Shoe

of these articles treats the shoe as foot clothes, further meanings under shoe (term clarifying)

the term shoe (of old-high-German scuoh sleeve, which itself of the old-Indian scutani for dt. „covered “deduces) designates a part of the footwear with a usually relatively firm sole,those primarily the protection of the feet to serve is.

Table of contents

preface

a shoe

whether Sneaker with artificial fiber shank and rubber run sole, whether Stöckelschuh with Pailletten, whether frame-sewn Westernstiefel or multicolored child shoe: Optically very differently, are these models nevertheless from the principle the Grundtyp leather „gentleman half shoe “comparably. To it predominantly also the following representation orients itself. This representation method is justified and meaningful, because this type of shoe both historically, functionally and regarding the construction all interesting and shoe-relevantCharacteristics exhibits. Only few shoe models, as for example Espadrille or Mokassin, deviate from it.

If therefore in the text of „shoe “or „gentleman shoe “is general the speech, the characteristic Grundtyp of a shoe is meant, that for culture-historical reasons nowadays a gentleman shoe corresponds, but lady shoes just as also includes. It is thus rather a question of the word choice and definition, as a question of the actual (lady or gentleman) shoe.

Resuming information (other models and other building methods) is under the resuming on the left of the different shoe models to find and under design.

components

a shoe consists first of two parts: The upper section is called shank, the lower soil.

The shank sits down frequently from several stuck together with one another or quilted (= sewed)Layers and individual parts together:Interior shank (= fodder), intermediate shank (= intermediate fodder) and external shank (= upper leather). The external shank can besides different trimming parts have (firm footwear shows for example frequently a put on Hinterkappe in the heel range to stabilize and lead over the foot large).

The soil consists (model-dependently) of at least one sole (example: Mokassin) or an interior sole (technical: Fire sole) plus one to it (indirectly) fastened run sole (classical leather half shoe). Depending upon model (absorbing) intermediate soles (between interior and run sole) can also still be present (z.B. with the sport shoe). Or the interior sole is by additional (herausnehmbare) deck (fire) resoles taken off. If the run sole is not made of leather, it shows usually more or less deep profile. In the heel range a paragraph ( one is frequentIncrease of the shoe soil) available.

function

apart from its pure protective function and the mode function also important for many carriers has to do the shoe always also somewhat with the social status or the group affiliation of the carrier. In the old Egypt only Pharaonen Sandalen from gold or Silberblech were allowed to carry and only high officials and priests at all for Sandalen. The people went barefoot. In the Middle Ages the length of the shoe point assured something with the then modern piked shoes over the affiliationcertain conditions out and was strictly reglementiert. At present the sun king was it only the king and high noble one permitted to carry red paragraphs. In outgoing 19. and 20 beginning. The trailers „of back to nature “and the peace movement carried centurygladly Sandalen. In certain youth cultures (z. B. Death, Mods, Punks, skinhead, Skater) were and/or are certain shoes a component of outside registration numbers (z. B. DocMartens, Springer boot, Birkenstocks, Sneaker of certain marks).

historical

that„Urschuh “does not give it. The climatic conditions of the peoples were too different. Where due to cold weather probably animal skins wound themselves the one around the feet and calves (forerunners of the boots), put other peoples the skins only around the feet(the foot bag in such a way specified, from which the Mokassin developed later) and again different protected themselves only from the hot soil, by committing themselves a sole from Palmblättern under the feet (forerunners of the Sandale). Due to the perishable shoe materials and thatsince that time past thousands of years white one over the early period of the shoes few and the research is to a large extent dependent on presumptions.

Vorzeit

on the basis comparative anatomical investigations of old-stone-temporal foot and leg skeletons developed the theory that humans in parts Europe before approximately 30,000 years began to use shoes. Wandmalereien in a Spanish cave (Alta Mira) show hunters before 13.000 to 15,000 years, which seem to carry a kind „for boots “. A reconstruction of the shoes of the glacier mummy„Ötzi “(copper stone time) reveals a differentiated building of shoes: Ötzi carried already before 5,000 years a fed shoe, which resoled with tying lacings locked and with separate „profile “was provided.

antique ones to the Middle Ages

Schuhwerk: Schnabelschuhe
footwear: Piked shoes

in thatAntique ones became simple shoes the common property/knowledge. Thus are on many wall - and clay/tone painting referring to the various shoe models, which were carried in the different regions. Generally admits is here in particular the Egyptian Zehenstegsandalen with diagonal over the fussrückencurrent shank belt, how also the Roman Sandalen, whose belt attachment partly than Stiefelsandalen so mentioned to under the knee joint handed. In the celtic area Opanken were common as footwear. From the Teutons and Franconias one assumes that her primitive foot bags from skincarried.

