|office language||Swedish (in fact)|
|system of government||parliamentary monarchy|
|king||Carl XVI. Gustaf|
|Ministers of State||Göran Persson|
|realm tag president||Björn of Sydow|
|surface||449,964 km ²|
|number of inhabitants||9.060.430 (28.2.2006) <ref>< /ref>|
|Population density||of 20 inhabitants per km ²|
|gros domestic product/inhabitant||42,392 US-$ (2005)|
|currency||Swedish crown (sec.)|
|time belt||UTC +1|
|national anthem||you gamla, you fria|
The Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish Konungariket Sverige ? / License) is a parliamentary monarchy in Northern Europe. The national territory includes - beside the eastern part of the Scandinavian peninsula - the islands Gotland and oil and also. Sweden is member of the European Union and the Nordi advice.
Table of contents
Sweden Norway and Finland border on the Kattegat, on the states,as well as to the Baltic Sea. To Sweden two large islands belong in the Baltic Sea: Gotland (approx. 3,000 km ²) and oil and (approx. 1,300 km ²). It gives approx. 221,800 islands. The longest expansion from the north to the south amounts to 1.572km, from the east to the west 499 km.
During far parts of the country flat are to hilly, rise along the Norwegian border the mountain massifs of the Skanden up to over 2.000 m height. The highest summit is the Kebnekaise with 2.111m. Distributed over the country there are 28 of national park. The surface-moderately largest are in the northwest of the country.
traditional becomes Sweden into the three regions (schwed.: landsdelar) Götaland, Svealand and Norrland divided.The fourth historical region of Sweden was to 1809 Österland, today's Finland. Up to the administrative reform accomplished by Axel Oxenstierna 1634 were arranged the regions into historical provinces (land cape, named therefore also „landscape “):
in addition came from Denmark Norway 1645
in addition 1645 Jämtland Härjedalen Norrbotten
only into from Denmark Norwaythe 1950er years as the landscape explains.
The largest city is the capital Stockholm. Other important cities are Göteborg, Malmö, Uppsala, Linköping, Västerås, Örebro, Norrköping, Umeå, Sundsvall and Gävle. See alsothe list of the cities in Sweden.
Sweden leaves itself rough into the more fully developed and settled areas in the south (Svealand and Götaland) and at the coast Norrlands on the one hand and the very weakly settled areas in Norrlands inland on the other hand to divide.In order to open 1900, norrländische inland was begun. Between 1907 and 1937 the inland course between Kristinehamn and Gällivare was built, in order to advance this development.
south and central Sweden (Götaland and Svealand), which cover only two fifth of Sweden, are divided from the south northward into three large landscapes, north Sweden, which covers the remaining three fifth, are eastward divided into three landscapes from the west.
The southernmost part, thosehistorical province care, is a continuation of the lowlandses of Northern Germany and Denmark. In care also the deepest point of Sweden lies (excluded lakes and. A.) with 2.4 meters under the sea level. North of it the southSwedish high country, a Hochebene extends surroundedof a hill landscape with a large number of elongated lakes, which resulted from ice-age erosion. The third large landscape is the centralSwedish lowers, a flat, however fissured landscape with large levels, refuges, board mountains, fjords and a set of lakes (under itthe four largest lakes of Sweden Vänern, Vättern, mark arene and Hjälmaren).
The west of north Sweden is coined/shaped by the Scandinavian mountains, that the border too Norway forms. The mountain chain exhibits heights between 1.000 and 2,000 meters over the sea level. In the Scandinavian mountains also of Sweden lies highest mountain, the Kebnekaise (2,111 m). Eastward the Vorland attaches, of Sweden most expanded large landscape. Along the mountainsextend large high land levels on a height of 600-700 meters over the sea level, which changes into a wavy hill country, which drops eastward. In this landscape also the large ore occurrences (iron, copper, zinc, lead) are Sweden. The large riversSweden, which have their origin in the Scandinavian mountains, flow almost parallel in deep valley courses toward Baltic Sea. Along the Baltic Sea coast extends the even coastal landscape, those between urine OS and and Örnsköldsvik of to Ausläufer handing to the Baltic Sea coast of theVorlandes (Höga coasts, national park) is interrupted.
