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usually closely wooded extends the Black Forest of three-landhits a corner (Switzerland - France - Germany) along the lowlandses of the Upper Rhine 160 km northward. In the south it reaches width of up to60 km, in the north only 30 km.
the river Kinzig marks the border between north Black Forest and middle Black Forest. The three-SAM with the hell valley that one between middle one and south Black Forest. (Higher) the southern part of the middle Black Forest as well as the high summits of the south Black Forest, in particular that, One calls area around Hinterzarten and the field mountain also high Black Forest.
with 1493 m u NN is the field mountain in the south Black Forest the highest mountain summit. The mountains of the south are generalor high black forest more highly than those of the north black forest. There also the duke horn (1415 m) and the Belchen lie (1414 m). With 1166 m the horn IESG crust, the highest mountain of the north black forest is clearly lower. Further important mountains are in that List of the mountains in the Black Forest.
of rivers & brooks
in the Black Forest rise among other things the Brigach (43 km) and the Breg (49 km). These are the source rivers of the Danube („Brigach and Bregbring the Danube to way “). Further important rivers are the three-SAM (29 km), the Elz, the Enz (112 km), the Kinzig (95 km), the clamping brook, the Möhlin, the Murg (96 km), the gnawing old (92 km), those Rage oh (118 km), scold oh (approx. 25 km), which Wehra, the meadow (55 km) and the Neckar (367 km), which form to Horb at the Neckar the east border Black Forest
Numerous artificial lakes like the black brook rope lake, the pain racing rope lake, the joke from rope lake, artificial lake the small Kinzig or the gnawing old dam supplyat point times ok east Rome.
the Black Forest developed in the young Tertiary period - Paläozän - was differently strongly bulged to a certain extent as in an enormous undulation. Most intensively of it the south Black Forest with the field mountain is ashighest center (1493 m) seized, less strongly against it the area around the horn IESG crust (1164 m). Between them broad, tectonic hollows lie like the river valleys of Kinzig and Murg. The Black Forest consists of two geological units: an older crystalline base,also basements mentioned, as well as the above Deckgebirge from new red sandstone.
in the basement prevail to Gneis - rocks forwards. In the course of older mountain formations several large granite bodies penetrated. Such are for example between the Kinzig and the middle one Murgtal. With magma tables features the education was by ore stores connected, those humans partially. mountain-structurally used. Those are likewise worth mentioning lowering in the red-lying. For example the bathe Badener lowers, with partly powerful quarzporphyr and Tuffdecken (unlocked at the rock massif battery ore, in the urban areaBaden-Baden).
over the crystalline base (basement) rises in the north Black Forest and in the adjacent parts of the middle black forest the new red sandstone cover mountains with salient stages. Most resistant surface layer on the stage surface by the Murgzuflüsse of the strongly dissolvedGrindenhöhen and the closed Enzhöhen is the verkieselte main conglomerate (middle new red sandstone). Eastward and the plates of the upper new red sandstone close the north on (disk sandstones and turning red clay/tone). South the Kinzig diminishes itself the new red sandstone on an edge seam in the east of the mountains.
ice age and shaping
it are considered as proven that the Black Forest during the high phases of the tearing and worm ice age (thus forwards approx. 120.000 - 10,000 years) was strongly vergletschert. The glaziale form treasure is limited nowadays mainly to the well-knownand partially strongly routistic opened Karseen (like Mummelsee, game lake, Schurmsee, glass forest lake etc.), which are usually at the valley slopes aligned after northeast. By this northeast exposition and the associated smaller sun exposure the process of the melting hasthe ice masses much are enough lasted. Thereby developed the trichterförmige Topografie, which surrounds all Karseen.
climatic stands out mountains by smaller temperatures and larger precipitation against the edge landscapes. Regular precipitation during the whole yearly coin/shapethe central mountain character of the black forest. Temperature decrease and precipitation increase do not take place however evenly with increasing height. So disproportionately strong rising of the precipitation is to be observed in deeper situations and at the precipitation-rich west side.
amounts of precipitation
the precipitation-richest range is the north Black Forest. Heavy-rainfall Atlantic west hoists freely suspended fall here e.g. on the horn IESG crust 2100-2200 mm of rain per square meter in the year. The height of the middle Black Forest the upstream Vogesen affectsto a certain extent as Regenfänger. Thus the precipitation is less productive. Within the range of the upper gaus - thus on the side of the middle Black Forest exposed eastward - it becomes already substantially drier. Thus the annual amounts of precipitation lie in Horb a.N. onlywith approximately 750 mm. In the winter duration of being present and power of the Schneedecke generally increase with increasing height.