Shoes from the Middle Ages, so-called bear claws

since the end of the fourth after-Christian century arise particularly in the Byzantine sphere of influence closed shoes and also slipper . In the Middle Ages the simple people carried Holzschuhe or simple skins or materials (foot rags), which were wound around the feet. After the crusades fine footwear became modern after eastern model at the Oberschicht and the aristocracy, which pointedly approached in front (piked shoes so mentioned - see illustration), whereby the length of the point the affiliationto conditions marked and in the dress orders was strictly reglementiert. After this fashion shoes with broad short shoe point followed: Entenschnabel, cooling muzzle or bear claw shoe (illustration compares).

The fact is interesting that already the old Egyptians, like also the Greeks and Romans, two-spherical shoes built. Right and left shoe were thus asymmetrical. Today a matter of course, however in the following centuries was lost and only since the center 19. Century, released by one into several European languagestranslated writing of anatomy professor Hermann von Meyer, became again usual.

origin and history of the paragraph

unsettled is the origin of the paragraph. A theory means the fact that riding with stirrups simplified paragraphs since the paragraph „hangs up itself there “could. According to another representation, the paragraph from the necessity developed to protect itself against the dirt of the road. Since there was no drains in the cities of the Middle Ages, all waste was thrown on the road, also thoseFäkalien. In order to protect itself against this dirt, the first (over) shoes with very high developed soles (in 13. Century Trippen, in 17. Century cuffs). There was mostly Holzsandalen with a leather belt over stretches, similarly the Japanese Geta shoes. Over weight to save was the high sole either partly from cork, or with wooden plateau soles at height the sole center left blank (comparably soles of Geta Sandalen. Into these shoes one normally rose with its resolelessLeather shoes, if one went on the road and it took off, before one entered the house. In 17. Shoes became generally accepted century with paragraphs in Europe. The paragraphs offered the possibility to the men more largely and more martial to appear. ThatThe paragraph provided women a stress of at that time quite generous Décolletés and by the changed attitude of the basin also a erotischeren course. Occasionally the paragraphs became flatter, but did not disappear them any longer by the shoes. Only the height varies,whereby the fashion nowadays to the ladies the higher paragraphs awards.

19. and 20. Century

shoe painting of Vincent van Gogh (1887) - well recognizably the iron sole fitting, that the durability of the leather sole increased

with the shoe models began oneincreasing Ausdifferenzierung in 19. Century. Many new models were added. The men turned more and more to the Halbschuh . First mode magazines and the Dandies provided for developments of new models. And with beginning of the industrialization in 19. Century shoes becamestarting from the 1860er years increasingly in factories manufactured, whereby good footwear sank strongly in the price and became only affordable for the broad mass.

At the beginning 20. Century became sticking for the shoe production (AGO shoes so mentioned, A g reat o pportunity) invented and in the middle century came the Anvulkanisieren and moulding on of the soles to the shank in addition (the you KTA resoling procedures in such a way specified). By further cost-lowering manufacturing processes the shoe prices continued to reduce, so that itself the shoe mode inrenewed ever more briefly becoming cycles, because the consumers could afford new shoes easily. In particular the lady shoe mode is of it strongly coined/shaped, during with the man shoes the classical shoe models since approximately 100 years existence has and only occasionally easy changesexperience other direction in or. By the moulded on design and the use of artificial fiber fabrics (as well as the mass production in low wage countries) the sport shoe began starting from the 1960er, above all however into the 1980er years, to its triumphant advance. Today become Sneaker (sport shoes for the everyday life use) of all age groups and widen parts of the population of many countries carried. Their development became by the increasing spare time of some subpopulations around the turn of the century 19. /20. Century favours, which made it for this humans possible to drive sport. Thosefirst sport shoe factories (the USA and England) developed at this time. In the 20's Addas followed (today Adidas) and in the fifties „halfstrong made “popular like James Dean the Sneaker increasingly for the youth. The 80's with thatFitnessboom did their remaining. Today the sport shoe is not to be excluded from the everyday life no more.

categorization

it does not give uniform regulation, according to which criteria shoes are to be categorized. The purposes pursued in each case thereby differ too much. Soa manufacturer will divide shoes certainly according to other criteria, than a shoe dealer, and this again differently than a shoe carrier.

