Scotland

Scotland
Scotland (English/Lowland Scots)
Alba (Gälisch)
Das Andreaskreuz, die Nationalflagge Schottlands Das Wappen von Schottland The Lion Rampant, die Flagge des schottischen Königs
(Detail) (detail) (detail)
head of state queen Elizabeth II.
First Minister Jack McConnell
capital Edinburgh
surface 78.782 km ²
population 5.062.011 (2001)
population density 64Inhabitant per km ²
currency Pound of Sterling with own Scottish notes of the bank OF Scotland, Royal bank OF Scotland (both Edinburgh) and Clydesdale bank (Glasgow); Coins as in England. Characteristic: 1-Pfundnote; it gives in England not and becomes there alsodoes not accept. English notes accepted this in Scotland easily, did not turn around despite legal obligation always the case.
Time belt UTC, summer time: +1 UTC
national anthem God save the Queen, Flower OF Scotland, it becomes unofficial toodetermined causes in addition, Scots Wha Hae or Scotland the good ones easily.
Internet TLD .gb and .uk (no own).
Lage Schottlands im Vereinigten Königreich

Scotland (Gälisch: Alba, lat. - kelt.: Caledonia) is a country in the northwest of Europe and part of the united Kingdom of Great Britainand Northern Ireland. Scotland consists of the northern part of the largest European island Great Britain and several Inselgruppen, i.e. the Shetlandinseln, Orkneys and the internal and outside Hebriden.

Table of contents

Geografie

Scotland forms the northern part of the island Great Britain and covers for instance a third for thatSurface. Scotland divides itself in three geographical regions: the Highlands, the cent ral Belt and the Southern Uplands. The highest mountain of Scotland (and completely Great Britain) is the Ben Nevis, with away William. It belongs to the Munros.

The Southern Uplands lain south is more strongly England coined/shaped due to the lighter entrance to these regions. Thus the cultural differences in the two areas resulted.

The most densely populated area is the so-called cent ral Belt between Edinburgh and Glasgow.

climate

the climate in Scotland is moderate and tendentious very variable. At the Atlantic regions it is warmed up by the gulf stream and is therefore much more warmly than areas in comparable degrees of latitude as for example Oslo, Norway.The temperatures are nevertheless lower than in the remainder of Great Britain. Scotland Hochmoore reached in January 1982 with round- 27.2 °C in Braemar in the Grampian Mountains the lowest temperatures, which were ever measured in Great Britain. The summer temperatures lie over about18 °C. The highest measured temperature became to 9. August 2003 with 32,9 °C in Greycrook at the Scottish border noted. Generally the west is warmer as the east of Scotland, there by the gulf stream the water of the Atlantiks more warmly thanthat the North Sea is. The Western Highlands is heaviest-rainfall with 3,000 mm annual precipitation. In the winter is to be counted only in the altitudes regularly on snow.

largest cities

city inhabitant
5. April of 1991
inhabitants
29.April 2001
Glasgow 658,379 629,501
Edinburgh 400,632 430,082
Aberdeen 182,133 184,788
Dundee 157,808 154,674
Paisley 73,925 74,170
East Kilbride 70,579 73,796
Hamilton 49,988 48,546
Cumbernauld 49,507 49,664
Greenock 49,267 45,467
Ayr 47,962 46,431
Kirkcaldy 47,274 46,912
Coatbridge 43,467 41,170
Kilmarnock 43.207 43,588
Livingston 42,178 50,826
Perth 41,724 43,450
Inverness 40,918 40,949
Dunfermline 39,068 39,229
Glenrothes 38,320 38,679
Airdrie 36,842 36,326
Irvine 33,406 33,090
Dumfries 31,936 31,146
Falkirk 31,399 32,379
MON-ago-wave 30,769 30,311
Stirling 29,768 32,673
Wishaw 29,574 28,565
Clydebank 29.171 29,858
Bearsden 27,707 27,967
Bishopbriggs 23,825 23,118
Arbroath 23,680 22,785
Dumbarton 21,797 20,527
Bellshill 21,624 20,705
Renfrew 20,764 20,251
Kirkintilloch 20,624 20,281
Musselburgh 20,261 22,112
haven Glasgow 19,426 16,617
Newton Mearns 19,342 22,637
Elgin 19,338 20,829

population

The Scots come ethnical from the Skoten (i.e. Gälen), Pikten, the British, fishing rod Saxonia and Skandinaviern off.

language


In Scotland three languages are spoken: English, Scots and Scottish Gäli (self-designation: Gàidhlig).

Nearly all Scots speak Scottish standard English.The Meldeamt accepts that 30% of the population speak beside it Scots (Scottish) flowing, a westGermanic language used with the English. Somewhat more as 1% of the population indicate than native language Gälisch, a celtic language, similarly to the Irish one. Only on EileanSiar gives it still another Gälisch speaking majority, which reflects itself also in the official gälischen name of the island. Nearly all Gälisch speakers control also English nevertheless flowing.

When king mounted James VI English throne, became at the Scottish yard and inParliament Scottish (also admits as Lowland Scots or Lallans, a Scottish dialect is exactly taken which) written and spoken.