The Scandinavian peninsula was covered during the last ice age of ice. The pressure and the movement of the ice masses codesigned the landscape in many parts substantially. Also today a still important factor is those Land elevation. The melting of the ice masses, which had depressed the earth's crust, has since the last ice age (approximately 10,000 v. Chr.) led to a land elevation of 800 m. Nowadays the land elevation amounts to 10-11 mm annually.
large one of parts of Sweden consist of Urgestein, like Gneiss and granite. In Jämtland and partsfrom central and South Sweden (so also on the islands oil and and Gotland) one finds extensive layers in parts from the Silur.
Is by the large Scandinavian glacier from the quart acre the today's landscape of Sweden with the numerous lakes, riversand developed for Wasserfällen. Sanding off and scooping out accompanying with it left the characteristic deposits from flints and round stones, which are called in Sweden „åsar “beside the Moränen.
of Sweden climate is for its geographicalSituation rather mildly. It is determined particularly by the proximity to the Atlantic with the warm gulf stream. Large parts of Sweden have therefore climate kept at a moderate temperature and a damp with plentifully precipitation and relatively small temperature differences between summers and winters. Continentally affected climatewith smaller precipitation and higher temperature differences one finds inside the southSwedish high country and in some parts of the Vorlandes of the Scandinavian mountains. Polar climate occurs only in the northern high mountains. The average temperature for January amounts to 0 °C to -2°C in the south and -12 °C to -14 °C in the north (excluded the high mountains), the average temperature for July amounts to 16 °C to 18 °C in the south and 12 °C to 14 °C in the north.
There itself Sweden between that55. and 69. Degree of latitude extends and a part north the polar circle lies, is considerable the difference between the long daylight in the summer and the long darkness in the winter.
Flora and fauna
in north Swedencoin/shape the expanded borealen coniferous forests the picture. The more south one however comes, the more frequently gives it mixed woodlands. As salient border area for Flora and fauna the limes in such a way specified is considered norrlandicus. In South Sweden the hardwood forests had to make place for the agricultureor by coniferous trees due to the higher growth rate were replaced.
Black - and Rotwild gives it plentifully, whereby that wild pig toEnd 19. Century in free game course one exterminated. However again a lebensfähige population could develop after outbreaks of wild pigs from game enclosures into the 1970er-Jahren.
particularly admits is Sweden for the largestNumber at moose in Europe, which are seen however of the population quite also as troubles. Thus they represent a quite large danger in the traffic. In hunting season in the autumn up to a quarter of the moose existence one hunts. Howeverthe existence is thereby not endangered by the high reproduction rate.
Raubtiere such as bears, wolves and Luchse are in the last years owing to strict environmental regulations the advance. The many lakes and long coasts offer much habitat for water animals: Sweetand seawater fish there are plentifully and seals is frequently to be found.
Sweden furnished 1910 as the first country in Europe protected areas and is also today still always mindful to protect domestic nature. Humans have a strong environmental awareness.
Sweden has approx. 9,04 million inhabitant. 90.8 per cent are ethnical Sweden, 2.5 per cent so-called native fairings. Finns form a strong group, most in Tornedalen live however in central Sweden(Finland was about thousand years long a part of Sweden). To the Second World War many “immigrant workers” came from Finland to Sweden. The children and grandchild of these immigrant workers speak often still Finnish as native language. Today still about 20,000 Sami (rags) live inSweden. Most are assimilated, and only few concern themselves with the annuitant breed (200 full-time, 3,000 sideline). On hunt or fish, the traditional samischen branches of trade, today no more lives. The annuitant breed began only in the middle of the 17.Jahrhunderts, as a king GustavII. Adolfs war commitment ever more tax fundses verzehrte and one on the search for new sources of coming in was. It made thereupon also the seeds taxable. Since the traditional hunt for Rene brought not as much, one began, to zähmen the Rene and toobreed.