Common are for example partitionings after:

  • Targeted application (bath shoe, dance shoe, garden shoe, Businessschuh, slipper, road shoe, sport shoe, moving shoe etc.)
  • construction way, thosedesign so mentioned (adhesive shoe, vulcanized shoe, through-sewn shoe, California shoe, frame-sewn shoe etc.)
  • shoe form (Halbschuh, boot, Schaftstiefel, Langschaftstiefel, Sandale and slipper.)
  • shoe model (Pumps, Brogue, boat shoe, Sneaker, rubber boot etc.)
  • shoe catch (clip shoe, zipper shoe, Monkstrap, tying shoe, slip shoeLoafer etc.)
  • Schaftschnitt (Oxford, Derby, Kreuzsandale, Kropfschnitt etc.)
  • soil or Schaftmaterial (Holzschuh, leather shoe, rubber shoe etc.)
  • function (summer shoe, winter shoe, evening shoe)
  • sex of the carrier (lady shoe, gentleman shoe and child shoe)
  • special shoes such as industrial safety shoe (always without Stahlkappe) and Sicherheitsschuh after EN(always with Stahlkappe)

the probably most well-known, general-common differentiation is in Sandale, Halbschuh and boot. Whereby alone the designation states „Sandale “still little: Are the belts crosswise running or diagonal? It is a to a large extent closed Bäckersandaleor a Zehenstegsandale (flip-flop)? And the term „Halbschuh “states only that the upper shank edge ends in front in the foot bend and laterally underneath the Knöchel. Whether the shoe with a belt, a zipper or a Schnürung is locked,whether it has ornaments is not stated and out like many parts and seams the shank exists, thereby. Same applies to „boots “; because each shoe, whose shank height amounts to at least 80% of the sole length, is by definitionem a boot. Andbut the differences between a Kurzstiefelette and a Langschaftstiefel are obvious.

The distinction under culture-historical criteria is likewise common after shoe basic types: Sandale, Mokassin (or Opanke), boot, slipper and Halbschuh.

shoe models

Sandalette (Sandale alsoParagraph for women)

in the daily use is differentiated therefore mostly according to the shoe model. Shoe models are determined primarily by the Schaftschnitt, i.e., after the form and number of parts, from which the shank is compound. Also ornaments can (for example with the Brogue) or the kind of the catch (for example with the Monkstrap) for the definition of the model a role play. To that extent directly several of the distinguishers specified above flow together in the respective shoe model.

An example is the Budapester, a gentleman shoe model, which itself by the catch, the Schaftschnitt, the border form, ornaments, which shoe soil and the construction way define: Open Schnürung in the Derbyschnitt with wing cap and hole ornaments, in addition a double soil in a zwiegenähten design as well as altogether a broad andstraight shoe form with a raised, quite broad, rounded shoe point. Only one shoe, which exhibits all together these characteristics, is a Budapester.

Some designations of different shoe models:

measure shoes and Konfektionsschuhe

of the borders

for the assembly of the shoe necessary borders is the three-dimensional form, overthose around is built the shoe. This corresponds quasi to an image of the foot in a normal attitude and during middle load with the consideration of the planned shoe model, which manifests itself particularly in the border point and the heel breakup (sales level). ThoseShoe manufacturers fall back with the dimensions of carrying out to empirical values, since the database became outdated over the actually existing foot mass of humans small and often. That leads frequently to passport form problems (in inquiries Hauptproblem of the final consumer with shoes). The shoedoes not fit the individual foot form, it rubs and presses. In addition it comes that humans of different regions different foot dimensions and - forms has. Here measure shoemakers set, those according to the masses of the respective customer foot and the desired shoe model from a chunk (usually beech)the measure borders in such a way specified work out (and/or. of border farmer to manufacture leave). Industrial borders are likewise manufactured as prototypes made of wood, for which series production preferred for reasons of the insensitivity plastic as border material.

