Schleswig-Holstein

of these articles treats the German Land of the Federal Republic Schleswig-Holstein. For other meanings, see Schleswig-Holstein (term clarifying).
Schleswig-Holstein
national flag Landeswappen
Flagge von Schleswig-Holstein
Landeswappen Schleswig-Holsteins
Wahlspruch
„UP ewich ungedeelt “
(„on eternally undivided “)
Wahlspruch since 1460
of to each other belonging duchies
Schleswig and Holstein
base data
office languages: German, Niederdeutsch,
Friesisch, Danish
capital: Kiel
surface: 15.763, 18 km ² (12.)
Inhabitants: 2.828.986 (9.) (30. June 2005)
Population density: 179 inhabitants for each km ² (10.)
Hymn: Schleswig-Holstein meerumschlungen
debts: 7,386 euro per inhabitant (at the end of of 2005)
ISO 3166-2: DE-SH
official Website: schleswig holstein.de
policy
Prime Minister: Peter Harry Carstensen (CDU)
governing parties: CDU and SPD
last choice: 20. February 2005
next choice: 2010
parliamentary agency
Voices in the Upper House of Parliament: 4
map
Bundesland Schleswig-Holstein in Deutschland

Schleswig-Holstein (sports club; friesisch Slaswik Holstiinj, Danish Slesvig Holsten, down-German Sleswig Holsteen) is the northernmost country of the Federal Republic of Germany. The state capital is Kiel. With a surface of 15.761, 4 km ² Schleswig-Holstein is the smallest surface countryto the Saarland. Schleswig-Holstein borders in the north with the federal border on Denmark, in the south on the Lands of the Federal Republic Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Lower Saxony.

Table of contents

Geography

Schleswig-Holstein represents geographically a part of the peninsula Jutland and the north German lowlandses and is enclosed between the North Sea in the west, the Baltic Sea and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in the east, Hamburg and Lower Saxony in the south and Denmark in the north. The coastal line of theCountry has a portion of 3,2% of the entire European coastal line.

The landscape of Schleswig-Holstein is divided from west to east into the march, the Geest and the Schleswig Holsteini hill country. Largest river is the Eider, highest collectionthe Bungsberg (168 m). The east coast arranges the country by Förden and bays into the peninsulas fishing rods, Schwansen, Danish Wohld and Wagrien.

Historically Schleswig-Holstein consists of the two regions Schleswig and Holstein; the border between thatboth areas by the rivers Eider and Levensau are marked, it formed until 1806 and/or. 1864 also the north border of the holy Roman realm and/or. the German federation. In addition the duchy Lauenburg ( since the Kieler peace 1815 ) came and intoFrame a Gebietsarrondierung 1937 the up to then oldenburgische former prince diocese Eutin, the Hanseatic city Luebeck and the before times Hamburg Exklaven Geesthacht and large Hans village, the Schleswig-Holstein in the exchange for the holsteinischen cities Altona and Wandsbek, the 1937 Hamburg in the framework of the Large Hamburg law were slammed shut, assigned.

The country accommodates Schleswig Holsteini Wattenmeer the largest national park of Central Europe with the national park. Altogether in the last 80 years by national regulations altogether 189 protected areas and 275 landscape protection areas were specified. Without the national park the areas take 2.000km ², about which about 1,600 km are ² sea or Watt areas. Often nature protection federations care for the areas due to a contract with the country. Additionally five nature parks exist, from which however includes no sea or coastal regions.

See also: List of waters inSchleswig-Holstein, list of the collections in Schleswig-Holstein

population

in Schleswig-Holstein live 2.82 million inhabitant, the population density of 179 Einwohnern/km ² is the sixth-thinnest in Germany. In Schleswig-Holstein both a Danish lives (in the region Schleswig) and one friesische (particularly at the North Sea Coast) minority. The historically traditional population is and friesischen origin of Lower Saxony and jütischen, however Schleswig-Holstein was after the Second World War the West German Land of the Federal Republic with the highest portion of refugees and refugees of the population. Sothe population grew between 1939 and 1949 by 1.1 million.

The age distribution and the sex distribution correspond to a large extent in the entire Federal Republic. 45.7% of the women are married, 12.9% verwitwet and 6.4% divorced. With the men there is 47,7%, 2.6% and 5.4%.

The population density is unevenly distributed. Beside the circle-free cities that is Hamburg surrounding countrysides, in particular the circles Pinneberg and Stormarn closely settled, the region Südschleswig and the circle Dithmar thin against it very.

Both due to thatSchleswig-Holstein the lowest portion of foreigners one of the West German countries has separated geographical situation and due to the rather weak economic development. (1994: 5,1 %). From the 140,000 here living foreigners well three quarters come from Europe, of it 22% thatentire foreigner from the old countries of the European union. The largest group of all foreigners place (1999) with 42.000 Turks and the second largest with 14.000 persons from former Yugoslavia.

