history and development
first writing caster were Johannes good mountain, because the 36-zeilige and the 42-zeilige Bible are printed already of poured types. When the schriftgiesserei developed to an independent business, is historically not provable; but this might have taken place hardly suddenly, and still for a long time the majority of the printers may have poured their writings themselves, when there were already stamp cutters, that concerned themselves with the preparation of the Patrizen (stamps).
Nuremberg was the first pile place for Stempelschneiderei and provided letterpress printings and schriftgiessereien with stencils; in Italy Nicolas Jenson was famous, in France Robert Estienne thereby; England received important stamp cutters only in John Baskerville and William Caslon; up to then it had been supplied mostly from Holland with types.
the technology of the schriftgiesserei has itself in the last decades 19. Century by invention and perfection of the type character casting machine substantially changes. Already 1805 took William Wing and Elihu White a patent on such; the first really practical casting machine however was completed only 1838 by David Bruce in Brooklyn.
Up to then one had availed oneself only the hand casting instrument. This as well as the instrument, which consist form, necessary for the casting on the machine, of two equal large, exactly closing halves of iron, steel or brass, which, per accordingly, can be placed to the strength of the type more closely or further and be taken easily and fast apart; the hand casting instrument is outside disguised with wood, in order to make its constant handling possible also when the metal parts.
If both parts of the form are folded up, then always outward a conical extending concavity remains free itself, into which the metal is poured for the production of the letter, whose relief picture, which forms itself type, on an inserted stencil out of copper, which contains the same deepened.
The stencils produced by hitting steel temples (Patrizen) into copper or also on galvanoplastic way, which in particular with the larger type sizes, for which the Patrizen are usually cut not in steel, but in Schriftmetall and therefore also to be hit not to be able, into application comes; their finishing for the casting, adjusting, must happen with the all-largest care, since of it the good appearance of the writing in the pressure depends substantially.
The stamps consist of purify hardened Stahlstäbchen, on whose an end the letter, before one arranges its hardness for the steel given, partly aggravation, partly by hitting retort temples (Bunzen) for the production of the internal recesses, is raised worked out. The Schriftmetall (record, writing things, things) is an alloy, which melt easily, fill out the form well and must be nevertheless sufficiently hard, in order to resist the wear in the hand or high-speed printing machine and to give a sharp casting on the paper.
To the casting of bread so mentioned - or one used Werkschriften in Germany about 75 per cent lead (good Harzer or Saxonian Weichblei), 23 per cent cleaned antimony (Antimonium regulus) and 2 per cent tin.
If a special hardness is to be lent to the types, then the additive of antimony becomes and tin increases, probably a small percentage copper added; but one has the picture of the finished type also since invention of the electroplating, in order to make it more resistantly, provided with a copper, an iron or a nickel plating.
Except an even thickness (the cone) all types require also a height quite even under itself; the same amounts to approx. 24 mm. Until a few years ago meanwhile herein no agreement because of the schriftgiessereien prevailed in Germany; only an agreement for the introduction of the French or Paris height, which 10 1/2 lines of the Pied you roi or 62 1/2 typographic points, one of the French caster P. S. Fournier created unit, amounts to, created herein improvement; but H. Berthold in Berlin is entitled the merit/service, a uniform, now from all German casters accepted typometer to have created.
The Schriftmetall melted in the casting furnace is poured or squirted under careful distance of the oxide (scratch), forming on its surface, with the hand casting with a spoon, with the casting with the machine by these into the form. The daily achievement of a worker amounts to 4-7000 type characters substantially less, with large writings; on a machine can approx. 20.000 to 25,000 types (Werkschrift) on one day to be poured, but one invented also such from considerably larger efficiency now and built. The casting machine is operated either by hand or with steam; in letzterm case usually a worker has to then lead two machines.
The hand casting was displaced almost completely by the machine casting and comes nearly only on supply of small quantities into application. If the type characters come from the mold, an adhering long metal tap (dead head) must be broken off, and the fine Gussnähte, D. h. roughnesses, which result from the penetration of the liquid metal into the joints of the form, took place via rubbing on a sandstone (loops) to remove, to which one uses meanwhile also machines (type character grinding machines), with those sharpening between steel plates with Feilenhieb.
The type characters, in long wooden Winkelhaken touched down, arrive to that on that into the hands of the Fertigmachers, the whole row on the Bestosstisch between two iron borders clamp firm and with a foot plane from the foot of the types the remainder of the dead head lifting out ELT, for this designed, still remained, whereby the height is again examined at the same time by means of the height plane and corrected if necessary. One brings then the whole type row back into a wooden Winkelhaken, scrapes its front and back with a drawing blade completely smoothly and finally still examines her with a Besehblech for the uniformity to the height; the examination of the picture of the type concerning the completion of the casting forms the last stage in its production.
Only even if this as with perfection recognized is, to their packing is walked. Unterschnittene types, D. h. Type characters, whose picture is broader after one or the other side than their body, thus beyond the same must be scraped, cannot toward the sides concerned not polished, but must with a measurer individually and smoothed. For the production of large types one avails oneself particularly more designed, of very strongly working casting machines or also the Klischiermaschine (see Klischieren).
Likewise the casting of the filling out material (squares, leading, lead or hollow bars) own instruments and machines, in the same way for the long, serve in tables etc. to the use coming lines; these receive the correct strength and height only on a push bench, while the picture the same on the Bestosstisch with for this suitable planes is in-pushed (fine, fat-fine, azurierte, D. h. parallel lines existing, curved etc. purify out completely).
One uses instead of the Bleilinien usually rolled brass lines meanwhile now; they exceed first often by their durability and give a finer picture in the pressure. Neither arsenic nor zinc may contain the material, particularly the lead, used for the casting of the types, because otherwise the picture of the types soon of oxide zerfressen and one verunstaltet. Also antimonhaltiges lead (hard lead) may be used only with largest caution; Scratching things however, D. h. out repeated Umschmelzen of the overburden won metal forming when pouring on the pan, is suited only to the casting of filling out material.
The dead head breaks a pouring off and a finishing machine, which pour the types mechanically, which sharpens type characters, its foot cuts out, them on correct height gives and it by the dozen puts finally, became first 1853 of J. R. Johnson in England invented and with Atkinson builds; after it worked satisfactorily in one of the first foundries of London by use for many years, it was simplified by Hepburn still importantly and turned into also on the continent, where it found under the name of the complete casting machine nearly in all considerable foundries entrance, after also Foucher into Paris and Küstermann into Berlin on similar principles created and several times substantially simplified and improved machines built. With it in large quantities used work or bread writings is preferably poured, and it supplies daily up to 50.000 finished types, which can be used immediately, how they come from the machine, for the sentence.
- Fournier le Jeune: Manuel typographique (2 volumes). Paris 1764
- Henze: Manual of the schriftgiesserei. Weimar 1844
- Smalian: Manual for printers in connection with schriftgiessereien (2. Aufl.), Leipzig 1877