the measure shoe

here is to differentiate betweenan orthopedic measure shoe and one „normal “measure shoe. The orthopedic measure shoe is ordered exclusive after medical indication and is not so elegant in the comparison to „the normal “measure shoe also. The classical measure shoe, thus a hand-made shoe after the individual customer conceptions andits foot masses, is provided often with the nimbus „of the better shoe “in the comparison to the high-quality Konfektionsschuh. Essentially regarded this aspect is unfounded. Qualitatively good (gentleman) Konfektionsschuhe, which for instance with a retail price starting from 300 euro (conditions: 2005) lie, become in different widthsand border forms offered, so that a just as good passport form is to be expected here, as with a measure shoe (starting from approximately 1,200 euro). Also regarding the quality the used construction units of the Top Konfektionsschuhs resemble those of the measure shoe. The quality of workmanship of a measure shoe is inthe rule not better than a Konfektionsschuhs the upper class. Why a seam should implemented by hand be better, than a by machine provided? Who however feet has, for which he does not find suitable Konfektionsschuhe, that is with a measure shoe likewisewell advise like someone, which has very individual conceptions of the shoe Design, which it only the measure shoemaker can carry out. Good measure shoemakers became rare in the meantime in completely Europe. One recognized high standard finds one mostly, where also appropriate competition exists:in London (Amesbury, Cleverley, Lobb,…), Paris (Aubercy, Berluti,…), Vienna (Bálint, Maftei, Materna, Scheer,…) and Rome (Gatto) and/or. Milan (Bestetti). Germany hasfew well-known measure shoemakers.

Up to the center 19. Century were there almost exclusively measure shoes, because the shoes were usually manufactured by the shoemaker for the customer and according to its desires. But necessarily new carrying out one did not manufacture, butbut relatively well more suitably individually selected (today one calls tailor-made suit and by some few manufacturers is offered).

the Konfektionsschuh

as in the USA starting from center 19. Jahrhunders due to the rapidly rising need first Machines to industriellen shoe production were developed (quilting machine, grading machine, Durchnähmaschine, Doppelmaschine, Einstechmaschine, Zwickmaschine and. A.), was replaced to a large extent the production model relating to crafts („measure shoe “) in few decades by the industrielle shoe production („Konfektionsschuh “). In Europe this development found with few yearsDelay instead of. For the first time the customers could finished shoes buy and did not have not for their production wait. The selection became more largely, which shoes could do before the purchase are comparatively regarded, the prices sank and the quality of the machine-produced shoes was equivalentwith the hand-made shoes. Above all it was also alike remaining, while the hand-made shoes in the quality varied accordingly depending upon daily condition of the shoemaker. On the part of the craftsmen it came to embittered resistances against this development (strike, destructionnew machines). By competitions one tried to prove the superiority of the handframe-sewn shoe. But ran inexorably in front industrial development. The shoe had become affordable utensils, during it in former times an expensive acquisition or even a Luxusartikelwas. Humans, who could afford only wood-nailed shoes before, were able to buy now shoes also sewn.

A condition for the industrielle mass production was a standardisation of the shoe sizes. Although the English shoe sizes (Size) already since that 14. Centuryadmits were, were added now new sizes of (Paris pass /kontinentale size) and half sizes of (temporarily even quarterly sizes). Despite all standardisation and standardization efforts exist to today different systems of units (for shoe lengths as well as - widen) and also the conversions are not uniform always.

Still the manual work portion with the industriellen shoe production, relatively high despite automation, led the 1960er in Germany for years to an increasing misalignment of production abroad. First to Italy, then to Spain and Portugal and later, after openingthe iron curtain, into the east of Europe (Hungary, Romania), in addition, to North Africa. In the meantime in India and the Far East one produces. German shoe production with emphasis into and around Pirmasens was toward end 20. Centuryto a large extent disappeared.

materials

gesetzlich vorgeschriebene Schuhmaterialkennzeichnung
legally prescribed shoe material marking

for the production most shoes of the used materials are nowadays both regarding the shoe shanks and the soil of predominantly artificial origin. For the soils mostly thermoplastic plastics are used, forthe shanks fabrics from chemical fibres. Only with height-RPR-icy shoes increasingly natural materials, everything in front leather are used as ideal footwear material.