6.7 per cent of the population are foreigners, about which the fairings with 100.000 the largest group form. In the border areas to Norway and Denmark naturally also Norwegians and Danes live. The today largest not-Scandinavian subpopulation got along at the beginning of the 1990er yearscivil war-troubled Yugoslavia. Ten thousands Croats, Serbs and Bosnier live today together with other refugees, mostly from the Iraq, Iran, from Somalia, Ethiopia and Eritrea, in addition, from Latin America particularly in the strongly segriertenPopulated areas of the larger cities (e.g. Stockholm Rinkeby, foreigner portion of 99%, Göteborg Bergsjö 97%, Malmö Rosengård 95%). Also some thousands Poland and German in Sweden live. They live usually in the southern regions. The latters are in the health sector as “immigrant workers”, for example as (tooth) physicians and a nurseand/or. - male nurses, actively.
The birth rate of 1,75 children per woman (2004) is on the one hand below the reproduction threshold of 2,10, but the far over EU25 average (1,50/2004).
the colloquial language are nearly everywhere Swedish. Norwegian (Bokmål) about most natives Sweden is understood, since it is very similar to the Swedish one. Danish only in Skåne and resounding and one understands, since it differs in the discussion much from „the Rikssvenskan “. The distancebetween for example Sörmländisch and the dialects in Tornedalen and Härjedalen (this have still the dative!) is larger than between Sörmländi and the Norwegian Boksmål. Skåni is not against different phrased rumors mixture from Danish and Swedish (a Dane understandsSörmländisch better than skånisch) - the Skåninger (inclusive Blekinger) had already at Danish times linguistically a privileged position. In Tornedalen of approximately the half population Finnish is spoken. Samisch is used still by some thousand humans as host language. All seeds usehowever also the Swedish language - whether now as the first, second or only language.
In Sweden have Finnish, Meänkieli, Jiddisch, Romani, Samisch and the Swedish sign language the status of recognized minority languages. Nearly 80% of the Swedish population speak English than foreign language, since English represents on the one hand the first foreign language at the schools and on the other hand in the television is very strongly represented. As the second foreign language the majority of the pupils Spanish selects. Also German and French become as secondForeign language offered. Was German in Sweden like also in remaining Scandinavia to approximately 1945 the first foreign language.
than 75% of the Swedish population belong to religion to the Evangelical-Lutheran Swedish church , which was from 1527 to 1999 national church.Strong free-church groups dominate in the area Jönköping (the Kristdemokraten, kd, comes from this area), in Bohuslän and in Västerbotten. The second largest group, those of the Muslims, can be estimated in terms of figures only with difficulty. Their number of members is with approximately 250.000. Those Roman-catholic church has 150,000 members and the Christian-orthodox churches about 100.000. Besides there are about 23,000 witnesses Jehovas in Sweden. About 10,000 humans belong to a Jewish municipality.
” the Swedish model”, a term above all the 1970er years, refers to the welfare state, a comprehensive system of social security and social welfare service, which is the result of a one hundred-year old development. Between 1890 and 1930the bases for a social system were partly created, but only starting from the 1930er years - in particular after the government assumption of the social-democratic labour party 1932 - the structure of the welfare state was advanced as political project. The Swedish social system seized finally all ofInfant (over the local child welfare service) up to the pensioner (over the local old person welfare service). Only in the last decade it came to drastic changes. A heavy economic crisis at the beginning of the 1990er years led to a shortening of social security benefits, and the expected demographicDevelopment led to a radical change of the pension system, which is coupled to the economic development now. The last elections showed however that the straight core ranges of the welfare state were also today still to the citizen because of the heart, even if of the “people home” notremained very much remaining.
major item: To history of Sweden
major item see political system of Sweden.
Sweden is a parliamentary-democratic monarchy. Head of state is since 1973 king Carl XVI. Gustaf. The a chamber parliament, Reichstag (schwed.: Riksdag) has 349 delegates and every four years is again selected. The sieved in Reichstag represented parties are the conservative moderate collection party (Moderata samlingspartiet, m), the liberal a party (Folkpartiet liberalerna, fp), thoseCentral party (Centerpartiet, C), the Christian democrats (Kristdemokraterna, kd), the Greens (Miljöpartiet de gröna, MP), the social-democratic labour party of Sweden (Sveriges socialdemokratiska arbetareparti, s) and the left wing party (Vänsterpartiet, v). Reichstag appoints the prime minister (more statsminister), that for his part the further Ministers (schwed.: statsråd) his government appoints. At present Sweden is governed by a social-democratic minority government with support of the Greens and the left wing party.
