Schlesiens languages and borders
in the south form the Sudeten the borderto Böhmen and Mähren. In the west it borders on the Oberlausitz, in the northwest on the Niederlausitz. To the settlement by Germanic trunks came with the people migration around 500 n. Chr. westslawische trunks after Schlesien. Schlesien was of 13. Century tofor driving out by the majority German-language settles 1944-48. The national affiliation changed however. It belonged to 1347 to Grossmähren, from 922 - to the kingdom and starting from 1138 to the Seniorat Poland and from 1202 to 1806 to the holy Roman realm of German nation. From 1740 to1945 belonged it to Prussia and thus from 1871 to 1945 to the German Reich. Since 1945 Schlesien belongs to a large extent to the Republic of Poland. A small part, the region Mährisch Schlesien (in former times Austrian Schlesien), belongs to Tschechien, a further part of the formerly Prussian provinceSchlesien lies today in the Free State Saxonia, this area belonged however historically to the Oberlausitz and today as Schlesi Oberlausitz is designated (Niederschlesi Oberlausitzkreis).
Today Schlesien is no more political unit. The surface-moderately largest parts are those 3 districts,as Woiwodschaften to Poland belong: the Woiwodschaft Niederschlesien ( Dolnośląskie), bordering on Germany, and the two oberschlesischen regions named Woiwodschaft Oppeln (Opolskie) and Woiwodschaft Schlesien (Śląskie).
In Upper Silesia also still German becomes beside Polish and water-Polish spoken, which would also call Oberschlesier it “Schlesisch”. The latter is today in the reason a Polish slawischer dialect with numerous influences from the German and also from Böhmischen Mähri. In Niederschlesien of the German population Schlesisch was spoken,German dialect with small influences from Slawi is.
Schlesien became before approximately two thousand years of Silingern, which remaining Vandalen, Lugiern and other Germanic peoples settle. It became of antique writers as Magna Germania between orand Weichsel designates. The origin of the name Schlesien (Latin Silesia) is not completely secured. Possibly the name leads away itself from the vandalischen trunk of the Silinger, to other sources decreases/goes back the name to the later, slawischen Slensanen. After thatDeparture or fall of the Silinger in the course of the people migration in 5. Westslawische trunks from the east Schlesien settled century again after 500, by which the names of the Golensizen, Opolanen, Slensanen, Dedosizen, Trebowanen and Boboranen are delivered.
879-992 - Mährisch Böhmi time
in the year 880 (some sources said, before 879) was attached completely Schlesien of Sventopluk the Grossmähri realm. With the decay of this realm after 906 the Přemysliden expanded its power also over Schlesien. This taken place probablyalready at times of the first böhmischen duke Spytihněv I. and Vratislav I. became by its successor. continued. Vratislav extended its rule range beyond the country of the Golensizen by the mittelschlesischen areas on the left of the or. To the protection the border basedit the castle Vratislavia (Breslau; Polish: Wrocław, Czech: Vratislav). This developed later to the center Schlesiens than duke and bishop seat and Nimptsch, the principal place gau of the Slenzane lost itself its meaning. Prince Boleslav I., that the establishmentone attributes to the castle Boleslavecz (Bunzlau), could extend his sphere of influence still clearly. Beside the country of the Boboranen and Opolanen he possessed the areas of the Wislanen with the city Krakau as well as the Dedosizen in the time between 950 and 963 also.
992-1146 - Polish time
before 950 developed between Warthe, Weichsel and Pilica the first Polish Piastenherzogtum under Mieszko I.. With support emperor Ottos II., that a restriction of power of the Prager prince Boleslav II.was welcome, began Mieszko I.an intensive south expansion and conquered Mittelschlesien with the strategically important castle Nimptsch, after it already after 970 the country of the Dedosizen at the delta of the Bober into the or had occupied. Also from the west power that should Přemysliden Schlesien to be limited. To that 968 established diocese Meissen had emperors Otto I. the tenth of the Dedosizenlandes left, an execution of this east expansion however Mieszko I. came. before. Together with emperors Otto III. Mieszkos son Bolesław I. led. Chrobrythe Christianisierung Schlesiens away - in the year 1000 establishment of a catholic diocese in Breslau, which up to 19. Jh. with the ore diocese in Gnesen was connected.