In the European Union offered shoes are subject to the material marking obligation since 1997 by the manufacturer. On a sticker this becomes throughappropriate symbols represented (see. Illustration). The European shoe marking guideline plans strongly limited information: Separated for the external shank material, the fodder and the external sole four different materials can be indicated (leather, coated leather, textiles - without distinction whether more synthetic or more naturalOrigin, and „other material “). As clearing-up for the consumer meant, this minimum information does not permit any conclusions on the quality of the indicated materials or their composition.

soil materials

the run sole becomes either from a polymer material (plastic or rubber)or from leather manufactured. Both with rubber soles (foamed, nature art or mixed rubber) and with the leather there are serious quality differences (with the leather for example: Crouponleder or leather from less close Hautstellen, digging or mixed gegerbt and/or only fast gegerbt). The intermediate soles consist likewise either of (foamed and thus absorbing) a plastic (z. B.PU or EH) or from leather. The interior sole often consists of a fabric, of impregnated pasteboard or leather. For the shoe soil meant leathers becomevegetable gegerbt.

Schaftmaterialien

natural fibers, artificial fibers, PVC and other one

the shanks of the shoes manufactured today do not consist by the majority no more of leather. One uses both fabrics from natural fibers (z. B. Sail shoes from cotton), predominantly howeverfrom plastic in fabric form (for example nylon with sport shoes), or/squirting plastics which can be poured (for example PVC for rubber boots). That is in the production substantially lower-priced, in the quality always equivalent remaining and also in the long run of the manufacturing costs exactto calculate. Even many alleged leather shoes of the lower Preisklasse are meanwhile manufactured with shanks made of imitation leather (polyethylene, PE). Rubber boots, in former times still made of stretchable nature rubber (india rubber/Latex), are nowadays usually from PVC.

Which first asCost advantage appears, however nearly always accompanies with a clear reduction of the stretcher comfort . „Welding feet “, „stinking shoes “and foot mushroom became therefore too wide-spread everyday problems. Because the cause for it are in the rarest cases the feet. Have responsibility for it, possibly connected with socks with high chemical fibre portion and strengthens unsuitable shoe materials by wrong stretcher habits of the shoes (see section „care “).

leathers

of leather shoes of the lower price range. - It requires experience, around the different price categories alone on the basis optical characteristics (seams,Leather surface, fold throw, sole, fodder, ornaments, Schaftschnitt, to be able to recognize paragraph etc.).

These problems can be avoided by the use of leather as Schaftmaterial (and - shoe-climatically particularly importantly - also for the interior sole) in the beginning. Leather is until todaythe material best suitable with distance, in order to manufacture from it comfortable shoes. Leather possesses the among other things following advantages: water vapour-permeable, water vapour-storing, isolating in the maintained condition to a large extent waterproof, flexibly and again resetable, kantenreissfest, durably and well look out-end. Leather is in manyQualities available, which reflect themselves very reliably in the shoe price, for which laymen however so easily to be recognized are not. Good leathers are highly breathe-actively, extremely supple with at the same time extreme firmness. With carried shoes is the leather quality of the shank among other thingsto determine at the going folds: Suitable shoes presupposed, witness minimum going folds of high-quality leather; deep going fold ditches of inferior upper leather. Good leather becomes even still more beautiful over the years. Regularly maintained, it develops a delightful patina. Approve of leathers however, become inRun of the time look increasingly worn out; even good care cannot prevent this process.

Leather is generally „a waste product “ of the foodstuffs industry, why shoes primarily from cattle - (and/or. Buffalo -), calf -, pig - or sheepskin to be manufactured. ThoseShanks are made mostly of chromgegerbten leathers (the cruder and thicker shank leathers of moving and work boots are vegetable gegerbt). Admit and are common the following kinds of leather:

  • Cattle box (durable shank leather, shoes of middle price situations)
  • Boxcalf (fine calf leather, shoes of higher price situations. Increasinglyinflationary used term, the falsely also cheaper mast box leathers includes.)
  • Rauleder (colloquially falsely „game leathers “mentioned, strongly sucking water, shoes of all price situations)
    • Veloursleder (meat side of the skin outward turned; often cheap gap leather; Use for shoes of all price situations)
    • of Nubukleder (Hautschicht expresses in such a way,„scars mentioned “, shows outward and is easily ground; Peach skin; height-RPR-icy shoes, there the leathers to be error free must)
  • Chevreau (goat leather; exact Zickelfelle; a very thin and tear-firm, somewhat knitterig look out end of leathers; Use for gentleman shoes with high order and for elegant lady shoes, alsoas shoe fodder)
  • lacquer leather (on the leather a high gloss PU lacquer is applied; very scratch-sensitively and) in addition

more rarely (less than 1 per cent market share) used Exotenleder so mentioned does not come breathe-actively: Fish leather (for example of the skate, shark, Aal), reptile leathers (Kroko, queue, Echse), bunch leathers or Emuleder, in addition, leathers from the skin of the elephant, frog, ant bear and other animals. These leathers are used mostly for special luxury or evening shoes, in addition, for Westernstiefel. There theseShoes are hochpreisig, them only by well-known manufacturers are processed, who excluding leathers with CITES - papers (Washington protection of species agreements) use, i.e., the skins originate almost exclusively from registered breed enterprises and are in principle authorized to export from the homelands.

