Lock Versailles

the lock Versailles is a baroque castle of the French kings and lies in Versailles, a suburb of Paris. Built as hunting seat for Ludwig XIII. became it starting from 1661 under Ludwig XIV. by Le Vau, living run and Kind of one over and developed. The famous garden plants come from Le Nôtre. It is since that 17. Century long time the model of numerous locks of European princes been. The lock is since 1979 part of the UNESCO of world cultural heritage.

Schloss Versailles, Gartenfassade
Lock Versailles, garden front
Versailles, main front of the Südparterre
Versailles, city side with marble yard, vestige ehem. Hunting seat Ludwig XIII.

Table of contents

lock

building history

that originally three-flight-lies - in former times of a ditch surrounded - hunting seatis this very day to be recognized, it limits the marble yard, the latter and the smallest three honour yards, which are pre-aged to the city side. The king refused, against the advice of kind of one, for its new residence the lock of its fatherto give up and this building in the course of the time was converted in such a way and integrated into the new building. First the old ditches were filled up and the u-shaped central tract received the “shroud in such a way specified”. This building possessed one in place of the later mirror gallery stilllarge terrace over the Vestibül. Only briefly before with the north and the south wing was begun, became also the terrace covered and closed the main front; in this picture the garden side shows up this very day.

Versailles, detail to the marble yard

forthe building of the north wing the Thetis Grotte, a well house, decorated with statues, had to be torn off the statues issued therein is today partially in the park of the Petit Trianon. On the place of the Thetis Grotte the today's building risesthe lock chapel, which proceeds from the north wing. The Seitenflügel of the lock were removed and extended in the course of the years, to itself the lock for the end 18. Century in his current dimensions represented - the garden side is 570 meters wide. Duringthe building phases occasionally over 20.000 humans on and in Versailles worked. At present Ludwig XVI. a new decoration of the city side was considered, which old fronts should resemble there the garden fronts. The line took over Ange Jacques Gabriel, in the long run took place however onlya change now of the Gabrielflügel so mentioned.

The lock

the whole garden front - the Hauptwerk one kind - is sketched in styles of the French baroque. The main's building becomes in the first projectile on its entire width of the large mirror gallery (Gallery of the Glaces, also gallery de Louis XIV. called) and the salons of the war and the peace taken, which with their upper limit paintings, mirrors, columns, Pilastern etc. an overwhelming impression make. The Attikageschoss visible in the garden front is over thoseentire length of the mirror hall filled out with its Gewölbe. In the center of the mirror gallery the transition begins place of the famous ceremonies of the Lever and the Coucher, rising and sleeping going of the king, here to the bedroom of Ludwig XVI., that, in the centerthe lock, as it were center of his realm, nächtigte. The areas and halls serve all the glorification of the king, the decoration of the stucco, the topics of the paintings, everything are co-ordinated with economic and political successes of the king. A large rolethe mythology in addition takes . Among the areas most worth seeing the ox eye hall Oeil de rank salon boeuf, the Herkulessalon, which royal bedrooms, which chapel and a theatre, which served both for flanks, plays and opera performances.

The lock chapel

inRun of the centuries inside the lock changes and changes were made again and again, then the halls and salon were not only decorated again and again according to the time taste again, but whole apartments were shifted changed, doors, again arranged rooms.So for instance the bedroom “moved” from Ludwig XIV. after the death of the queen southward. Likewise at present Ludwig XV developed. for the first time the intimate premises, into which the king with the desired guests could withdraw itself without yard state. Before the lock chapelit received, was accommodated, likewise their current building (finished 1710) at the north side of the lock in changing halls the theatre. The larger, perfectly theatre built from wood is to be likewise found in the north wing, a smaller belonged to the Petit Trianon.The lock chapel is a double chapel, which was upper floor the king and the royal family reserve, on the lower level sat the yard. Three Fresken of different painters place the topics father, son, holy spirit (with the latter the king became on an equal footing). The organ of the church is kept with the extensive gold work unrestauriert until today outstanding. The famous envoy stairs were replaced to the change work by a new space escape and for the museum and the installation of the battle gallery in 19. Century are finally severalfürstliche dwellings in the south wing to the victim please.

The lock seized hundreds areas, in which consequences alternated of parade rooms with the inhabited apartments, from which this very day many is received.

The park plants

total plan of Versailles, Delagrive, 1746
Garten des Schlosses Versailles, Blick zum Latona-Brunnen und dem Grand Canal
garden of the lockVersailles, view to the Latona well and the Grand Canal
Versailles, Orangerieparterre

the lock park (1662-1667 first development phase, 1668-1677 second development phase, 1678-1689 third development phase) was plannedand establishes under Le Nôtre. It is one of largest and most important Europe and extendskilometres away in the country inside. Ludwig XIV. was so proud on this plant that he provided the first leader to his park, in which it and. A. wrote to which time one in which avenue to stand is, when which Fontänein use and which meaning would be this and that statue would have. In the wells and groups of statues the Greek mythology is represented and as if equalsneeze applied to the government of the king.