Bolesław I. Chrobry conquered the areas of the heidnischen Opolanen, Golensizen between 1012 /13 andWislanen and could integrate completely thereby Schlesien inclusively parts of the Lausitz as well as small Poland into its duchy territorially completely. With it first Polish rule phase over Schlesien began.
As Bolesław I. in the year 1025, began a rapid decay of the Kingdom of Poland died.Power in Poland, and thus also in Schlesien turned into to local leader. When 1037 in far parts of Poland a rebellion broke out against the Christian church and the Breslauer of bishops was hunted after Schmograu and on the castle Rit,duke used Břetislav I. from Böhmen 1038 the favour of the hour and conquered Schlesien in the böhmisch Polish war back. 1054 arrived to Schlesien again at the duchy Poland, after emperors Heinrich III. in peacetime of Quedlinburg Břetislav I. induce to the renouncement of Schlesienand Kasimir I. could. in response for the payment of a tribute at Böhmen was ready. This agreement became the cause several smaller wars between Böhmen and Poland, after the Polish rulers refused since Boleslaw the bold one, the schlesische lease toopay. Only the confirmed Pfingstfrieden of Glatz a durable fixing of the boundaries specified 1137 closed and 1138 between Schlesien, Böhmen and Mähren. The disputed Glatzer country remained just like the parts of Golensizenland south the river Zinna, the Troppauer countrywith Böhmen.
The Kingdom of Poland disintegrated in the context of the 1138 imported Polish Senioratsverfassung into several duchies, from those the duchy Schlesien under Wladyslaw II., with it the schlesischen line of the Piasten justified, was. Starting from 1138 set in the kingdomPoland in addition, a brother war, that to the joggle Wladyslaws II. and a splintering of the country led.
1146-1348 - The Polish senior duke Wladyslaw II. fled
period of Polish piastischer duchies and German Ostkolonisation in the controversy with its younger brothers. 1146 with itsFamily into the holy Roman realm and asked emperors Konrad III.around political support, by taking shelter and its territory of the sovereignty of the emperor. Thus Schlesien became theoretical part of the holy Roman realm. Both emperors Konrad and itsSuccessor Friedrich I. led 1146 and/or. 1157 campaigns against Poland. Boleslaw IV. the return of the duchy said Schlesien at Wladyslaw II. too, this delayed however until 1163. Only under menace of further martial actions, Boleslaw handled IV. Schlesien thatthree sons Wladyslaws II. out. The older Boleslaw I. († 1201) central and Niederschlesien received Schlesien (ducatus Slesiae) with the center Breslau as duchy. The middle Mieszko IV. Kreuzbein († 1211) got oderaufwärts the convenient areas Ratibor and Te. Konrad († in the 1180/90) became the duke of Glogau. 1201 was extended the areas Mieszkos by Oppeln and combined into the duchy Oppeln (ducatus Opoliensis). The Oppelner branch of the schlesischen Piasten developed.
With the occasional abolition of the Senioratsverfassungafter death duke Mieszko III. in duchies the Schlesien and Oppeln in the year 1202 the connections to Poland one continued to weaken. The idea of Mongolian armies in the year 1241 (battle on the choice place) and devastation connected with itthe country and substantial Dezimimierung of the Polish population (around 4/5) created the structural conditions for the new and Aufsiedelung of the country in the context of the German Ostkolonisation. Since the beginning 13. Jh. the German Ostkolonisation began strengthened. The German settlersmore than 100 new cities based and over 1.200 villages to German right, as well as many churches and hospitals. Also the original Polish settlements adapted to a large extent legally, socially and linguistically to the German settlements. The settlers camepredominantly from the Middle Franconian linguistic area (with Mainz), from Hessen and Thuringia. The dialect of the Niederschlesier therefore became a dialect which united Middle Franconian, hessian and Thuringian characteristics.