Work on []

Production

Aufbau des rahmengenähten Schuhs im Längsschnitt
structure of the frame-sewn shoe in the profile

as more near further above described, the shoes were manufactured in the preindustrial time purely relating to crafts by the shoemaker. Effected nowadays shoe production mostly industrially, but is always the manual work portionstill very highly. The production process is divided into three prime data areas: Development and Design, shank manufacturing and the actual building of shoes.

shank manufacturing

in the Stanzerei and the Stepperei are prepared the individual parts of the shoe shank. Contain, depending upon material,different processing steps. With high-quality leather shoes for example the pieces of leather are punched out, to which thinned out and marks edges (shoe size). From the individual parts the shank is then stuck or sewn. The fodder (the interior shank) becomes subsequently, in the same waymanufactured and brought into the external shank (adhesive or sewn or both). The lowest edge of the shank (the pinching impact in such a way specified) is more broadly held, so that it can be fastened later under the interior sole.

building of shoes

„the backbone “nearlyeach shoe is the interior sole (technical: the fire sole, on which with the finished shoe the foot stands, if an upper sole is not put over it). Around it the shoe groups itself: the shank is fastened above, down the run sole. Those Fire sole is strongly loaded in the daily use (friction, pressure, bend, foot dampness). Therefore it is with better shoes from leather, with shoes of lower and middle price categories (at prices see below) consists it predominantly of an impregnated and reinforced cardboard.

The assemblythe shoe takes place on form-giving carrying out. Over it the shank is pulled (pinched) and fastened under it the fire sole provisionally. Then shank and shoe soil are interconnected. The Schaftrand (pinching impact) is under thatEdge of fire sole. The connection can happen in manifold way (design so mentioned): In the industriellen manufacturing today sticking together (stick-pinched) is usual, more expensive shoes is also sewn (flexibly, through-sewn or frame-sewn).

  • adhesive/angespritze/vulcanized shoes

adhesive shoes (specialized jargon: AGO shoes) are first interconnected afterwards the fire sole lower surface and the Schaftrand which can be glued to and the run sole with heat-activatable adhesive and stuck under the interior sole is coated. With moulded on soils (z. B. with sport shoes) becomes to the interior soleadhesive (or gestrobelte - with a zigzag seam fastened) shank before brought into a form, so that from downside the soil can be moulded on and itself when cooling off with the interior sole and connects to the lower Schaftrand. The profile receives the run soleby the form, in which it cools off.

View of the construction of the frame-sewn shoe from downside (without Ausballung and run sole)
  • sewn shoes

with sewn shoes the shank and the soil are sewn to the fire sole. Either, by short hand (after thatRemove carrying out) by the fire sole and through the Schaftrand the sole one sews on - principle through-sewn design, or, as under the fire sole an edge (tear lip, Gemband ) was stuck before, to then in a furtherStep the shank as well as a circulating leather volume (the framework in such a way specified) is sewn (Einstechnaht) - principle frame-sewn design. The cavity developing with framework shoes between fire and run sole (under underneath the edge of the fire solelying pinching impact of the shank and the framework) filled with a Ausballung from cork or felt (increasingly also from plastics such as Poron), it is made possible for the foot by its indulgence to create itself its own foot bed. In addition worksit step-absorbing and temperature-isolating. Finally the actual run sole at ring, the easily managing frameworks running around the shoe is sewn on (Doppelnaht). This method of the shoe manufacturing (frame-sewn shoes) is very aufwändig and remains only for the best shoesreserved. Their advantage is a separate in each case connection of run sole and shank, whereby passport inherent stability is ensured by very long time and the shoes is better reparable.

  • wood-nailed shoes

outdated and with many disadvantages (repair susceptible, rigid shoe soils etc.) afflicted, are wood-nailed shoes: Here the run sole is only stuck and connected then with a multiplicity of pegs, which are driven by it through into the fire sole, with this. That were in former times the shoes of the poor man and the design,in the heavy boot (mountain shoes, military boots) were manufactured.