The park rises terrassenförmig to the lock and is alsoits Broderieparterres, lawn carpets, its Orangerie, its basins and jumping wells as well as the numerous Bildwerken a continuation of lock architecture. Like the lock, the park serves the glorification of the sun king: like that are the large basins before the main front with sculpturesdecorated, which symbolize of France large rivers and thus give indications of the size of its realm. Before the large channel is the Apollo well, made of which the sun God out-rises and rises symbolically toward the king. The construction work toLarge channel several thousand humans are to have cost the life, which died here in accidents or at sump fever. For the irrigation of the parks a system had to be developed by aquaducts and water pipelines. In close proximity to Marly le Roi became under thatEmployment rope that workers a large pumping machine establishes, which transported the necessary Wassermassen to the lock. Nevertheless a sufficient supply of the wells and basins with the technical possibilities at that time was not given, and which knew Fontänen not all are at the same time operated. Forthe walks of the king were always put the Wasserspiele into operation, at which he was straight and also for the celebrations in the park exact operating plans became provided.

At present Ludwig XVI. parts of the park and an afforestation was transformedthe Boskette made. But wide ranges were gerodet and again bepflanzt, because by those meanwhile in many places the remote view was disturbed hundred years of old trees on the exactly computed symbolism of the park. A similar new planting was made into the 1990er years.

The park locks

in the park from Versailles are the desire locks Grand Trianon and Petit Trianon, as well as the Hameau, the village of the queen. All these buildings a half foot hour removes the main lock erichtet, over the kings relaxation andTo offer recovery off the overcrowded palace.

The costs

all calculations of the entire construction period remained. One counts the expenditures together in such a way arises 25.725.836 Livres (with livre it concerns an arithmetic and logic unit, which corresponds to 409g silver,approx. 10500 tons silver or 0.456 billion Gulden to 23g silver. A conversion of the costs is not possible so easily. If one takes the rate of silver as a basis of 250 Euro/kg, the sum corresponds to 2.6 billion euro. Becomes a purchasing power of 80 euro/guldensto reason put one comes on 37 billion Euro; one puts the relative costs of the building of the national budget on today's values over comes one on 259.56 billion euro in such a way or so, it not many buildings will give, thoseapproximately on approximately fifty years were so expensively) distributed (in various building activities and constant changes or adornments by Ludwig XIV. from 1661 to 1710). Nearly all orders were absolutely kept written out, estimates, the army in times of peace was consulted for construction work. Minister of Finance Jean Baptiste Colbert paid attention to extreme thriftiness. Which most viewers as unbelievable luxury appeared, was built in reality as economically as only possible, what did not entail that the fire-places often did not pull, the windows closed correctly and thatLife in the winter much unkomfortabel was there.

History

the residence of the sun king and his successor

Ludwig XIV. Paris did not like gladly and it loved the small hunting seat of its father. Its resolution, the yard from the Louvre and the Tuilerien hereto shift, of France should coin/shape history for many years. Here it could develop the government style, which admits as absolutism became. The lock from Versailles became an enormous stage, on which the only play was the king.

The lock was nearly constantly overcrowded and the aristocracy, thus it to the royal family belonged, did not live partially in close roof chambers. Ludwig XIV. wanted further rebellions like the Fronde to prevent, by letting the aristocracy supervise around itself scharte and strictly. Onlywith yards could still posts and offices suppl. corroding ore to become, which from it - who sun king - removed, lost itself its privileges. For this reason the city and land aristocracy constantly were around its king, which ensured that occasionalseveral thousand humans the lock inhabited at the same time.

Already under the predecessors of the sun king there were strict rites for the glorification of the French rulers. But around the lock Versailles and Ludwig XIV. a gigantic succession was developed by ceremonies, which was unparalleledand to today the requirement of Ludwig symbolizes. The label regulated and described each procedure, from large festivenesses and receipts up to as everyday things as the midday meal. The king when rising to be in the Lever helpful it simply onlythe water or the shirt to be enough, was considered as the all-largest honour, which on Austieg and case decided with yards. The system of the label was maintained also among the successors of the sun king and carries until today for the unworldly aura of the lock.