The population grew on at least the fivefold. Schlesien was for many centuries a bridge betweenWest and east, as well as between north and south. Their initiator were duke Heinrich I. of Schlesien and his Mrs. Hedwig von Andechs. Starting from 1249 the duchy Schlesien disintegrated and starting from 1281 the duchy Oppeln into temporary more thanDozen smaller, with one another in the brother war of lying duchies. During this power vacuum tried the king of Böhmen and late Poland to back-conquer Schlesien.
1348-1525 - The Piasten in the duchies Schlesien and Oppeln individually or in groups finally took shelter Böhmi time asVasallen of the leaning sovereignty of the böhmischen kings: 1327 the dukes of Te, falcon mountain, Cosel - Beuthen, Auschwitz, Oppeln, Ratibor and Breslau, 1329 the dukes of Sagan, oil, Steinau and Liegnitz - Brieg,1331 the dukes of Glogau, 1336 cathedral mountain and 1342 the diocese country Neisse - Ottmachau. 1353 won Böhmen the duchy Schweidnitz Jauer by the marriage of Karl IV. with the schweidnitz jauerschen heiress Anna.
In the contract of Plintenburg of 1333, inReconciliation of Trentschin (1335, confirm 1339) as well as in the contract of Namslau (1348) does the Polish king Kasimir the large one without requirements of the smallPolish Piasten on Schlesien as return for the doing of the böhmischen kings without the Polish crown. Later endeavoredit itself however, however in vain, around a cancellation of the present Treaty with the Pope. In the year 1348 king Karl IV. finally inkorporierte. Schlesien into the countries of the böhmischen crown. Thus Schlesien became a part of the holy Roman realm, sincethe time of the late Middle Ages around 1486 called holy Roman realm of German nation.
From these of the böhmischen crown won the duchies Breslau, Glogau, Schweidnitz ( definite 1368) and Jauer ( definite 1368) went to areas to becoming extinct the there respectiveschlesischen Piasten in direct böhmischen crowning possession as hereditary principalities so mentioned over, during in the remaining (15) so-called leaning principalities schlesische Piasten governed, but into several lines split up.
Since 1137 the Troppauer country belonging to Böhmen became 1318 under a Nebenlinie thatPrager Přemysliden to the duchy Troppau raised. 1336 resulted from an appropriate marriage a personnel union between Troppau and Ratibor, whereby Troppau (again) grew politico-legal into Schlesiens.
In 14. and early 15. Century knew itself Schlesien in each regard unimpaired and magnificentlydevelop further. Beginning 15. Century developed the terms upper and down Schlesien. Upper Silesia covered the principalities in the area of the former duchy Oppeln as well as the premyslidische Troppau. The down Schlesien lying more west covered according to the principalities of the undivided duchy Schlesien including of the Breslau Ottmachauer of diocese country.
The Hussitenkriege directed against catholics and Germans met Schlesien as catholic and German coined/shaped Nebenland Böhmens particularly hard. People and settlement losses, economic fall and a Slawisierungswelle released by the Hussiten were the result. The situation improvedonly 1469, as which a Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus Mähren, Schlesien and the Lausitz conquered and in peacetime of Olmütz 1479 in its possession was confirmed. Matthias implemented a general land peace and reorganized and centralized the Landesverwaltung, he created thatOffice of a royal upper national captain and prince days as lasting mechanism.