According to an inquiry are the inhabitants of Schleswig-Holstein with their Land of the Federal Republicmore contently than all other Federal citizens.

history

first settlement and emergence of Schleswig and Holstein

up to the early Middle Ages developed in the today's Schleswig-Holstein four people and language's groups: In the northern part up to a line Eider - Treene - Eckernförde northGermanic Danes and jutes, in the northwest part of Friesen, in the southwest part up to a line Eider - Kiel - Preetz - Eutin - Elbe westGermanic Saxonia, in the eastern part slawische Abodriten.In the course of the Saxonia wars the southern part came under the influence of the Franconia realm. Between 768 and 811 it came again and again to confrontations between the king of the Franconia realm and later Christian emperor Karl the large one and the heidnischen north Teuton, in whose also the Dane work was established and developed to course. 811 in a peace treaty the Eider was fixed as border between the Karolinger and the Dane realm. With the increasing settlement in 12. and 13. Century lost the Eidergrenze theiractual meaning as boundary, it remained however up to the end of the holy Roman realm 1806 and/or. until 1864 as border between Schleswig and Holstein exist. Up to the introduction of the civil law book 1900 it was still another legal border, there toSchleswig to still the Danish Jydske Lov applied at that time. Starting from 1111 the self-sufficiency grew on both sides the Eider, from which the duchies Schleswig and Holstein (at that time still as county) came out. Ever closer political and economical became at the same time between the two areasConnections attached.

rule of the looking citizens

in early 13. Century tried the Danish king to integrate also Holstein into its realm it failed however after initial successes 1227 in the battle of Bornhöved the resistance of north German prince. Afterholsteinische counts in 14. Century their influence far to Jutland inside to expand, succeeded it Margarethe I. could do. in order to attain 1400 again the Danish leaning sovereignty in Schleswig. In addition, it had to recognize the requirements for possession of the holsteinischen noble ones in Schleswig. 1386the two areas showed up for the first time united in the coat of arms, when the looking citizens received counts Schleswig as Danish Lehen. In detail territorial history is Schleswigs and Holstein by numerous Erbteilungen and reverts very complicated. It succeeded to the dynasty of the looking citizenshowever to establish a schleswig holsteinische rule so that in the late Middle Ages of Schleswig-Holstein as an actually connected territory can be spoken.

Danish regency

1460 selected the schleswig holsteinische knight shank after becoming extinct the looking citizens in direct line (1459) thatDanish king Christian I. from the house Oldenburg, a nephew of the last looking citizen Adolf VIII., to the national gentleman. After the contract of Ripen (1460), which the indivisibility of the country fix should, remained Schleswig-Holstein until 1864 in a personnel unionconnected with Denmark. The Danish king did not govern Schleswig and Holstein thus in his characteristic as a king, but when duke of the two areas, whereby Schleswig remained however a royal-Danish Lehen, while Holstein belonged further to the holy Roman realm of German nationand thus Reichslehen was.

During the early modern times Schleswig and Holstein disintegrated repeated due to Erbteilungen into several smaller rule, under these were the duchy Schleswig Holstein Gottorf the most important thing: The Gottorfer dukes among other things the establishment of the university was Kiel tooowe. Only since 1773 Schleswig and Holstein were again nearly completely under the rule of the Danish king.

nationalism and German agreement wars

in 19. Century both in Denmark as well as in Germany arising nationalism supplieda contrast regarding the affiliation of the so-called Elbherzogtümer, which flowed in two wars. Disputed thereby the almost exclusively German settled Holstein was not, that since the early Middle Ages for the holy Roman realm of German nation and after 1815 also to And by the Danish king was only governed, but the duchy Schleswig belonged to German federation: Both in Germany and in Denmark the country was completely stressed by the national gesinnten liberals, although it in an predominantly dänischsprachigen and dänischgesinntenThe north and an predominantly German-language and deutschgesinnten south were divided. In the Sylter Nordfriesen Uwe Jens Lornsen found the German-language and deutschgesinnte south Schleswigs 1830 a first eloquent advocate. Since beginning of the 1840er years tried both Germans and Danish To win national liberal in Schleswig influence, so that a conflict appeared. This broke out in connection with the March revolution 1848 openly. In Kiel a provisional government was proclaimed, that required the admission of a united Schleswig-Holstein into the German federation,while in Copenhagen a national liberal government was appointed at the same time, several so-called Eiderdänen belonged, a whose goal was the constitutional integration Schleswigs into the Danish realm. The incompatability of both demands led those to the Schleswig Holsteini war of 1848-1851, in that Germangesinnten Schleswig Holsteiner (first still futile) tried to terminate the Danish sovereignty. After the will of the German national liberals also Schleswig should become a member of the German federation and become united with Holstein a sovereign state under government of the duke of August castle.First the German Schleswig Holsteiner was supported thereby of the Paulskirchenversammlung, but due to the pressure of the European great powers the Prussian armies and the federal troops withdrew themselves and left the Kieler government their fate. The Danish victory with Idstedt 1850terminated for the time being German hopes for a German Schleswig-Holstein, the status quo ante was restored - also on international pressure.

