ISBN 3-254-08363-6, S. 477-479, S. 437-46 among other things

“DRUMS EASY” (with DVD) of Tom Hapke, Bosworth publishing house Berlin,“DRUMS EASY 2” (with DVD) of Tom Hapke, Bosworth publishing house Berlin, “66 DRUMSOLOS” (with DVD) of Tom Hapke, Bosworth publishing house Berlin, “SUPER PLAYALONG 2” (with CD) of Tom Hapke, Bosworth publishing house Berlin

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