After Corvinus death 1490 became Schlesien Lehen of the king of Böhmen, Ladislaus II. from the dynasty of the Jagiellonen. In the meantime the border duchies Auschwitz 1457 and Zator fell1494 at Poland, Sagan 1472 at the Wettiner, and Crossen 1482 at Brandenburg arrive. On the other hand the sons of the former böhmischen king George von Podiebrad came into the possession of the schlesischen duchies cathedral mountain and Franconia stone (since 1459) as well as oil (since 1495).
1526-1740 - Habsburgi time
after the death of the böhmischen king Ludwig II. in the battle with Mohács (1526) the böhmische came at Ferdinand I. and thus to the dynasty of the having citizens. 1526-1740 was the Austrian having citizens as kingsof Böhmen also dukes of Schlesien. In 16. The last schlesischen Piasten of the remaining small states the brandenburgischen Hohenzollern used century as inheriting. In addition, the having citizens emperors brought these last small states under the böhmische crown. As 1675 the latterschlesische Piast died, designed Friedrich II. from this a requirement on completely Schlesien for Prussia. In 16. Century became Protestant most schlesischen cities. Since the 2. Half 17. Century was Schlesien the economically most important area of the having citizens monarchy (textile industry).
1740-1871 - Prussian time
after the Austrian succession war and the further Schlesi wars between Prussia under Friedrich II. and Austria Hungary under empress Maria Theresia was annektiert the largest part of Schlesiens 1742 /44 of Prussia. A smaller part around Troppau, Hunter village, Te, Bielitz as well as a part of the Neisser of country remained as Austrian Schlesien a component of Böhmen. 1782-1849 and 1860-1861 were attached these areas Mähren, 1849 - 1860 was temporary her an independent administrative territory. After the Viennese congress of 1815 became Schlesien one that first 10 provinces of the State of Prussia, whereby the northeast half of the Oberlausitz which can be retired from the Kingdom of Saxonia into the new province were integrated. Province capital became Breslau. The moreover one belonged the province Schlesien from 1815 to 1866,as part of Prussia to the German federation.
1871-1918 - German empire
as well as Prussia became Schlesien by the establishment of realm at 18.1.1871 the part of the German Reich. With the realm tag elections end 19. Century selected the Oberschlesier by the majority the catholic center. ThoseNiederschlesier selected first predominantly the party of the “German freeintimate”, later increasingly the SPD. With the industrialization beginning Upper Silesia with its hard coal mines beside the Ruhr district became one of the economically most important regions of the German Reich.
1919-1945 - Weimar Republic and thirdRichly
Schlesien was divided 1919 in two provinces: Niederschlesien with the capital Breslau and Upper Silesia with the capital Oppeln. Upper Silesia was linguistically a mixed development area (“Polish” approx. 60%, German about 40%) and by the majority catholic (88%). Niederschlesien was German-language and predominantly Evangelist (68%). The center placed the upper president (administrative boss of the province), in Niederschlesien to 1932 the SPD in Upper Silesia until 1933. After end of the First World War the contract of Versailles of 1919 wrote a popular vote over thateastern part of Upper Silesia forwards. Although during the popular vote 60% of the population affected by Germany for the whereabouts with Germany tuned 1921, the highest advice of the allied ones, which had occupied the area since 1920, spoke a large part of the tuning area Polandtoo. In the years 1919-1921 took place with support of the Polish state under Wojciech Korfanty of three Polish rebellions (August 1919, 1920 and after the tuning 1921). These were characterized by heaviest encroachments against the German population and had the connection by forceUpper Silesia at Poland to the goal, which was however first not reached. A part of Upper Silesia, east Upper Silesia with its rich coal occurrences, fell nevertheless little later at Poland.
The Hultschiner in such a way specified Ländchen, (part of the district Ratibor), was already end1918 occupied by Czechoslovakia militarily and came in September 1919 with the contract of pc. Germain to Czechoslovakia. The Austrian crowning country Austrian Schlesien came to the First World War predominantly to Czechoslovakia - these areas belong to today today Tschechien - to the smaller part however to Poland. At the beginning of of 1919 came it around the industrial area from Te to the Polish-Czechoslovakian border war. On pressure of France the Czechoslovakia of an allocation of the city agreed, whereby the smaller however economically more valuable partthe city at Poland fell.