When Denmark adopted a condition in November 1863, also in Schleswig to apply should and thus the peace regulations of 1851fallow, Prussian chancellor Bismarck seized the chance to solve the schleswigsche question in the German sense. After the application of a very short ultimatum Prussia and Austria Denmark explained the war. Prussia and Austria knew the GermanDanish war in April 1864for itself decide. Negotiations over a division Schleswigs did not lead to a solution, so that Schleswig-Holstein came first under a common administration by Prussia and Austria - contrary to the original goals of the German Schleswig Holsteiner the duchies became thusnot independently. Only small parts in the north Schleswigs remained Danish, like z. B. the island Ærø and seven Kirchspiele south of Kolding; but the Danish crown gave its requirements up on some enclaves, which had not belonged to Schleswig(Møgeltønder, Listland/Sylt, Amrum, Westerland/Föhr). After the Prussian-Austrian war 1866 Schleswig-Holstein became 1867 as a whole a Prussian province and thus 1871 part of the German Reich. The Schleswig Holsteini question was finally a central aspect of the policy of Bismarck, those for realm agreement 1871 led.

recent history

was locked the international-law argument with Denmark however only 1920, than under the pressure and the supervision of winner powers of the First World War the popular vote assured in the contract of Prague 1866 into thatnorthern parts of Schleswigs took place. Germany had to accept an unfavorable cut of the constituencies as well as disadvantageous tuning modes (EN bloc in the north, gemeindeweise in Mittelschleswig) as losers of the war, which among other things to the loss that predominantly deutschgesinnten cities Apenrade, special castle and Tondernas well as the deutschgesinnten parts close to the border of the circle Tondern led (see also Nordschleswig). The middle constituency (with Flensburg) was particularly hard disputed and decided then for the affiliation to the German Reich. 1955 came it then to a finalAgreement between Denmark and Germany, which regulated in particular the status and the special rights of the respective minorities. Despite smaller disputes Germans and Danes live now for decades peacefully with one another.

During the late twenties Schleswig-Holstein was, in particular at the west coastconvenient Dithmar one of the centers of the national socialism. The blood night of Wöhrden was cannibalized by the National Socialist movement Germany far for propaganda purposes. Already 1930 could book the NSDAP in this area well 70% of the votes for itself. 1938 burned alsoin Schleswig and Holstein (for instance in Kiel) the synagogs; there were also some smaller concentration camps.

After the Second World War Schleswig-Holstein was main settlement area for refugees and Hamburg Ausgebombte. The total population, which had amounted to 1939 still 1.6 million inhabitant, rose to 1949 on 2.7 million inhabitant.

After the war originated in to 23. August 1946 by allied resolution first the independent country Schleswig-Holstein. Land of the Federal Republic became Schleswig-Holstein with the 1949 of the first selected federal state parliament discharged country statute, to 12. January 1950 into force stepped. Only after the constitutional reform to 30. May 1990 condition discharged by the federal state parliament carried also the names of country condition.

See also: History of the German Lands of the Federal Republic

the largest scandal of postwar history placed the Barschel affair 1987/88 . This scandal experienced then 1993 still another continuation with the drawer affair.

Schleswig-Holstein moved last into the center of the interest, when in March 2005 the re-election of heath Simonis failed to the Prime Minister spectacularly in the federal state parliament, which to oneLarge coalition in Kiel led and often also as federalpolitical signal one saw.

literature

  • Ulrich is enough (Hrsg.): History of Schleswig-Holstein. New cathedral (Wachholtz) 2003, ISBN 3-529-02440-6
  • Jann Markus joke/Heiko Vosgerau (Hrsg.): Schleswig-Holstein from the origins to the present. OneNational history. Hamburg: Convent publishing house, 2002, ISBN 3-934613-39-X
  • Jürgen H. Ibs/Eckart Dege/Henning Unverhau (Hrsg.): Historical Atlas Schleswig-Holstein. Bd. I-III. New cathedral (Wachholtz)

national emblem

flag

the national flag consists of three horizontal strips. The upper strip is blue, thatmiddle knows and the lower red. The colors are taken to Landeswappen and 1840 for the first time by the German Schleswig Holsteinern in appearing the GermanDanish conflict around Schleswig were used from that. In the year 1949 the flag became official ofthe allied one recognition. The service flag contains Landeswappen contrary to the national flag. With official Beflaggung the service flag is go-eaten. The service flag may be used only by the appropriate authorities, the national flag against it can by everyone freely be used. Ships leada recognition flag in the colors of the national flag.