Both English and Scottish are recognized by the Scottish parliament as office languages, both with the same respect, but not with thatsame priority. Gälisch was recognized officially 2005 by „the Gaelic LANGUAGE (Scotland) act”. Scottish officially as „regional language or minority language “recognition on basis of the European Charter for regional and minority languages (the European charter for regional or Minority LANGUAGEs), which2001 were ratified by the UK and by the Scottish executive in the Partnership Agreement 2003 were supported. The project „Scottish dictionary “is financially supported by national side.

history

major item: History of Scotland

  • since approx. 10,000 v. Chr. first Zuwanderungover the land bridge, which to approximately 4,000 v.Chr. the British islands with the European mainland connects and then by the sea rise due to the melting of the ice-age glaciers disappears. The earliest inhabitants are mesolitische hunters and Fischer and/or. starting from approximately 4.500v.Chr. immigrating neolitische farmers.
  • 6,000 v. Chr. Earliest archaeological referring to human settlements and cult places.
  • 82 - 208 n. Chr. The Romans march several times into the region, can put however no durable rule up. The Hadrianswall becomes in the years122 to 128 between the deltas of Tyne and Solway built and becomes the final north border of Roman Britannien.
  • 503 the Skoten, Celt from Ireland, lands at the west coast of Scotland.
  • The Skoten and Pikten unites 843 Kenneth Mac alpine oneas a nation. This celtic monarchy lasts up to the end of the regency from Macbeth in the year 1057.
  • 1057 Malcolm III. Macbeth kills and becomes king. Under its rule the English influence becomes strong.
  • 1296 Annexion of Scotland by English king Edward I.
  • 1314 battle of Bannockburn: The Scots under Robert the Bruce strike the Englishmen, aforementioned from Edward II.
  • One touches down to 1320 the Declaration OF Arbroath. It is to bring the Pope to recognize the Scottish independence from England. ThatPope accepts the explanation.
  • 1603 James VI. by Scotland, son Maria Stuarts, becomes king James I. of England. Thus the two crowns are combined. Scotland and England remain separate kingdoms under a monarch.
  • 1692 with the massacre of Glencoe38 members of the MacDonald clan on arrangement of the English government in a punitive action are murdered. This event burned itself deeply into Scottish national consciousness.
  • 1707 act OF union: Scotland is formally combined with England to the Kingdom of Great Britain. Scotlandits parliament dissolves and sends delegates into the parliament of Westminster.
  • 1746 battle with Culloden: The last Scottish rebellion aforementioned of prince Charles Edward Stuart (“Bonnie Prince Charlie “) is bloodily struck down.
  • starting from 1780 Highland Clearances:To create beginning of driving out of Kleinbauern (“Crofters”) around place for sheep breed.
  • Scotland reaches 1820 the industrielle revolution. Shipbuilding, coal mines, iron and steel huts replace the textile economy as Scotland Hauptindustrie.
  • 1975 the first oil are ashore pumped by the North Sea.Scotland becomes an oil promoting country.
  • 1997 the Scottish population tunes with overwhelming majority for an own parliament with limited authority within the united kingdom.
  • 1999 a new Scottish parliament are selected. It becomes in the future over internal-Scottish affairs andIncome taxes to decide can.


see also: Prince von Schottland

famous personalities

of culture

of the Dudelsack, the Kilts and the whisky are the most well-knownScottish cultural properties, whereby all three do not have a Scottish origin. The whisky was distilled first by catholic monks in Ireland and was then landed in the framework by Missionierungen in Scotland. The Dudelsack comes from small Asia and the Kilt became first intoLondon carried (only the Feileadh beag, or small Kilt not the Feileadh mòr, large Kilt). Shortbread (butter, spraying pastry), Haggis, Harris Tweed and the Scottish clan system are also extensively well-known against it Scottish origin and.

The clan system, above allin the Highlands, a Scottish characteristic represents. A few the most well-known clan are:

  • MacGregor
  • Stewart
  • MacDonald
  • MacLeod
  • Robertson
  • Campbell
  • MacKenzie
  • MacPherson

regular take place “highland the games in such a way specified” (high land plays).

There is no official national anthem, howevertraditionally Scotland the good ones is used; particularly with football - and Rugby - plays however Flower OF Scotland the Scottish volume The Corries is to be heard.

religion

see also:


census from the year 2001:
Religion per cent of the population
Church OF Scotland 42%
ORB 28%
Roman-catholic 16%
other Christians 7%
Islam 0,8%
Buddhismus 0,1%
Sikhismus 0,1%
Judentum 0,1%
Hinduismus 0,1%
other religions 0,5%
no answer 5%

educational system

see to educational system in the united kingdom

economics

Scotland is beside Ireland the center of the Whisky industry. The second liquid won there is that North Sea oil; the center of the oil promotion is Aberdeen. Here the oil business replaced the fishery long. Main export product is however computer often commodity. As example e.g. is. To call skirt star North, which has its offices in Edinburgh.

A Scottish peculiarity gives itwith the currency. In Scotland, like in the remainder of the united kingdom, in Pound Sterling is paid - however the three large Scottish banks bank of Scotland, Royal bank OF Scotland and Clydesdale bank may publish their own notes.Together with the notes of the bank OF England there are four different cash notes in each nominal value in Scotland thus.

politics and administration

Scotland are governed by a “first Minister” (comparably a German Prime Minister). It has its seatin Edinburgh, where also the Scottish parliament has its seat. Head of state is the respective British monarch, at present thus queen Elizabeth II.

The executive force lies beside the Scottish parliament further also at the parliament of the united kingdom inWestminster, whereby this also it can outvote decisions, which that one made.

See also:

literature

  • Hermann writer, Scotland - the history of a country at the edge of Europe, Casimir Katz publishing house, ISBN 3-925825-41-X
  • MarkusHilpert/Bernhard Kräusslich (Hrsg.), Scotland: social and economiceconomics Exkursion, Augsburg 2004, 252 S., ISBN 3-923273-55-X

Web on the left of

Wikipedia on Scottish Gälisch
Wikipedia on Scots
Wikiquote: Scottish proverbs - quotations
Wiktionary: Scotland - word origin, synonyms and translations


 

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