The kingdom is in21 provinces (schwed.: län) arranged. The national functions of the administration on regional level become from a head of the provincial government (schwed.: landshövding) and a Provinzialregierung (schwed.: länsstyrelse) perception.
Contrary to most democracies Sweden has a political system (still outthe times of the above mentioned. Oxenstierna comes), in that the Ministers, thus the government, the implementing organs to not directly steer may (Ostnordi administrative form, also in Finland uses). Rather there is the independently acting central offices (schwed.: ämbetsverk) (e.g. Vägverket, Skolverket - there are zirka 200 in different size), which the tasks fulfill, which are realized in other countries by Ministries or Landesverwaltungen, and which have Ministries the task to prepare law collecting mains and in the best case the possibility, the workto affect the central offices by regulations.
The local autonomy happens on two levels: (since 2003) the 290 municipalities (schwed. kommun) and the Provinziallandtagen (schwed. landsting), which represent a kind municipality group (not to confound with the national Länsstyrelse). ThoseMunicipalities take the local tasks as and. A. the public education, social services, child and old person support as well as the local infrastructure truely, however become the basic conditions of the central authorities, e.g. Skolverket determines. The Provinziallandtage is for the ranges of the local autonomyresponsibly, which Kraft of individual municipalities exceed, like the health service and the nursing for the sick, the regional traffic and the traffic planning and. A. The municipalities and the Provinziallandtage finance their activity by the collection of income taxes, with deliveries and national subsidies.
In Swedenthe public principle, i.e. applies that official documents with small exceptions of the press and all private people are accessible. Nobody must indicate, why it would like to see a Schriftstsück, nor must one prove itself.
A further Scandinavian characteristic is the systemthe Ombudsmänner (schwed.: ombudsman). They are to protect the rights of the particular with the contact with the authorities and to guarantee the observance of important laws. Citizens, mean, in an unfair way to have been treated, can to the Ombudsmänner turn, those the caseexamine and possibly as special prosecutors before court bring. At the same time they are to seize the situation within their respective ranges in co-operation with the authorities, operate clearing-up work and make suggestions for law changes. Beside the Justizombudsmännern there is a Verbraucherombudsmann, a Kinderombudsmann, oneGleichberechtigungsombudsmann as well as Ombudsmänner against ethnical discrimination and against discrimination due to sexual assessment.
Sweden was considered long time as social-democratic sample country; of many European linking as successful example of a third way between socialism and free-market economy was seen. This has itselfat the latest since the reforms into the 1980er years changed.
To 14. September 2003 was co-ordinated in Sweden on the introduction of the euro as national currency. The introduction had been controversially discussed in the apron, and in the long run the euro Skeptiker sat down through (election turnout:81.2%, Wahlausgang: 56.1% against it, 41.8% for it, 2.1% abstentions, 0.1% invalidly). The Skeptiker saw a patronizing of the Swedish monetary policy in the euro-introduction by the European central bank (EZB). 2013 ago it is not after the announcement of the Swedish government a further popular vote toIntroduction of the euro give. The tuning was heavily overshadowed by the murder of the Swedish Foreign Minister Anna Lindh.
Sweden is partitioned in 21 provinces (län). These are with the historical provinces (land cape), inthose the realm until 1634 divided was rarely congruent, (even if the names let it sometimes assume - there only Gotland, Skåne and Blekinge form exceptions).
The today's provinces are:
still in thatfirst half 19. Century was Sweden - despite the building of railways - a pronounced agrarian state, in which 90% of the population of the agriculture lived. Only in the second half 19. Century began a comprehensive industrialization, toto the world economic crisis of 1929 put the bases for a modern industrial company. The industrialization was based initially on good entrance to raw materials and the processing of these resources on the spot (e.g. Iron ore with huts in Svealand, infinite forests in the north, „infinite “Sawmills at the Norrländi coast). Only into the 1890-er years formed one more was promoted and very innovative workshop industry, particularly in central Sweden, out (e.g. Nobel OFF, ABB, Bahco, LM Eriksson OFF). After the Second World War Sweden became onethe prominent industrial nations of the world. The development reached its high point in the center of the 1960er years, since the 1970er years decreases/goes back the number of persons employed in the industry, while the service range grows. 2000 amounted to the portion of the agriculture to GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT only more 2% and that of the secondary sector 28%, while 70% were gained GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT by the tertiary sector.