The paragraph is attached last, which consists either of plastic, wood or of individual leather layers (layer paragraph). The paragraph is up-nailed or glued on either. The attachment of a paragraph is void, if thoseRun sole and the paragraph from a piece (mostly plastic, or rubber, in addition, wood, never however with leather soles) exist.

finish

the shoes are finally trimmed optically. The simplest case is limited to injecting with oneKind self gloss spray, whereby the shoes, like in a painting race hanging, are led past fully automatic the spray nozzles. With high-quality shoes, the shoe is cleared out complex by hand is dyed as well as protected with shoe polish and brought at by machine operated round polishing brushes to gloss. ThoseManufacturers use for this the same hard wax creams, whom also the final consumer in the shop gets offered (see shoe care section further below).

With the final inspection the shoes are again optically examined and if necessary. tying lacings are drawn in. The shoes are hit last into tissue paper(Avoidance of scratches) and in cardboards packs.

price structures

each other for confounding looking similar shoes can exhibit partially serious differences in prices. Apart from the use, there are of different materials and their qualities for this the mainly following reasons:

the designor also construction way has a very large influence on the price of the final product. Ability for example soles to the shanks to be fastened, as simply thermoplastic material is squirted into a metal form resting against the shank, costs that much less, as (machine)Zusammennähen of sole and shank.
  • Herstellungsland
in countries with other conditions with wages, worker rights, environmental laws etc. the manufacturing costs are clearly smaller.
  • Marks, designers and trend
a pair flip-flop (Zehenstegsandale from plastic) knows in Central Europe for 2 euro in addition,for 200 euro to be offered. If the type of shoe straight in the trend and the mark is „in “, perhaps even a designer label, such differences in prices are possible.

Some retail price of orientation values (conditions: 2005) for gentleman half shoes:

  • Shoes from cheap materials (artificial fiber fabric, soles from PVC, polyethylene orsynthetic rubber): approx. 10 - 30 euro
  • of shoes from more suitable materials (cheap leather, rubber soles): approx. 40 - 80 Euro
  • Schuhe aus preiswertem Leder (bekannte Schuhmarken, mit Gummi- oder billiger Ledersohle): approx. 90 - 150 euro
  • of shoes from good leather (leatherod. Rubber sole, with „invisible “savings with the processing): approx. 150 - 250 euro
  • of shoes from high-quality leather, machine-sewn (leather sole, high-quality processing): off approx. 300 euro
of shoes of this price group differ in the way, like the shank with thatSoil was connected. The design decides considerably on the price, since it causes a different work expended. In this price category the shoes are mostly through-sewn or frame-sewn. Durchgenähte of shoes are in principle cheaper (over about 100 euro) than comparable frame-sewn shoes,to also the guide price mentioned applies.
  • Shoes from high-quality leather, handsewn (leather sole, high-quality processing): off approx. 500 euro
  • of shoes from high-quality leather, handsewn and made to measure built: off approx. 1,200 euro
  • of shoes from exotic leather (z. B. Kroko, machineor handsewn, leather sole): off approx. 1,500 euro

shoe care

Schuhspanner. Links: Nicht empfehlenswertes Spiralfedermodell mit zu kleinem Fersenendstück; rechts: besser geeignetes Modell und mit zusätzlicher Breitenanpassung im Vorderblatt
shoe tension adjuster. Left: Not recommendable spiral spring model also to small heel end piece; right: better suitable model and with additional width adjustment in the Vorderblatt

footwear is like no other article of clothing strong loads (weather, sweat,Course, pressure, friction and so on) suspended, which can bear it only with sufficient care for a long time. Above all thereby the shoes remain comfortably (breathe-actively, temperature equalizing-end, flexibly) and optically perfectly.

