writing serves for to communication and preservation of linguistic information. With an agreed upon, fixed plotting system information will be able on a carrier written and thus coded and read off from this again, speaks to be decoded.
writing meanscolloquially also a character font (arranged character set, Typografie), a font file (computer engineering), a handwriting (typeface : »Ich kann deine Schrift nicht lesen«), schriftliche Werke (»Goethes Schriften zur Farbenlehre«) und religiöse Texte (»Heilige Schrift«).
table of contents
- Alphabet writing - the fundamental relationshiphere is: An indication corresponds to a sound (and/or. Phoneme).
- Silbenschrift - here to a large extent an indication corresponds to a syllable.
- Logograms - an indication here usually stands for a word and/or. for a statement or an instruction.
Alphabet andSilbenschriften are more or less phonological, therefore is based. Logogram or ideogram writings is however rather meaning: The character corresponds rather to a certain meaning as a certain sound. Examples of such a writing are the Arabic numerals (1.2.3…), mathematical symbols, road sign, pictograms, Gefahrensymbole. These are internationally, thus understandable over language borders away.
With the alphabet writings one differentiates consonant writings between alphabet writings strictly speaking and, with which only the consonants are designated. With first can one still between such differentiates, in which each sound receives a equal indication, as with respect to latin writing, and such, in which vowels emerge as mandatory auxiliary characters of consonants, as with respect to Indian writings. These are thus in certain way that Link between alphabet writings strictly speaking and consonant writings, in certain way also to the Silbenschriften. Some languages use mixed writings, which have courses of two or all three writing systems, or several writings next to each other.
The cryptographs form a characteristic,for the coded information transfer to be used.
|Character type||symbol meaning||example writing|
|Logografisch||morpheme||of chines. Hanzi|
|Abugida||consonant + vowel, vowel||Devanagari|
before the development of the writing was thousands of years long the verbal excessive quantity of substantial contents usual. She held always certain risks.A possible sense distortion of original source contents and omitting or adding contents are immanently contained in the verbal switching of the individual in each case storyteller. Psychological, social and cultural factors play a substantial role during the verbal excessive quantity. Became world-widesince more jeher critical information, in addition, secret knowledge, rituals, myths, legends and legends verbally passed on (like among other things history from the large Sintflut), which exhibit a similar core, in their details however considerably from each other to deviate know. Alsotoday cultures still exist, in which the verbal excessive quantity of traditions and knowledge is usual. With the Aborigines in Australia the verbal certification is the center of attention even, although they are located in close contact with a writing culture. The word by word renditionto following generations to retain own culture and values and characterizes at the same time a characteristic of this culture contributes. Together with the ability of reading form letters, writing and counting, in the industrialized countries, a substantial part of tradition, Culture and education. The invention of the writing is considered as one of the most important achievements of the civilization, since it reliably permits the excessive quantity of knowledge and cultural traditions over generations away, and their preservation (depending upon quality of the marked materialand naturally also the circumstances) by a long period ensures. All well-known advanced cultures (Sumer, Egypt, Indus culture, realm of the center, America) are brought to the writing with the use in connection.
Sumer becomes traditional as those Culture mentioned, in which the writing was used for the first time. The probably oldest writing finds originate from the discovery site Uruk from waste layers under the Uruk III layer in such a way specified. They become thus in 4. Millenium before Christ dates. It concerns thereby restaurant economics.The used writing permits however no conclusions on the language, it is wrong to call this writing in the strict sense sumerisch. Only few researchers believe that it itself with the symbol characters of the Vinča culture, into that5. Millenium v. Chr. are dated, around an actual writing acts. The Egyptian hieroglyphics are often regarded as one from Anterior Asia imported idea; newer finds of Günter Dreyer in Egypt question this Lehrmeinung however, and he assumes oneindependent invention. In China and Central America (Maya) the writing was developed likewise independently.
Other developments of the writing are mostly direct transmissions from a culture to another (for instance the development of latin from the Greek alphabet). Insome cases the observation that a strange culture possesses a writing, caused the development of its own writing ( the Silbenschrift of the Cherokee).
The history of the writing is not only to be seen as a history of the adjustment from language to.It is to be counted on the fact that there is also its own history of the symbols, indications and characters. Us today go rock designs admitted writing to that, e.g. in the cave of Lascaux, forwards approx. 20,000 years ahead. Also therealready abstract indications were used, which had probably a magic and symbolic character. Since ten thousands of years humans use these indications and pictures, in order to leave messages. Of writing can be spoken however only if a fixed plotting system to the expressionfor different information is available. Already in the Jungsteinzeit (Neolithikum) stones with geometrical lines were manufactured, of which the research with some certainty can say that they served for counting. The probably most important basis of a genuine writing development.These stones were called accordingly Latin calculi, from which the French calcul (counts, calculation) and it calculates itself the German to derive.