land and forestry
the Swedish agriculture is by the geological conditions and the climate coined/shaped. 10% thatState surface are agriculturally used. 90% of the cultivated area are in south and central Sweden. A majority of the agriculture enterprises are in family estate. Are cultivated above all grain, potatoes and oil plants. More than half of the agricultural incomes (58%) becomes however by thoseAnimal husbandry gains, here above all the milk production. The agriculture subsidies of the European Union amount to 24% of the incomes. Three quarters of the agricultural enterprises have also forest and connect agriculture with forestry. Forestry is of some importance, there Swedenone of the forest-richest countries of the earth is. 52% of the state surface are covered by forest.
mining industry and industry
Sweden are rich at Bodenschätzen, which were already diminished starting from the Middle Ages. Iron ore becomes - afterthe iron and steel crisis of the 1970er years - only in Norrland (Kiruna, Gällivare - Malmberget) diminished and exports. Copper, lead and zinc exceed the internal requirement around the repeated and are likewise exported, during silver to 60%and gold to 80% the internal requirement cover. Larger ore reserves are present, their dismantling are however at present uneconomic.
Which distinguishes the Swedish industry, is the relatively high portion of large-scale enterprises. After a crisis at the beginning of the 1990er years (with oneFalling off in production of 10% within two years) recovered the industry again. The largest branches of industry are construction of vehicles (1996: 13% of the industriellen creation of value) with enterprises such as Volvo, Scania, Saab automobiles, Saab OFF (airplanes and space technology) and. A., thoseWood and paper industry (likewise 13% of the industriellen creation of value) with four large-scale enterprises, mechanical engineering (12% of the industriellen creation of value) with enterprises such as Electrolux, SKF, Tetra Pak, Alfa Laval and the electrical and electronic industry (10% of the industriellen creation of value) with the dominatingEnterprises Ericsson and FIG.
the electricity produced in Sweden comes to a portion of 50,8% (2001) from hydro-electric power plants of the large rivers (Luleälv, Indalsälv, Umeälv and Ångermanälv) in the north of theCountry and about. 43% from nuclear power stations. Only approx. 4% of current production originate from fossil sources of energy.
after the partial core melt-through in Three Mile Island in the USA (1979) became in Sweden one Popular vote against nuclear energy successfully accomplished. This had the consequence that the parliament decided 1980 to build no further atomic power plants more and to switch the twelve existing off until 2010.
This door plan was only partly carried out. 1997 took Swedish Reichstag the collecting mainover „a lasting power supply “on. This certain and. A., one of the reactors at the location bear-bake before that 1. July 1998 and the second before that 1. To quiet-add July 2001, however under the condition that their current production can be compensated. Thatearlier resolution to quiet-add all reactors to 2010 was waived. Bear-bake block 1 finally became to 30. November 1999 shut down, bear-bake block 2 at the 1. June 2005.
The renouncement of the use of the nuclear energy is controversially discussed in Sweden. ThoseIndustry fears the loss of an inexpensive generation of current and thus an impairment of its international competitive ability. A renouncement of the nuclear energy use without over sufficient other and reliable generation of current techniques to order, has substantial negative consequences for the Swedish national economy. Also which one insteadto import Baltic atomic current and Danish coal stream makes simpler this question is not forced.
The achievement of the nuclear power stations still in enterprise was substantially increased in the last years. This increase made the compensation possible of the loss of bear-bakes. OneUtilization of existing further large Wasserkraftpotenzialen is not possible. Swedish Reichstag decided 1998 to permit for nature protection reasons no further removals of waters. By law the rivers Kalixälv, Piteälv, Torneälv and Vindelälv are protected.
Despite substantial efforts,economically load-carrying alternatives to the nuclear energy use and to the consumption of fossil fuels to create, is to be assumed Sweden cannot do the still far over year 2010 outside without the use of the nuclear energy. The operators of nuclear power stations go from oneUtilization period of the existing plants approximately up to the year 2050 out. In this connection there was 2004 a resolution of the parliament that a door was to be aimed at “in the next 30 to 40 years”.