At the beginning of of October 1938 came the German-language part of the Czechoslovakian Schlesiens due to residents of Munich of the agreement to German Reich, few weeks after came the by the majority polnischsprachige Teschener country to Poland. After the assault on Poland inSeptembers 1939 were okuppiert the 1921 at Poland of separated parts of Upper Silesia by Germany. 1938 had been already combined the two provinces separated since 1919 (upper and Niederschlesien) again, 1941 them was again divided.
The southeast part of Schlesiens around the cities Upper Silesia is called Oppeln and Kattowitz, here already lived in contrast to Niederschlesien 1945 ago not only German-language one, but also Oberschlesier of Polish identity and Poland. In the schlesischen Auschwitz the German national socialists established the largest extermination camp Auschwitz Birkenau in that approx. 1.5 MillHumans, above all Jews from Poland and other parts of Europe as well as not-Jewish Poland, were murdered.KZ large roses functioned 1940-1945 with numerous external bearings. Since 1943 the upper construction supervision giant in the owl mountains worked.
1945-1947: Driving the Germans out
after the Second World War the Soviet head of state Josef Stalin Schlesien left, as all German areas east the or Neisse line, from Germany to separate. This happened according to the agreements of the large three in Teheran and Jalta. This was justified by the allied ones with the fact that Poland oneReconciliation for for his part eastern national territory occupied by the USSR to come should.
The larger part that at that time 4.5 million German Schlesier fled starting from at the beginning of 1945 before the moving forward Red Army or after their arrival was by force driven out. Starting from the early summer 1945driving the remaining Germans out was organized by communist places. This driving out was accomplished administratively by communist authorities with the help of the so-called Bierut decrees. These made possible the collection of the entire mobile and immovable property of persons of German nationality in favor of the PolishState. Therefore in June 1945 all Germans from an area strip were driven out east of approximately 30 kilometers width directly the Lausitzer Neisse. North - in east Brandenburg and behind pommern - the Germans became further from the area the same timedirectly east the or drove out.
Since the communist administration was not at this time still by any means strengthened, however also many fled Schlesier could return first again to their homeland in the summer 1945, before them in the years 1946 and 1947 finallywere driven out. Approximately 1.2 million Germans in Upper Silesia and about 150,000 in Niederschlesien escaped driving out first completely. The reason was in case of the Oberschlesier the uneindeutige national identity (bilingualness, “floating nationality “), in case of that not refugee Niederschlesiertheir usefulness as skilled workers, in particular in the mining industry around the city Wałbrzych. Those by far most Niederschlesier evacuated in the years 1958 to 1960 into the Federal Republic, to the smaller part into the GDR. Today (2005) live onlyabout 30,000 Germans in the Polish part of Niederschlesiens. From refugee Oberschlesiern most are not evacuated that starting from for instance in the middle of the 1970er years to Germany, the high point of this evacuation wave were only around 1990. Today still about 100,000 Germans live and/or. Ethnic Germanin Upper Silesia.
The former property of the fled and refugees Germans became in the year 1946 by two Polish decrees as “abandoned and/or. abandoned property " remunerationless konfisziert. The later evacuees from Schlesien did not lose however their entire property, some have evenafter 1990 property gets parts back their.