temperatures and duration of sunshine
thermal draw the higher situations of the Black Forest by relatively small yearly fluctuations and absorbed extreme valuesout. Reasons are in the summer frequently arising light hoist and a stronger cloudy appearance. In the winter term the more frequent high pressure weather conditions on the summits lead to sunshine, while the valleys in cool air lakes under a close fog cover disappear (inversion weather conditions).
the first kartografische mention of the Black Forest is in the Tabula Peutingeriana from that to 4. Century. The Romans called the Black Forest at that time Mark IANA Silva, which border forest (of germ. marka, “border “)meant. Probably the Black Forest the border described settling Markomannen (“border people”) to the area that east the Roman Limes. These again belonged to the Germanic people of the Sueben, from which were derived the later Swabia. The settlement of the Black Forest took place howevernot by the Romans, who created however the Kinzigtalstrasse, but only by the Alemannen. These settled and colonized first the valley ranges, by it e.g. of the Baar from the former settlement border, the so-called. “New red sandstone border” exceeded. Soon after it becamecolonizes ranges lain ever more highly and adjacent forests, so that itself already end 10. Century first settlements in the area of the new red sandstone find. In addition belongs for example turning red brook, which is mentioned for the first time 819.
Mark count Ludwig William of Baden-Baden (1655 -1707, due to its earnings/services and honors in the war against the Turks before Vienna “Turk Louis”) left also 17 mentioned for defense against hostile invasions of France end. Century build baroque digging. Particularly at passport transitions are good with Gersbach in the south Black Forestreceived and investigated military and barrier plants.
Particularly starting from the 1960er years the Black Forest offered a window blind for many films and TV serials, among other things for some films with Roy Black, and later into the 1980er years then for the TV-series Black Forest hospital.
Insbesondere im Mittleren Schwarzwald sowie im Südschwarzwald (z.B. in the cathedral valley) found provablealready in the Roman time intensive ore mining industry instead of (production of silver and lead ores). Until in the early high Middle Ages the high Black Forest was practically unbesiedelt. In the course of the Binnenkolonisation in the later high Middle Ages became on the basis of the monasteries created there (pc. Peter, Pc. Margins) also the Hochebene cultivates. In the later high Middle Ages (off approx. 1100) experienced also the mining industry again an upswing, in particular at the looking in country, field mountain and in the cathedral valley. One assumes that up to the exit of the Middle Ages about 800-1000Miners in the cathedral valley lived and worked. After the plague, which afflicted the cathedral Muenster 1516, the German farmer war (1524-26) and the dreissigjährigen war decreased/went back the mining industry in the region up to few pits.
A renewed upswing began at the beginning 18.Century after the loss of the Elsass at France. It lasted in 19. Century. Many pits from this time can be visited today as looking mine, like e.g. the pit devil reason (cathedral valley), the hope lug Todtmoos and the minein the looking in country.
in the with difficulty accessible Black Forest valleys set the industrializationonly late. Many farmers made Kuckucksuhren in the winter of wood. From this developed in 19. Century the fine-mechanical and the watch-and-clock-making industry, which came with the development of many Black Forest valleys by the railway to large bloom. The initial location disadvantage, thatto the development of the fine-mechanical wood handicraft, became with the entrance to the raw material metal led a competition advantage. In addition in the context of a structure promotion the federal state government of Baden created the first German Uhrmacherschule in the year 1850 in ford cheeks, around the small craftsmen oneto guarantee good training and to increase thus the sales prospects. From the rising need at mechanical devices large companies resulted such as young Hans and Kienzle. In 20. Century developed the production of the entertainment electronics by companies such as SABA, Binarily (record players) and Becker. Into the 1970er years decreased/went back the industry due to eastern competition. Until today the Black Forest is a center of the metalworking industry and location of many high technology companies.
the Black Forest lives today mainly on the tourism industry. In the spring, summer and autumn many nature-loving humans visit the Black Forest. The south Black Forest is in the meantime proven as nature park. Expanded Wandererwegrouten and Mountainbikestrecken make the use of the nature area for different target groups possible.In the winter naturally kinds of winter sports in the foreground stand. Both ski alpine one and ski Nordisch can be in many places operated in the winter.
worth seeing is among other things the cities gene gene brook, Scold oh and Haslach in the Kinzigtal, (both at the German framework route) and the federal gold village 2004 Gersbach in the south Black Forest.