70% gain services the service range of theGROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT, which can be attributed above all to the fact that the public sector grew in the last decades so strongly. The private service range stands nevertheless for more than two thirds of production.
of Sweden economics is strongdependent on the international trade. The most important export countries are the USA (11.9% of the export in the first quarter 2004), Germany (10.2%), Norway (8.3%) and Great Britain (7.8%). The most important export products are machines (15.5% of the export in the first quarter 2004), electrical and electronics products (14.9%)and KFZ and KFZ components (14.4%). The most important importing country are Germany (19% of the import in the first quarter 2004), Denmark (8.8%) and Great Britain (8%). The most important import products are electrical and electronics products (16.8% of the import in the first quarter 2004), machines (11.4%) and KFZand KFZ components (11.3%).
The portion of foreign direct investments is comparison-moderately high in Sweden. This can be attributed to the fact that the Swedish economy is dominated by a small number of internationally active companies. About 50 companies come for two thirds of the Swedish exportup.
the tourism carries with approximately 3% (3.3 billion Euro, 2000) to of Sweden GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT. Four fifth of the tourists is residents and only one fifth comes from the foreign country. From the foreign tourists 1998 23% got along Germany, 19% from Denmark, 10% from Norway and ever 9% from Great Britain and the Netherlands.
1992 and 2000 the portion was appropriate for public expendituresthe public expenditures for
radio and television
the public television company Sveriges Television OFF (SVT) has its seat in Stockholm. While the programsSVT1 and SVT2 only in Sweden and on Åland are receiptable, are some channels also abroad in particular in Finland receiptable.
major item: Swedish literature
see also list of schwedischsprachiger writers
major item: Music [
would be allowed to do Swedish architecture [work on]Ways of the Swedish cow guardian inside belong (vallåt). The melodies are signal calls for others cow guardian inside, the different meanings to have can (lost animal, wiedergefundes animal and so on) or direct instructions to the herd (rest, sleep songs, pasture songs and so on). Whether the melody sequences by music instruments (cow horns, Luren)are coined/shaped or were sung from the outset, cannot not with security be determined.
Many Hirtenweisen changed over into the dance music or served as source for the nationalromantic classical music (Alfvén, corroding hereditary suppl.). In the dance music, itself probably above allin the baroque, dominates themselves the violin (play man music) developed, since end the 17. Century in Sweden spread, and the dance forms of the Polka and the Menuetts. Is not one itself united, to what extent the dance form of the Polka partly already thanFarmer dance before Polish influences in 16. and 17. Century existed. Before the general use of the violin the lyra (Swedish nyckelharpa, since the late Middle Ages common) and Sackpfeife were usual people instruments. Nyckelharpa could itself as instrument into the presenthold.
The Swedish people music was by the pietistischen and frömmlerischen movements in the country in the course 19. Century under strong distress turn out. Instruments of the people music were considered as Troll and devil things. Crucially to surviving the people music the painter contributed Differently anger, which below the Gesundaberges at the Siljanssee close its place of residence Mora in Dalarna, since accomplished 1906 people music competitions. In this way it succeeded to it to make the old melodies and instruments again popular. Similar endangerment experienced the samische people music,the Joik and the seed drum, during the time of the Missionierung in 17. and 18. Century as devil music were verpönt. The drums were systematically in-collected. The Joik is loud pictorial a song, that in text and in the melody, nature,Animals, humans, freudvolle or sad events describes. The drums were used in the context of shame anise tables customs (true legends, victim, forecasts and so on).
Johan Helmich novel (1694-1758) is considered as an actual father of the Swedish art music. Novel oriented itself at GeorgeFriedrich trade, wrote board music (Drottningholmsmusiken), in addition, the first schwedischsprachige fair (Then svenska messan). Under Gustav III. experienced the opera a first bloom time (at that time developed also works with national contents as for instance Johann stresses God-dear Naumanns “Gustav Vasa”).