See also: Signal of Schleswig-Holstein

coat of arms

the coat of arms of Schleswig-Holstein shows after Landesgesetz on golden reason two blue, inward turned, red reinforced, one above the other walking lions and a silver Nesselblatt, howthe lions the region Schleswig, which symbolizes Nesselblatt Holstein. Contrary to the normal Schleswig lions, which see to the left on the circle/city coats of arms, the lions see in Landeswappen to the right. Allegedly this is based on a decree Otto von Bismarcksfrom the 1880er years, since it would be impolite „“from the lions to turn to the Nesselblatt the back. The coat of arms may be used only by authorities. However the federal state government published recently a simplified coat of arms, which is freely usable.

hymn

the Schleswig-Holstein song is not called officially Wanke my native country, which is colloquial name however Schleswig-Holstein meerumschlungen. Matte house Friedrich Chemnitz wrote the text, is the melody of Carl God-dear Bell man

sees also: Schleswig-Holstein meerumschlungen

languages

it give four official national languages: the Niederdeut language (flat German), the Friesi language, the Danish language as well as naturally high German. The Niederdeut language is considered as regional language, Danish and Friesisch as minority languages. Besides still Südjütisch exists(Sønderjysk), one from Jüti coming, by flat German as well as Danish affected independent language, which is however only spoken in some villages which were because of the GermanDanish border.

Danish and Friesisch are used exclusive in the region Schleswig in the north of theCountry. In the circle Nordfriesland are also bilingual place name signs, then of Niebüll the city is announced to the visitor also as Naibel.

The southeast of the country was to in 12. Century of slawischen peoples settles, which itself today still to someslawischstammigen place name to recognize leaves (for example Luebeck, Eutin, Preetz, Ratzeburg)

see also: Languages and dialects in Schleswig-Holstein, Schleswig place names

religion

Religionszugehörigkeit in Prozent
religion in per cent

Schleswig-Holstein is a Protestant coined/shaped country. 2000 belonged to 63,8% of the population of the Evangelical-Lutheran church on, 6.1% were 2003 Roman-catholic. 25,000 Schleswig Holsteiner profess themselves to the Islam. The Evangelist free churches count about 15,000 members, the Danish church enclosure about 6,000 members and approximately 1,800 inhabitants of the countryare Jews.

The Evangelist church belonged to the Nordelbi church and is out cared for by the three bishop seats Hamburg, Holstein Luebeck and Schleswig. Schleswig-Holstein belongs to the ore diocese Hamburg of the Roman-catholic church.

administrative arrangement

Verwaltungsstruktur für Schleswig-Holstein
administrative structure for Schleswig-Holstein

Schleswig-Holstein experienced 1970/74 a regional reorganization. The number of the districts was lowered of 17 ( see Prussian province Schleswig-Holstein) on 11, the number of the municipalities was reduced medium-term from 1.371 (1959) to 1.131 (1994) and those so far 199 Offices were summarized into now 119 offices. At the same time the surface of the four circle-free cities was substantially extended. Schleswig-Holstein existed to 31. December 2002 from altogether 11 districts and 1,130 municipalities. From these municipalities 1,019 less than 2,000 inhabitants have andby a honorary mayor are therefore administered. 62 municipalities possess the municipal law. Municipal law can receive a municipality, which possesses at least 10,000 inhabitants, cities the this from old time to have, loses it however not. In these cities 1.5 million livethat about 2.7 million inhabitant of the country. The circle Pinneberg is nearly as large with 290.000 inhabitants the most densely populated of the country, the circle Rendsburg Eckernförde at 2.400 km ² the largest and thus as the Saarland. Some circles in the Metropolregion Hamburgdiscuss the union to a large Hamburg surrounding countryside circle. Also on regional level there are considerations in the political area to reduce the number of the districts to six to four and the number of the circle-free cities to two or none.

Circles

(in parentheses the district towns and the Kfz characteristics)

circle-free cities

(in parentheses the Kfz characteristics)

it gave considerations on the part of the city new cathedral to follow for cost savings the circle Segeberg.

See also: Article in Hamburg evening papers

a special status takes 1 since that. January 2005 the city north first EDT as “large one city circle-belonging” on, thatin accordance with. § one made possible for 135 A Gemeindeordnung Schleswig-Holstein an experimentation clause. This means that some tasks over a public contract of the circle (here: Segeberg) to the city to be transferred can.