  • An example of the strict, thoroughly regulated label with yard is the following anecdote: The queen Marie Anoinette left the bed and her chamber woman Madame Campan on a cold winter morning helped her when undressing the nightgown. In thatMoment, as Mme. Campan of the naked queen their Unterhemd hands, enters a countess the room, which minutes required that this welcomes only the Köngin, then the chamber woman, which again over her standing aristocrat must the privilege grant, the queento help when dressing. With break toward queen the chamber woman takes the shirt back around it with further break the countess to give. In this instant - always present - the PAGEs open the door, around oneto in-permit in yards well-known princess, which is entitled again the honour, to be helpful the queen. The countess hands back thus with break the shirt of the chamber woman, the chamber woman hands the shirt of the princess. Suddenly the servants open those againDoor to in-permit around a sister of the king and begins the play from the front.

The lock was not alone the aristocracy reserved: into the simpler areas of the lock even the usual people had admission that hoped here a view upto be able to receive the high aristocracy rabbit and alms. Besides it was before-let on selected days into the Speisesäle, in order to be able to watch the pair of kings the servant. Even usual meals were taken before public and also the Niederkunft thatQueen was a public event.

Before the lock gradually the city developed, there Ludwig XIV. the building-merry all possible feed motion carried out. Also Ludwig XV. resided, here likewise Ludwig XVI.The yard maintained the entire economy of the city, cooks, bakers,Cutters, ride masters, carpenters and carpenters settled here. During this time the population of the city Versailles rose to more than 100,000 souls, however rapidly, as the later king Ludwig XVI sank. under duress to Paris moved.

duringthe revolution

for the constitutional phase of the French revolution the lock Versailles was in as much of importance as here, in the Grande Salle of the menu Plaisirs, to 5. May 1789 the general conditions met. As the king, that after the conditionthe summoning and dismissal of the general conditions were entitled, the meeting room from political reasons to conclude left, withdrew the delegates of the third conditions, who had explained themselves meanwhile as the national assembly, into the ball house . This served the meeting of the third conditions after that 20. June 1789 as meeting place, after Ludwig XVI. had tried to prevent the meeting of the third conditions by locking of the regular meeting room; admits by the ball house oath to 20. June 1789. To 5. Octobers 1789 forced the Poissarden the kingand its family to leave and pull to Paris in the Tuilerien lock Versailles.

After the revolution

after the revolution 1789 one could receive the lock only provisional. Since Ludwig Philipp against it the areas were restored as well as the lock to onegreat historical national museum furnished and with Büsten, haven advice, battle pictures and other works of art of predominantly historical value decorated (under it masterpieces of Horace Vernet, Eugène Delacroix, Ary Scheffer, Adolphe Yvon, James Pradier and. A.).

German emperor proclamation in the mirror hallof lock Versailles

Germany - France

the lock had a great importance in French-German history. Of 5. October 1870 to 13. March 1871 was Versailles seat of the large headquarters of the German armies. After the German victory over France in French-German war of 1870/1871 became to 18. January 1871 in the mirror hall of the lock king William I. from Prussia to the German emperor Wilhelm I. proclaimed. This place is of William I. consciously selected, there numerous cover paintings from the time of the Absolutism of annexations of German countries under Ludwig XIV. , thus as symbolic reunification of German countries among emperors Wilhelm I. witnessed. The defeated Frenchmen however saw therein however only a humiliating of their Königtums. The Friedenspräliminarien became to 26. February 1871 in Versaillessigned. To 10. March 1871 shifted the national assembly the seat of the government from Bordeaux to Versailles; only 1879 it was shifted again to Paris.

Versailler contract

after the First World War one negotiated the armistice contract, which the defeated German empire had to sign, there(Versailler contract). This time the Frenchmen selected the place, in order to humiliate the Germans.

The hard editions of the Versailler of contract (and. A. high Reparationsverpflichtungen and acknowledgment of the exclusive war debt) loaded the recent Weimar Republic much. Therefore is the opinionfar it spreads that the consequences of the Versailler of contract prepared the soil for the later ascent of the national socialists in Germany, just as thereby the continuing GermanPolish border conflicts are to have been inflamed.

After the Second World War

after the Second World War Versailles became andits lock a place of the French-German reconciliation. Of it the ceremonies witness on the occasion of the 40. Return of the signing of the Elysée contract of 22. January 1963 (2003).

Today the lock with its garden plants and park locks for visitors is opened and countsto the largest tourist magnets of France.

Persons

the lock Versailles was the place of birth of the following kings:

Versailles as model

many locks and residences had the lock Versailles as model. Did not become often - however always- architecture to imitate particularly however the way of life of the French kings and a concentrating of the yard state a place tries. Examples are and. A.

Besides the art of the extensive garden plants Versailles' “was exported” to the European prince and king yards.



Coordinates: 48° 48 ' 16 N; 2° 7 ' 15 O

 

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