Franz Berwald (1796-1868) and Adolf Fredrik Lindblad (1801-1878) belong to the first important Sinfonikern, which tie on the German classical period and romance. For both Beethoven is the large model. Berwald attained also international acknowledgment with its symphonies and wrote first clay packings (Älvalek).Lindblad attained particularly because of its choir works and songs large popularity.Ludvig Norman (1831-1855) dominated as Sinfonikern the center 19. Century. Its Symphonien attach Niels William Gades to the romantic music and stand the German romance for Schumanns andMendelssohns close.Ivar resound-flow followed with its operas (the Bergtagna) and ballets French models. On the other hand Andreas Hallén of the again-German school closed on with its clay packings “the dead island” or its opera “Vikingarna”, in which resemblances are unmistakable on Wagners work.
The people music and it enrich melody treasure by August Söderman “one rediscovered”. With its Tanzsuiten, its play music and choir works he tries to find a national Swedish music language. Its attempts became the source of inspiration of the late romantics. The music of the turn of the century became from severallarge personalities coined/shaped, to who it succeeded to create a national Swedish in addition, very personal music language: William Stenhammar, Hugo Alfvén and William Peterson Berger.William Stenhammar is the superior of the Beherr musical large forms (symphonies, of the three “klassischste” and, piano concerts,Kantaten). Brahms and Wagner are for its music language models.Hugo Alfvén created with its rhapsodies (Midsommarvaka, Uppsala rapsodi, Dalarapsodi), which Swedish people music as motives uses, a national Swedish music language. William Peterson Berger created important symphonies, operas (Arnljot) and piano works (Frösöblomster, ISomras), in which it converts great nature tendencies in sound and melody. Also it is close to Wagner, in addition, EDP pool of broadcasting corporations Grieg and sounds occasionally surprisingly modern and reminds in his sounds of the Impressionismus Debussys, which it actually rejected.
The late romanceis intensive and persists until around 1950. Dominant factor musician personality of this time is briefly corroding hereditary suppl. with its symphonies, whose music language orients itself at smelling pool of broadcasting corporations bunch. Also corroding hereditary suppl. succeed unusual tone qualities for the description of nature tendencies, those partially its model to bunchstill exceed in Rafinesse. Into the 1930er years begins a group of composers, the so-called “30-talisterna”, to newer music currents to tie with neoklassizistischen works (Lars Eric Larsson, Gunnar de Frumerie, Dag Wirén). Hilding rose mountain becomes with its enormousSymphonies, which argue contentwise with complex mental connections (Johannesapokalypse), to the large newer one the Sinfonik.Karl Birger Blomdahl sets new yardsticks for the development of the modern music with its space opera “Aniara” (1959) in Sweden, in which he also electronic sounds (tape)introduces, although the music orients itself to a large part still very conservatively at the neoklassizistischen clay/tone language of the 1940er years.
Today Sweden is internationally well-known for its Popmusik. Volume such as ABBA, Roxette, Ace OF cousin and Army OFLovers are world well-known. To current well-known volume belong for example Millencolin, Mando Diao, Sugarplum Fairy, Looptroop, Alcazar, The Hives and The the Cardigans. Furthermore is Sweden admits for its large number of Metal of volume,like for example Opeth, case of hammer, in Flames, Hypocrisy, Marduk or Amon Amarth.
Lists: Swedish musician [
major item: Swedish film
around 1910 one began with the regular production of features. The SwedishFilm reached soon a quality, which admits it internationally made. But with the introduction of the Tonfilmes and the associated delimitation on the small, schwedischsprachigen market the film dropped to a provinzielles level without artistic requirement. Only after thatThe Swedish film experienced the Second World War a recent artistic upswing, first in the documentary film, z. B.Arne Sucksdorffs 1948 with the OSCAR distinguished film humans in the city, and afterwards as author film with Ingmar Bergman as outstanding personality. Also thoseChild and youth films attained international attention. The creation of the Swedish institute for film into the 1960er years contributed to a quality assurance, which persists until today.
crew kinds of sport enjoy sport in Sweden such as ice hockey, hand ball, Innebandy, Bandy or football of large popularity. Besides in particular kinds of winter sports ( in particular Nordi Skisport) are popular.