cities and municipalities

Lübecker getting gate
Schloss Reinbek
lock Reinbek

largest one Cities and municipalities

city
municipality
circle inhabitant
of 31.12.2000
inhabitants
30.6.2005
Kiel Kiel (city) 232,612 233,244
Luebeck Luebeck (city) 213,399 211,961
Flensburg Flensburg (city) of 84,281 85,971
new cathedrals new cathedral (city) 79,831 78,333
north first EDT Segeberg 71,523 71,377
Elmshorn Pinneberg 47,391 48,386
Pinneberg Pinneberg 39.423 41,209
Itzehoe stone castle of 33,549 33,285
whisks Pinneberg 32,060 31,841
Rendsburg Rendsburg Eckernförde 29,321 28,469
ear castle Stormarn 29,117 30,087
Geesthacht duchy Lauenburg 29,106 29,404
Schleswig Schleswig Flensburg 25,093 24,182
Henstedt Ulzburg Segeberg 24,950 26,099
Reinbek Stormarn 24,570 25,572
bath old RST Stormarn 23,314 24.027
Eckernförde Rendsburg Eckernförde 23,304 23,162
Husum Nordfriesland 20,994 20,942
heath Dithmar 20,530 20,660
bath Schwartau east Holstein 20,098 19,696
Quickborn Pinneberg 19,875 20,240
cold churches Segeberg 18,081 19,581


Schleswig-Holstein is characterised by a large number of municipalities with less than 500 inhabitants.Contrary to most other Lands of the Federal Republic in it also the accomplished regional reorganization did not change for anything. 1.026 smaller municipalities are in 119 offices (in the circle Dithmar: Office Kirchspielslandgemeinde) in summary, in order to arrange the functions of the administration more effective (conditions: 31. December 2002). SoArnis with its 365 inhabitants is the smallest city of Germany. Wiedenborstel is the smallest independent municipality of Germany. It consists of a house and had in the last years between two and seven inhabitants.

See also: List of the cities and municipalitiesin Schleswig-Holstein.

regions

state State of

condition

Schleswig-Holstein is according to article 1 of his condition of 12. January 1950 a member state of the Federal Republic of Germany. The country possesses the most modern condition of the old Lands of the Federal Republic. In consequence of the Barschel affair 1987 structural changes became lively from the committee of inquiry. An assigned Enquête commission provided suggestions on a condition and a parliament reform and1989 submitted their final report. Thereupon the condition was changed and renamed also by national statute in national condition. Them became to 30. May 1990 of the federal state parliament discharges. The condition contains since then also state goal States of, z. B. the protection of minorities of the friesischen and the Danish group of peoples in the country (kind. 5), the promotion of the equalization of man and Mrs. (kind. 6), the protection of the natural bases of life (kind. 7) or protection and promotion of the culture (kind. 9).

Compared with other German national conditions hasthe Verfassunge long-range elements of the direct democracy. As in all other German countries the government authority goes out with the people, i.e., the people states its will in elections and tunings in the country, in the municipalities and the municipality federations.

ThoseCondition loses its validity subject to other one federallegal regulation on the day, on which a reorganisation of the federal territory steps into force.

federal state parliament

Landeshaus mit Plenarsaal
national house with plenary assembly hall

the federal state parliament is the highest organ of the political will formation selected by the people andthus the legislation implements force . The federal state parliament selects the Prime Minister or the Prime Minister. In addition it controls the implementing force with the iurisdiction. The federal state parliament usually consists (without excessive mandates) of 75 delegates (see table). They become aftera procedure selected, which connects the personality choice with the principles of the elections on the basis of proportional representation. Starting from the 16. Electoral period will consist the federal state parliament of 69 delegates.

federal state government

those Federal state government is in the range of the carrying out force highest line, decision and execution organ. It consists of the Prime Minister or the Prime Minister and the national ministers and national Ministers. The Prime Minister or the Prime Minister is selected by the federal state parliament without discussion. It or it appointsand the national ministers and national Minister dismisses and orders from this circle for itself a representative or a representative. To the Prime Minister or to the Prime Minister is selected, who combines the voices of the majority of the members of the federal state parliament on itself (absolute majority). Receivesin the first ballot nobody this majority, then takes place a new ballot. Even if the choice does not come off in the second ballot, then is selected, who receives most voices in a further ballot.

iurisdiction

the quite-speaking force is judge inside and to judges entrusted; it is exercised in the name of the people. Judge inside and to judge are independent and only the law subjected.

The Gerichtsstruktut in Schleswig-Holstein was and is developed comparatively small. Its own higher administrative court became only 1991 with the Schleswig Holsteini higher administrative court in Schleswig furnished. Up to then the OVG Lueneburg was in Lower Saxony in accordance with. § 3 exp. 2 VwGO also responsibly for the country Schleswig-Holstein.

Schleswig-Holstein has still as only Land of the Federal Republic no own constitutional court barness. Alsoin the context of the constitutional reform of 1990 provisionally further without an own national constitutional court one did. Instead kind points. 44 of the national condition the Federal Constitutional Court the position as constitutional court for the country Schleswig-Holstein too, whereby however no country constitutional complaint is made possible.