The former Benediktinerkloster pc. is magnificently equipped. Blasien as well as the monasteries sank Trudpert, pc. Peter and St. Margins. InHirsauer architectural style from new red sandstone was established the monastery Alpirsbach as well as the enormous monastery ruin in Calw - to Hirsau. A rural idyl is the monastery Wittichen with giving cell.
In the southern part of the middle Black Forestas well as in the south Black Forest the 333,000 hectars large nature park south Black Forest was furnished, which is with this surface the largest nature park of Germany.
In the Black Forest are very beautiful moving ways, among them the famous west way and the high-usage route Freiburg - to Bodensee, by thosewild-romantic rage oh ravine leads. Special topic ways for friends of the barefoot moving and sense experience were created with the barefoot park Dornstetten and the park with all senses in property oh/Schwarzwald railway. Also several routistic interesting roads like the Black Forest high route (B 500) or those German clock road lead to delightful goals in the Black Forest.
To the summer weekend the Black Forest is due to its winding highways in addition a popular goal for Motorradfahrer. This branch of tourism “was braked” lately however, among other things by the blockage of different roads(like for example driving on the mountain looking in country) for Motorradfahrer on the weekends. These measures with the high accident numbers were justified.
the open air museum Vogtsbauernhof in property oh at the Schwarzwald railway offers 16 with its original-faithfully reconstructed Black Forest houses of views of the rural life. and 17. Century. The German clock museum in Ford cheeks presents a comprehensive cross section by the history of the Uhrmacherei and watch-and-clock-making industry.
the entire Black Forest already early by the railway one opened. In the north Black Forest by the Enztalbahn of Pforzheim after Bath game bath, by the gnawing old valley course from Pforzheim over Calw and gnawing old to Horb at the Neckar and the Württembergi Schwarzwald railway from Stuttgart to Calw. The Altensteigerle, a narrow-gauge railway, led from gnawing old after old person-continues to rise.
From the Rhine Valleylead along the valleys many railways into the Black Forest. The Albtalbahn from Karlsruhe to bath Herrenalb, the Murgtalbahn of restcorrode after joy city, the Achertalbahn from Achern to Ottenhöfen in the Black Forest and the Renchtalbahn from Appenweier to bath Griesbach. The Schwarzwald railway leads Villingen and Donaueschingen from open castle over house oh , until Konstanz at the Bodensee. A branch in house oh is the Kinzigtalbahn after joy city. South of open castle the Elztalbahn from Denzlingen leads to Elzach from the Rhine Valley, the hell valley course of Freiburg in mash gau by the hell valley after Donaueschingen and the Kandertalbahn of Haltingen in close proximity to Basel by the Kandertal after Kandern.
From Titisee at the hell valley course the three-sea-course of the Titisee leads to the Windgfällweiher and to the Schluchsee. Along the of Baden-Wuerttemberg-Swiss border connected the rage oh valley course forest hat with Immendingen at the Schwarzwald railway.
The distances have also today still one to move traffic or are museum railways extremely liked.
since January 2006 is the Black Forest tourism GmbH with seat in Freiburg responsibly for the administration of the tourism in the 265 municipalities in the Black Forest. Before there were four separate tourism federations.
Partially today to festive causes, the traditional Trachten are still, usually carried. The appearance of the Trachten varies from region to region partially. very muchstrongly. One of the most well-known black forests Trachten, is the Tracht with the characteristic Boell hat. Unmarried women carry it with red “Bollen”, married with black.
Admits is the Black Forest furthermore for its Thermalquellen (for instance in Baden-Baden, bath Krozingen, Badenweiler, Bath love cell or bath Bellingen), the typical farmhouses with unloading Krüppelwalmdächern, the black forests Kirschtorte, black forests the ham, Kirschwasser and the Kuckucksuhr.
- Cornelia Ziegler: Southern Black Forest.4. Edition. Travel know-how publishing house,Bielefeld 2004, ISBN 3-8317-1257-3
- refuge Friedrich Vorwerk (text), Erich mirror owner (fig.): The Black Forest. A German culture landscape in history and present. Herder, Freiburg in mash gau [among other things] the 1992, ISBN 3-451-22658-8
- briefly small: Hidden Black Forest. Unknown from Volkskunde and history.Morstadt, Kehl [among other things]1988 (edition Morstadt, volume 18), ISBN 3-88571-172-9
Web on the left of
- museum passport - portal to museums of the TriRegio
- of visitor mines in the Black Forest
- Black Forest - from the idyll to the image, out: Stuttgart message, 3. September 2004
- WikiTravel Black Forest
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