The ice hockey team of Sweden belongs to the best world. Among other things players play such as Peter Forsberg, Markus Naslund, Mats Sundin, Hendrik Zetterberg, Eyelid stream, Daniel Alfredsson for the “Tre Kronor” NIC-read - team. With the olympic winter plays 2006 in Turin they got the gold medal in the final against the ore enemy from Finland.
In the football Sweden was located 1958 with the soccer world championship in the own country in the finalagainst Brazil. 1950 and 1994 reached the crew place 3. At present many international of star play such as Zlatan Ibrahimovic, Henrik Larsson, Olof Mellberg and Fredrik Ljungberg for the national team.
1954, 1958, 1990 and 1999 were Sweden hand ball world champion.European champions became the country 1994, 2000 and 2002. 1992, 1996 and 2000 occupied the Swedish hand ball team in each case the second place with the olympic plays. Current Swedish national players are and. A.Stefan Lövgren, Marcus Ahlm, Pelle Linders, Kim Andersson one, Matthias Andersson one and Henrik Lundström. The Swede Magnus of pointing countries was gekürt to the world century player.
In the Unihockey the Swedish gentleman team won all five delivered world championships; the Swedish ladies won twice the world champion title.
see to article Swedish kitchen
typical SwedishFirm one and customs
At the Tjugondedag July (twentieth Weihnachtstag, also Tjugondag July) or Tjugondag Knut (13. January) is the Christmas season past. Occasionally conclusion celebrations with Christmas tree plundering take place. The candles and the decoration are removed and the tree is removed.
Particularly in Lund and Uppsala Valborg is or siste April toEvening before that 1. May an important student celebration. All met their white student caps put and sing point on 15 o'clock student songs. One spends the following night with excessive consumption of alcohol and Katerfrühstück.
The 6. June, Svenska fly a flag to Trade Union of German Employees, is thatofficial national holiday of Sweden. Originally as a “flag day” 1916 in the life called, are the 6. June since 1983 national day and since 2005 also legal holiday.
The Midsommarfest becomes on the first night to Saturday after that 21. June celebrated. The violence of theCelebrating this weekend is comparable only with Christmas. If at the Johannisabend at the end of of June is to be seen the sunlight in the north 24 hours long and into the south only few hours long in blue dawning light changes, Sweden is most beautiful. The holidayis an age-old tradition and is rooted in the before-historical summer solstice celebrations. Over the May tree decorated with Birkenreisig and flowers, the perhaps most well-known Swedish national symbol, everywhere in Sweden one dances and one sings. Everywhere omitted fixed tendency prevails.
In August in former times first cameblow cancers on the market. The pertinent celebration is called Kräftskiva and can take place at arbitrary time. One eats, so much one creates, from the cancers cooked in a strong Dillsud and drinks in addition liquors. As decoration Girlanden serve andmerry hats.
In north Sweden there is the Surströmmingsskiva for the end of the summer still. The consumption of the herrings with potatoes, before-fermented in a box, or tunnbröd (thin bread - a preliminary stage Knäckebrot from Norrland) requires however insensitive smell nerves (S. Sauerströmling).
The Luciafest begins 13 in the morning. December and the day of the light queen is in Sweden. The oldest daughter appears as Luziabraut in a white dress and a wreath/ring from Preiselbeerzweigen and burning candles on the head. „The Lussebrud “the family wakes and serves the breakfast at the bed. Generally speaking country schools and working places in the early morning hours are visited by magically resplendent Luciazügen. Young girls in foot-long white garbs with candles on the head and in the handsare accompanied by white-dressed young men, which „star boys “, who are enough on this occasion, sharpen, with a star crowned hat carry. Together they sing the traditional singing, which belongs to the Vorweihnachtszeit and to Christmas. From this day on and overthe entire Christmas season away one eats a special, with Safran peppered and colored, yeast pastry.
to objects of interest
portal: Sweden, list of schwedischsprachiger writers, list of the Swedish kings, Swedish national encyclopedia, national park in Sweden, list of the cities in Sweden, list of the municipalities in Sweden, listSwedish sportsman, football in Sweden, Sweden (people), Swedish language
- Anemone crept: The picture of the European union in the Swedish public. ThatOther publishing house, Osnabrück 2004, ISBN 3-89959-243-3
- WikiReader Sweden
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- land and travel information of the Foreign Office
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