The following factors are crucial for the shoe care:

  • Passport form: That means, shoes fittingto buy. This happens not, suffers the shank, the foot, the stretcher comfort and the durability of the shoes altogether.
  • Stretcher-trace: Shoes to air leave and not on two following each other days to carry, so that the taken up foot dampness can evaporate completely, otherwise one do not become thatShoe promptly wear and the stretcher comfort suffers (among other things: be called feet in the summer and cold feet in the winter).
  • Shoe tension adjuster: Particularly with leather shoes they provide for the molder stop, relieve the shoe soil and prevent a developing of deep going folds, if itselfthe leather with evaporating the foot dampness again pulls together (importantly: Der Schuhspannner sollte deshalb von seiner Form her möglichst optimal passen, die Spannung nicht zu hoch sein und das Fersenendstück des Spanners sollte die Fersenkappe des Schuhs möglichst flächig und breitfill out).
  • Shoe spoons for tightening use (the foot stop preserves giving Hinterkappe) and to taking off the tying volumes always open (and receives the passport form preserves the shank). (Therefore it also the term shoe horn) are traditionally Schuhanzieher from horn worked, but play thatMaterial (spoons from metal, wood or plastic are far common) regarding the function no role, as long as the surface is smooth.
  • Shoe finery: The care of smooth leather, Stapazierleder and Rauleder precipitates differently.

smooth leather care

  1. cleaning: Importantly,so that the dirt is afterwards not conserved and the leather mechanically attacks. Normally (dusty shoes) simply, but thorough brushing off or wiping off with a cloth dampened with (warm) water is enough.
  2. Feeds/impregnating/contactors: With leather shanks best with a hard wax paste (Shoe polish in flat tin cans). The hard wax cream fulfills all three requirements optimally, has beyond that a cleaning effect (whereby also an accumulation of several cream layers is avoided) and saves the acquisition of additional special means.
    Gloss-brushed shoes (type of model: Plain Oxford) with enclosed tension adjusters.
  3. Gloss brushes/foremen: To the wax if possible time for hardening (preferably as minimum a half hour), then the shoes with a rosshaarbürste give brush or with a soft cloth polish. Shoe lovers know different means, over with hard wax cream maintained shank leathers to a particularly strongHigh polish to help (polish with nylon-play the trump card, water polish, use of soft goat hair brushes etc.).

Importantly: Preservative agents only extremely thinly lay on. Instead of hard wax from the box occasionally also something emulsion cream (available in tubes or crucibles) can be laid on. This offers howevera less steady gloss and no so good chemical (water) and mechanical (friction) protection. But it is in more different colors available, more colorintensively, somewhat more feeding and can be polished five minutes after the order. Also is with very very muchbrightens upper leathers an emulsion cream more suitably, in order to avoid possible color changes and/or oil course so mentioned, which would have a cloudy appearance as a consequence.

straining leather care

straining leather (usually Fettleder, often meat-laterally processed) become with crude, strongly stressed shoes (work boots, moving shoes)begun. For cleaning dirt brushes with vegetable fibers can be used, which offer the advantage to be suitable also for wet brushing off (with clear water). As preservative agents leather fats or fat waxes are suitable. Laid on to draw in breath-thinly leave one night and then (tobest with the bare hand) polish out. Not over fats - the breathing activity worsens and makes the leather in the long term lappig. In the sense of an optimum care also crude Raulederschuhe can be treated in such a way, which entails however a speckige optics.

Raulederpflege

Raulederschuhe should often be brushed thoroughly with an appropriate brush (brass brush for Velours, Kreppbürste for Nubuk) thoroughly (the leather takes up avid dust, which destroys the leather otherwise from the inside out mechanically and slowly to the having a horror leads).Now and then impregnate (protection from new contamination and hydrophobic treatment). Use normal shoe polish in no case, since thereby the Rauleder becomes shining. Exception (fat care): see above (straining leathers: Huntingleder, Fettleder).

German shoe museums

further exhibitions gives it in with Salamander in grain west home and in the Fagus Leistenfarbik in Alfeld. International one Collections are with the shoe manufacturers Bata in Toronto (Canada), to Bally in beautiful-become (Switzerland) and in Northampton (England), the homeland of the English shoe industry.

related topics

literature

  • Marie Josèphe Bossan: The art of the shoes. Park clay/tone press the USA Ltd., New York, 2004, ISBN 1-85995-771-4.
  • Colin McDowell: Shoes - beauty, mode, fantasy. William Heyne publishing house, Munich, 1989, ISBN 3-453-03606-9
  • Helge Sternke: Everything over gentleman shoes. Nicolai publishing house, Berlin, 2006, ISBN 3-89479-252-3.
  • Lászlo Vass and. Magda Molnár: Gentleman shoes handmade. Könemann publishing houseCologne/tandem publishing house, king winters; 2000, ISBN 3-89508-111-6
  • Paul Weber: Shoes. Three millenia in pictures. RKs publishing house, Aarau, 1980, 5. Aufl. 1994, ISBN of 3-85502-1597

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