The number of the dead ones with driving out from Schlesien is not accurately well-known. Ausweislich of the “entire elevation for clarifying the fate of the German population in the driving out areas " (Munich, 1964) are 51,926 in particular well-known Niederschlesier(without Breslau) as can be prove “with and died as consequence of driving out”, including 2308 Suizide. In addition 210,923 comes in particular admitted “unsettled cases”, of it 93,866 with missing reference and 48,325 with death reference (source: Volume II, page 353 of this documentation). For Breslau,that was separately seized, amounts to the numbers: 7488 as can be prove dying, of it 251 Suizide. 89.931 in particular admitted unsettled cases, of it 37,579 with missing and 1,769 with death reference (volume II, S. 456 of the entire elevation). From the Oberschlesiern 41,632 died as can be prove, of it302 by Suizid. From the 232,206 in particular seized unsettled cases, a missing lay and for 2.048 a death reference forwards for 46.353 (source: Volume II, page 405 of this documentation). This results in a total number of 634.106 clarified death and unsettled cases of a missing person inConnection with driving the German population out from Schlesien. Related to a total number of 4.592.700 inhabitants (census 1938) this results in a population loss from clarified death and unsettled cases of a missing person of 13,8% of the total population.
Starting from 1945: Polish administration/Polish People's Republic
In Schlesien Poland from central Poland and from the formerly eastPolish areas again were usually settled. In addition several ten thousand between April and July 1947 came in the context of the Akcja Wisła (action Weichsel) from southeast Poland resettled, and/or. of Poland refugee Ukrainer, and Poland from Bosnia, Romania and France, also Greek communists. Also more than 100,000 Polish Jews came to Niederschlesien, most of them emigrated later into the west and to Israel.
The Polish Schlesien is todayinto the Woiwodschaften Schlesien (Śląskie), Niederschlesien (Dolnosląskie), Oppeln (Opolskie), to small parts also Lebus (Lubuskie), as well as large Poland (Wielkopolskie) and small Poland (Małopolskie) divided. The areas Schlesiens, those 1938 agoA component of Czechoslovakia were, 1945 again the CSR were attached. The German population was driven out also from here.
since 1991 - Republic of Poland
with the GermanPolish Grenzvertrag of 1991 came that east the Neisse convenient part of Schlesiens also according to international law to the Republic of Poland. During the reorganisation of the Woiwodschaften a few years agothe historical borders Schlesiens were partly again considered. The Polish Schlesien is today into the Woiwodschaft Schlesien (Śląskie), Niederschlesien (Dolnosląskie), Oppeln (Opolskie), divided to small parts also Lebus (Lubuskie), as well as large Poland (Wielkopolskie) and small Poland (Małopolskie).
Schlesien develops today economicallythe automobile industry is positive, particularly successfully in Gliwice. During the tuning over the European Union entry in the year 2004 and in further elections the today Polish population Schlesiens showed itself as by far per-more European than the population in the old-Polish areas.
InJanuary 2005 passed the Polish Sejm a new minority law. Afterwards it in approximately 20 municipalities in Upper Silesia with more as 20% German-language population portion will be possible to introduce a bilingual local sign-posting and German than administrative auxiliary language.
Administrative arrangement Schlesiens until 1945
inthe time of 1818 to 1945 the territorial administrative arrangement changed itself within Schlesiens only gradually. However 1920/1922 and 1938/39 the external borders were substantially changed.
from 1818 to 1945 existed continuous the three governmental districts Breslau, Liegnitz and Oppeln.
- From 1818 to 1820 there was the governmental district realm brook.
- From 1939 to 1945 there was the governmental district Kattowitz.
except that already 1818 existing urban area Breslau developed in the course of the time further urban areas:
- Görlitz: 1873,
- Liegnitz: 1873.