In November 2004 became, as already end of the 90's discusses, in the Schleswig Holsteini federal state parliament the mechanism of a national constitutional court. Reasons for this consideration are z. B. that even decisions over the validities from people initiatives only years after their tunings in the federal state parliamentfall, often then already in the next legislative period. Also judge inside and judges from Schleswig-Holstein are in the Federal courts underrepresented. The alliance 90/Die the Green spoke itself for a creation of such a court using judges in addition to the regular duties and organizational bindingto an existing court out. The coalition contract between CDU and SPD of 16. April 2005 plans now to create a national constitutional court with which also the judicial members exercise their activity honorary (point 7.b.). This probably becomes on a bindingrun out to the OVG in Schleswig.

direct democracy

initiative from the people

all citizens and citizen have the right to concern the federal state parliament in the context of its decision competence with certain thes subject of the political will formation. OneInitiative can be the basis also a bill provided with reasons; it may not contradict the principles of the democratic and social right state. The initiatives must be signatory by at least 20,000 voters. Their representatives and representative have the right to hearing. Initiativesover the household of the country, over serving and pension payments as well as over public charges are however inadmissible.

referendum

does not agree the federal state parliament the bill or the collecting main within one period of four months, then are the representativesand representatives of the people initiative entitled to request the execution of a referendum. The federal state parliament decides now whether the requested referendum is permissible. A referendum came if at least 5% of the voters within a half yearly the referendum affirmativelyhave.

popular vote

came a referendum, then a popular vote must be caused within nine months over the bill or the other collecting main. The federal state parliament knows its own bill or another collecting main for simultaneous tuningplace. A popular vote does not take place, if the federal state parliament already passed the law, so that a popular vote became redundant and if the Federal Constitutional Court upon the request of the federal state parliament or the federal state government classified the referendum as unconstitutional.

The billor the other collecting main is accepted by popular vote, if the majority of those, which delivered their voice, agreed however at least one quarter of the voters. A constitutional amendment by popular vote requires the agreement delivered by two thirds of those, those their voicehave, however at least half of the voters. In the tuning only the valid and negative votes count.

legislation

the bills become by the federal state government or by particulars or several delegates of the federal state parliament or by initiatives from thatPeople brought in. The laws are decided by the federal state parliament or by popular vote.Laws those the condition change require the agreement of two thirds of the members of the federal state parliament as well as the agreement of the people. In addition they must the wording of the changing condition textchange expressly and supplement.

politics

Sitzverteilung im Landtag

Schleswig-Holstein are just as rural as Protestant coined/shaped country. In the post-war period the federation could bring nearly 25% the voter behind itself to the refugee of homeland and Entrechteten. With gliding into thoseit lost federalpolitical Bedeutungslosigkeit here in addition, its voters. In the sixties (NPD) and in the nineties (DVU) right-wing extremists could book parties of choice successes with elections of the federal parliament, not repeat these however. In Schleswig-Holstein are the voice portionsthe FDP and the Green mostly smaller than in other Lands of the Federal Republic. The regional voice distribution within the Land of the Federal Republic is very different. Tendentious the voice portion of the SPD is higher in the circle-free cities and in the surrounding countryside of Hamburg, the voice portion of the CDU is tendentious more highly in the circles Nordfriesland and Dithmar, as well as in the rural municipalities of the circles stone castle, Rendsburg Eckernförde and Segeberg. A characteristic in the party landscape Schleswig Hosteins is the Südschleswig voter federation, that the interests of the Danish and friesischen Minority represents. It is with elections of the federal parliament of the 5%-Hürde after electoral law for the federal state parliament of Schleswig-Holstein § 3 exp. 1 sentence 2 excluded. The federal state policy in Schleswig-Holstein sets Hamburg on co-operation with the economically stronger neighbour, stands howeverthe north state lively of the neighbour sceptically opposite. After a representative inquiry of the trade associations north, which work already transnational, were recently 52% of the population already for the Zusammengehen with Hamburg in a new Land of the Federal Republic.

federal state government

thoseGovernment becomes since 27. April 2005 carried by a large coalition from CDU and SPD:

to its cabinet belong:

former Prime Ministers

the Prime Ministers starting from 1945:

the Prime Ministers since the condition of 1950



the 2-Euro-Münzen with motive for Schleswig-Holstein

2-Euro-Münze mit Holstentor-Motiv
2-Euro-Münze with motive for getting gate

inFebruary 2006 the first two-euro-coins with a motive for Land of the Federal Republic came out. Since Schleswig-Holstein placed the Upper House of Parliament president to this time, a motive from this Land of the Federal Republic was selected. Approximately 30 million coins, which show the getting gate in Luebeck, represent Schleswig-Holstein in Europe, where(intending) the coins official currency are.