For the development of the script in Germany
see also: Script
deciphering of old writings
a special challengethe deciphering of old writings represents. Often it succeeds, if a text with translations is found, or if one knows the language or a dialect of the language. Many writings one could decipher, a row gives up however still mysteries.
Siehe auch Geschichte der Schrift
In der westlichen Welt gibt es verschiedene Schriftklassifikationsmodelle, die voneinander teils erheblich abweichen. Of it in particular two models are common in Germany.
the standard DIN 16518 outdivides lead composition writings for the year 1964 in eleven groups:
- Veneziani Renaissance Antiqua (keyword Antiqua)
- French Renaissance Antiqua
- baroque Antiqua
- Klassizisti Antiqua
- serif-stressed linear Antiqua (Egyptienne)
- serif lots linear Antiqua (grotesque)
- Antiqua variants
- handwritten Antiqua
- broken writings
- foreigner writings
the writing classification corresponds thereby to the historical developmentand considered particularly details within the German and Western European language range of usual latin writings. In other countries there are comparable organizations.
matrix leg ore
a modern writing classification model for electronics the Publishing is the matrix leg ore, which 2001 ofGerman Typographen Wolfgang leg ore one compiled. It arranges Western European pressure and screen writings as well as symbols into a matrix of nine main groups.
- writing language, medium theory, portal: Writing, alphabet, illiteratism, printing, Typografie, manuscript, Orthografie, letter, script, writing reform, writings of the world, special writing, history of the writing
- Wolfgang leg ore: Typolexikon.de, the encyclopedia of Western European typograhy. (The writing classification matrix leg ore)
- harsh ore E. Brekle: From the cattle head toABC. Spektrum der Wissenschaft. 2005,4, 44 - 51. ISSN 0170-2971
- Hadumod bus man: Encyclopedia of the linguistics. Alfred Kröner, Stuttgart 1983. ISBN 3-520-45201-4
- Florian Coulmas: The Blackwell Encyclopedia OF Writing of system. Blackwell, New York, 1996. ISBN 0-631-21481-X
- Florian Coulmas: Writing of system. At Introduction ton their linguistics analysis. Cambridge University press, Cambridge 2003. ISBN 0-521-78737-8
- Werner Ekschmitt: The memory of the peoples. Hieroglyphics, writings and writing finds. Heyne, Munich 1980. ISBN 3-453-01058-2
- Ernst Doblhofer: The deciphering of old writings and languages.Philipp Reclam June., Stuttgart 1993.ISBN 3-15-008854-2
- Carl putrid man: Character and alphabets of all times and peoples, 2. Aufl., Vienna 1880. Reprint conception of the world, Freiburg 2003. ISBN 3-8289-0799-7
- Karoly Földes sticking: From the rock picture to the alphabet - the history of the writing oftheir earliest preliminary stages up to modern latin the script. Chr. Belser, Stuttgart 1966. ISBN 3-811-20007-0
- Harald hair man: History of the writing. C. H. Beck, Munich 2002. ISBN 3-406-47998-7
- Harald hair man: Universal history of the writing. Campus, Frankfurt/Main-new York 1990. ISBN 3-593-34346-0
- Hans Jensen: The writing in past and present. Augustin, luck city 1935. (3.Aufl. Dt. Verl. D. Wiss., Berlin 1969, 1987). ISBN 3326002327
- Werner king: Dtv Atlas to the German language. Boards and texts. dtv, Munich 1985. ISBN 3-423-03025-9
- Andrew Robinson: ThoseHistory of the writing. Albatros, Duesseldorf 2004. ISBN 3491961297
- Martin Kuckenburg: … and spoke the first word. ECON Duesseldorf 1996. ISBN 3-430-15771-4
Web on the left of
- the Viennese Altorientalist and archaeologist Gebhard Selz over the beginnings of the writing
- Typografie, writingand learn
- organization of alphabets, typology, Typografie, writing art,
- glossary exotic writings - easily made
- typology of the writing
- legal protection of writings and character
- Omniglot extensive side over the writings of this world
|Wiktionary: Writing - word origin, synonyms and translations|
|Wikiquote: Writing - Quotations|