- Beuthen O.S.: 1890,
- king hut: 1898,
- Kattowitz: 1899,
- Schweidnitz: 1899,
- Oppeln: 1899,
- Ratibor: 1903,
- Brieg: 1907,
- Neisse: 1911,
- green mountain i. Schles.: 1922 to 1933,
- deer mountain i. Rsgb.: 1922,
- Forest castle (Schles): 1924,
- Hindenburg O.S.: 1927,
- Sosnowitz: 1939.
were in all other respects dissolved or renamed the following circles:
- Polish waiting mountain: 1888,
- Zabrze: 1915,
- Pless: 1922,
- Beuthen|: 1927,
- Hindenburg O.S.: 1927,
- Rybnik: 1927,
- Lublinitz: 1927,
- Tarnowitz: 1927/1941,
- Bolkenhain: 1932,
- Freystadt i. Niederschles.: 1932,
- Goldberg Haynau: 1932,
- Ohlau: 1932,
- cathedral mountain: 1932,
- Neurode: 1932,
- Nimptsch: 1932,
- Sagan: 1932,
- Schönau: 1932,
- stringer gau: 1932,
- Steinau: 1932,
- Bandyn/Bendzin: 1941,
- Blachownia: 1941,
- Chrzanow: 1941,
- Guttentag: 1941,
- Lublinitz: 1941,
- Olkusch: 1941,
- Zawiercie: 1941.
while the following circles developed again (partly under new name):
- Habelschwerdt: 1818,
- Neurode: 1855,
- Kattowitz: 1873,
- Tarnowitz: 1873,
- largely waiting mountain: 1888,
- Hindenburg O.S.: 1915,
- Beuthen Tarnowitz: 1927,
- Guttentag: 1927,
- gold mountain: 1932,
- Freystadt i. Niederschles.: 1933,
- Ohlau: 1933,
- woman city: 1938,
- Bandyn/Bendzin: 1939,
- Bielitz: 1939,
- Blachownia: 1939,
- Lublinitz: 1939,
- Pless: 1939,
- Rybnik: 1939,
- Saybusch: 1939,
- Te: 1939,
- Zawiercie: 1939,
- Bendsburg: 1941,
- Blachstädt: 1941,
- Ilkenau: 1941,
- Krenau: 1941,
- praising: 1941,
- Warthenau: 1941.
Administrative arrangement conditions 1. January 1945
Prov. Niederschlesien, move - Bez. Breslau
of urban areas
- Franconia stone i. Schles.
- largely waiting mountain
- new market
- of oil
- realm brook (owl mountains)
- forest castle (Schles)
Prov. Niederschlesien, move - Bez. Liegnitz
of urban areas
- woman Mrs.
- Freystadt i. Niederschles.
- gold mountain
- green mountain i. Schles.
- Deer mountain i. Rsgb.
- national hat i. Schles.
- lion mountain i. Schles.
- Rothenburg (upper one.Louse.)
- Sprottau (seat: Sagan)
Prov. Upper Silesia, move - Bez. Kattowitz
of urban areas
- Beuthen Tarnowitz [seat: Tarnowitz]
- Tost Gleiwitz [seat: Gleiwitz]
Prov. Upper Silesia, move - Bez. Oppeln
of urban areas
- falcon mountain O.S.
- Largely Strehlitz
- district cross castle O.S.
- new city O.S.
- rose mountain O.S.
administrative arrangement today
of urban areas
- Bielsko Biała (Bielitz Biala)
- Bytom (Beuthen O.S.)
- Chorzów (king hut)
- Częstochowa (Tschenstochau)
- Dąbrowa Górnicza (Dombrowa)
- Gliwice (Gleiwitz)
- Jastrzębie Zdrój (Königsdorf Jastrzemb)
- Katowice (Kattowitz)
- Mysłowice (Myslowitz)
- Piekary Śląskie (German Piekar)
- Ruda Śląska (Ruda O.S.)
- Siemianowice Śląskie (Siemianowitz, 1939-45: Laurahütte)
- Sosnowiec (Sosnowitz)
- Świętochłowice (Schwientochlowitz, 1941-45: Rockers)
- Tychy (TIC-strike)
- Zabrze (1915-45: Hindenburg O.S.)