Details see the Wikipedia article over the 2-Euro-Gedenkmünzen.

economics and traffic

economics

Schleswig-Holstein is traditionally a structure-weak country with only two large cities, Kiel and Luebeck. Relatively many inhabitants work further in the agriculture. Producing industry developed here relatively late and already early again by the using structural change was affected. Also the reunification of 1990, by the Schleswig-Holstein from the taker toGiver country in the land financial adjustment became, had economically unfavorable consequences; the dismantling of German Federal Armed Forces and navy met the economy of the Land of the Federal Republic particularly hard. With respect to economic regard three regions can be differentiated: the prosperierende Hamburg surrounding countryside in the Metropolregion Hamburg, also “Bacon belt “mentioned (with mechanical engineering and services), the west coast (agriculture, tourism, wind energy) and the ports at the east coast (in particular Flensburg, Kiel and Luebeck). In the last years the maritime trade with the Baltic Sea area wins meaning. A special roleplay thereby the Jutland line and the bird airline like also the Lübecker port as ways to Scandinavia, Finland, Russia and the Baltic. Kiel is the driving port of Germany most meaning after Rostock.

In Schleswig-Holstein are well two thirds of the entireGerman Fischereiflotte stations. Approximately are settled a quarter of the German shipping companies in the country; about 20% of the German conversion in shipbuilding are gained here. Above all threw HDW in Kiel is also internationally very successful.

Schleswig-Holstein has at threeLocations of nuclear power stations, in Brunsbüttel, Brokdorf and Krümmel.

The tourism in Schleswig-Holstein has a far greater importance than in most other Lands of the Federal Republic. In the tourism industry about 80,000 persons employed gained a conversion of 5.2 billion euro in the year 2002. ThatContribution of the tourism to the national income amounted to thereby 4.6% (contrary to the federal cut of 2,8%). Particularly the nordfriesischen islands (everything in front Sylt) enjoy of large popularity with - mostly Germans - the tourists, but also the Baltic Sea baths (z.B.Timmendorfer beach, Eckernförde or luck castle) are of importance.

the 5 largest employers in Schleswig-Holstein after the number of coworkers (conditions: 2005)

  1. CO OI Schleswig-Holstein EEC, 6,300 coworkers
  2. Damp getting thing AG, 4,410 coworkers
  3. DrägerwerkTo AG, 3,350 coworkers
  4. Howaldtswerke Germans threw GmbH (HDW), 3,440 coworkers
  5. Ethicon GmbH, 2,450 coworkers (subsidiary companies of the US company Johnson & Johnson)

traffic

the most important motorways of the country proceed from Hamburg . There is the federal motorway 1 to Luebeck,those far over the bird airline the Öresundregion Copenhagen/Malmö ties up, the federal motorway 7 over new cathedrals and Rendsburg after Flensburg with a branch after Kiel, the federal motorway 215, and the federal motorway 23 after heath with connection after Husumand the Nordfriesi islands. Partially still the federal motorway 20 under construction leads so far from Luebeck to the Mecklenburg Vorpommer Baltic Sea coast and is in the future with luck city the Elbe to queren. The federal motorway 24 connects the Metropolregion Hamburg with that Metropolregion Berlin/Brandenburg.

The main routes of the railway begin likewise in Hamburg. From there they lead after Kiel, Luebeck and Flensburg. Also the march course begins in Hamburg and ends in Westerland on Sylt. To Kiel (over new cathedrals)operate also ICEs. Of importance long time was also the train ferry from Fehmarn to Lolland in the process of the bird airline. The well developed cross-country bus net of Schleswig-Holstein is essentially operated by the autostrength GmbH.

The country has altogether 46 public portsand landing places, from which four supraregional transit functions fulfill:Kiel, Luebeck/Travemünde and finery guards at the Baltic Sea, Brunsbüttel at the North Sea. Kiel and Luebeck are just as important for the goods traffic to Scandinavia as well as increasingly to Eastern Europe. Kielis besides an important driving and cross driver port. Finery guards is the German port of the bird airline to Denmark. Brunsbüttel is an important port for bulk goods and develops at present in addition to an important basis for the offshore one - wind energy industry. That Northeast ship canal is also annual over 41.000 Schiffsbewegungen to most used artificial water way of the world.

Air traffic: The two large civilian airports are in Kiel and in Luebeck. During the Kieler airport at present only line flights to Frankfurt andBerlin offers (starting from that 2. May additionally also to Munich), is Luebeck also for the tourism of importance, since it is often approached by “cheap airlines”. Increasing meaning attains the airport Sylt. It does not only become starting from 2006 from smallerRegional traffic companies approached, but also of larger airlines with larger airplanes. There are besides smaller airfields with Flensburg and hard cross-beam (and. A.), special landing areas are on the islands Helgoland, and Fehmarn.

education

Schleswig-Holstein has threeUniversities, whereby however only the steeped in tradition, 1665 is created Christian Albrechts university in Kiel a full university. Furthermore there is academy of art, one college of music, four professional schools and an administrative professional school in the country. Altogether 45,542 persons studied, of it 26.510 in the winter semester 2003/2004 in Schleswig-Holsteinat universities and 16,973 at professional schools.

In the school year 2001/2002 36.6% the pupil at general-forming schools visited a primary school, 20.8% a High School, 18.6% a six-form high school, 13.3% a hauptschule, 4.8% a comprehensive school and a 3.7% a special school.Further there are free Rudolf Steiner Schools (1.3% the pupil), school child gardens (0.4%), evening six-form high schools (0.2%) and evening High Schools (0.1%).

See also: Universities in Schleswig-Holstein

culture

the culture of Schleswig-Holstein actual causes not least by the Danish andfriesischen influences - quite various. It is coined/shaped by historical-geographical factors like the situation between the two seas North Sea and Baltic Sea as well as the primarily rural culture. Particularly in the north of the country the Scandinavian influence is in architecture and housing traditionrecognizably. Emphasis of the cultural life is the cities Luebeck, Kiel and Schleswig.

Schleswig-Holstein is a country with enriches literary tradition. But names stand such as Johann Heinrich Voss, Matthias Claudius, Friedrich Hebbel, Theodor Storm, Klaus Groth as well as Heinrich man and Thomas's man. The latter help the city Luebeck with its novel „ the Buddenbrooks “to literary world fame. Also numerous contemporary schleswig holsteinische authors wrote German literature history. In addition the literature Nobelpreisträger Günter Grass belongs (Residence: Luebeck), the schleswig holsteinische honour citizen Siegfried spring (residence: with Rendsburg), the writer Günter Kunert or the Dichterin Sarah Kirsch.

In musical regard resident the country with that 1986 of Justus Frantz created Schleswig-Holstein music festival the largestKlassikfestival Europe. It presents annually in July and August approx. , Generally speaking country distributes 130 concerts forwards over 100.000 visitors on 30-50 play places. Besides Salzau, the master courses at the college of music Luebeck as well as that finds in the context of the orchestra academy in the national cultural centerChoir academy internationally renowned a promotion of young people of high-talented from all world instead of. Each year arranges the festival topic tables an emphasis, in the last years was this Spanish and Latin American music (2002), Great Britain (2003), Tschechien (2004) and Japan (2005).

The Eutiner of summer gamesbecame 1951 from cause 125. Day of death of the composer Carl Maria von Weber born in Eutin based. On the basis of performances of the weber opera „that free contactor “a meeting row has itself (per year three operas in 22-25 performances in the Eutiner lock park)developed, which pulls annually nearly 50,000 visitors after east Holstein.

Schleswig Holstein possesses - apart from a multiplicity of smaller stages - three large multi-section theatres: The theatre Luebeck, the theatre Kiel as well as the Schleswig Holsteini national theatre with seat in Schleswig.

With largerLikingness takes place in high west EDT since 1998 “medievally the Spectaculum” brought into being. Each year at Whitsuntide is ordered to the visitor a three-day-long pageant including market and knight tournament. The atmosphere in the book-existed park William height provides for the correct Ambiente -it is with rains, storm or also under the earlysummer sun.

The spectrum that approximately 250 schleswig holsteinischen museums is broadly varied: It is enough from the central national museums of the donation lock Gottorf over the historical locks and large houses into thatCities up to a multiplicity of local history museums worth seeing, which obtain life near past and peculiarity of country and people.

The Nordi film days in Luebeck finally are one the most steeped in tradition and largest north German Filmfestivals at all. Sie sind ausschließlich dem Kino des Nordensdedicated; to see productions from Denmark, Sweden , Norway , Iceland and Finland or from Estonia are, Lettland and Litauen as well as Poland and Russia.

See also: List of historical places in Schleswig-Holstein

sport

by thoselong coasts is just as popular the water haven as a fishing. Schleswig-Holstein resident besides two hand ball associations, which play regularly at the point of the federal league: The THW Kiel and the SG Flensburg Handewitt. Admit are also the soccer associations VfB Luebeck and the KSV Holstein Kiel, which was 1912 German football master. Kiel is historically a steeped in tradition place of the box haven, above all however one of the world metropolises of the Segelns, recognized by the sail competitions of the olympic summer games 1936 and 1972.With the Kieler week and the Travemünder week is the country aligner of two of the largest and most steeped in tradition sail competitions of the world. Altogether about 32,000 Segler are organized in the country in 230 associations. Sylt and Fehmarn are the Mekka of many Surfer,in addition the country loads to moving and wheel brings in. From the rudders - city Ratzeburg came and comes Germany figure eight. At the west coast in Nordfriesland and Dithmar the Bosseln is today still quite popular.

Regular meetings

see also: Tourism in Schleswig-Holstein

honour citizen

four persons honour citizens of Schleswig-Holstein became:

See also: List of the honour citizens of Schleswig-Holstein, list of the personalities (Schleswig-Holstein)

See also

Wiktionary: Schleswig-Holstein - word origin, synonyms and translations

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coordinates: 54° 28 ' 12 " N, 9° 30 ' 51 " O

 

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