- Żory (Sohrau)
- Będzin (Bendzin)
- Bielsko Biała (Bielitz Biala)
- Bieruń/Lędziny (Bierun/Lendzin)
- Cieszyn (Te)
- Częstochowa (Tschenstochau)
- Gliwice (Gleiwitz)
- Kłobuck (Klobuck)
- Lubliniec (Lublinitz)
- Mikołów (Nikolai)
- Myszków (Myszkow)
- Pszczyna (Pless)
- Racibórz (Ratibor)
- Tarnowskie Góry (Tarnowitz)
- Wodzisław Śląski (Loslau)
- Żywiec (Saybusch)
of urban areas
- Brzeg (Brieg)
- Głubczyce (Leobschütz)
- Kędzierzyn Koźle (Heydebreck Cosel)
- Kluczbork (cross castle)
- Krapkowice (Krappitz)
- Namysłów (Namslau)
- Nysa (Neisse)
- Olesno (rose mountain)
- Opole (Oppeln)
- Prudnik (new city O/S)
- Strzelce Opolskie (large Strehlitz)
of urban areas
- Bolesławiec (Bunzlau)
- Dzierżoniów (realm brook)
- Głogow (Glogau)
- Góra (Guhrau)
- Jawor (Jauer)
- Jelenia Góra (deer mountain)
- Kamienna Góra (national hat)
- Kłodzko (Glatz)
- Legnica (Liegnitz)
- Lubań (Lauban)
- Lubin (Lüben)
- Lwówek (lion mountain)
- Milicz (Militsch)
- Oleśnica (oil)
- Oława (Ohlau)
- Polkowice (Polkwitz)
- Strzelin (Strehlen)
- Środa (new market)
- Świdnica (Schweidnitz)
- Trzebnica (Trebnitz)
- Wałbrzych (forest castle)
- Wołów (Wohlau)
- Wrocław (Breslau)
- Zgorzelec (Görlitz)
- Ząbkowice (Franconia stone)
- Złotoryja (gold mountain)
region Mährisch Schlesien
of districts (district)
- Okres Bruntál (district Freudenthal)
- Okres Frýdek Místek (district Friedek Mistek)
- Okres Karviná (district Karwin)
- Okres Nový Jičín (District Neutitschein)
- Okres Opava (district Troppau)
- Okres Ostrava - město (Ostrau city)
Free State Saxonia
- Hedwig of Andechs (Jadwiga) (1174-1243), holy
- Joseph baron von Eichendorff (1788-1857),More closely and writer
- Karl Godulla (1781-1848), large-scale manufacturer
- Andreas Gryphius (1616-1664), poet
- Bernhard Grzimek (1909-1987), zoologist
- Gerhart captain (1862-1946), writer
- Martin Opitz (1597-1639), poet
- Charlotte E. Pauly (1886-1981), painter, authoress and world traveler
- Heinrich of Salisch (1846-1920), forest man and politician
- Angelus Silesius (1624-1677), poet
- EH von Tiele Winckler (1866-1930), clergyman
- Josef Wagner (1899-1945), gau leader and upper president
- Christian Wolff (1679-1754), philosopher
- portal: Schlesien
- Schlesier, German Schlesier, Polish Schlesier, Czech Schlesier
- homeland association Schlesien
Web on the left of
|Wikiquote: Schlesi proverbs - quotations|
|Wiktionary: Schlesien - word origin, synonyms and translations|
|Commons: Schlesien - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
- province Schlesien
- Austrian Schlesien
- historical and current maps of Schlesien
- Schlesi museum to Görlitz
- list of all schlesischen places on German and Polish
- picture postcards of schlesischen places
(dissolved 1878 ago)
Jülich Kleve mountain -
Grand Duchy of Niederrhein -
south Prussia -
(1878-1922) East Prussia - west Prussia - floats - Pommern - Brandenburg - Schlesien - Saxonia - Westphalia - Rhine province - Schleswig-Holstein - Hanover - Hessen Nassau
(after 1922based) border Mark float west Prussia - Upper Silesia - Niederschlesien - resound Merseburg - Magdeburg