Sulfur

characteristics
phosphorus - sulfur - chlorine
O
S
SE

[Ne] 3s 2 3p 4
32
16
S

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generally
name, symbol, ordinal number sulfur, S, 16
series Nonmetals
group, period, block 16 (VIA), 3, p
appearance lemon-yellow
proportion at the Earth's shell 0.05%
atomically
atomic mass 32.065
atomic radius (computed) 100 (88) pm
Kovalenter radius 102 pm
van the Waals radius 180 pm
Elektronenkonfiguration [Ne] 3 s 2 3p 4
electrons per energy level 2, 8, 6
1. Ionization energy 999.6 kJ/mol
2. Ionization energy 2252 kJ/mol
3. Ionization energy 3357 kJ/mol
4. Ionization energy 4556 kJ/mol
5. Ionization energy 7004.3 kJ/mol
6. Ionization energy 8495.8 kJ/mol
physically
state of aggregation firmly
modifications -
Crystal structure orthorhombisch
density (Mohshärte) 1960 kg/m 3 (2)
magnetism -
melting point 388.36 K (115.21 ° C)
boiling point 717.87 K (444.72 °C)
molecular volume 15,53 · 10 -6 m 3 /mol
heat of vaporization 9.6 kJ/mol
heat of fusion 1.7175 kJ/mol
steam pressure 2,65 · 10,-20 Pa with 388 K
speed of sound -
specific thermal capacity 710 j (kg · K)
Electrical conductivity 5,0 · 10,-22 S /m
heat conductivity 0.269 w (m · K)
Chemically
oxidation conditions ±2, 4, 6
oxides (basicity) SO 2, SO 3 (strongly sourly)
normal potential -0.48 V (S + 2e - → S 2)
Elektronegativität of 2.58 (Pauling scale)
isotopes
isotope NH t 1/2 ZM CPU M eV ZP
30 S {syn.} 1.178 s ε 6.138 30P
31 S {syn.} 2.572 s ε 5.396 31 P
32 S 95.02% S is stably with 16 neutrons
33 S 0.75% S is stably with 17 neutrons
34 S 4.21% S is stable with 18 neutrons
35 S {syn.} 87.32 D β - 0.167 35 Cl
36 S 0.02% S 37 S are stable {
syn. with 20 neutrons} 5.05 min β - 4.865 37 Cl
38 S {syn.} 170.3 min β - 2.937 38 Cl
39 S {syn.} 11.5 s β - 6.640 39 Cl
40 S {syn.} 8.8 s β - 4.710 40 Cl
as far as possible and common, are used SI-UNITs.
If not differently notes,
the indicated data apply with standard conditions.

Sulfur (chemicalafter latin Sulphur or sulfur mentioned, in German possibly of the Indogermani *suel „smolder " derived) are a chemical element.

Table of contents

modifications

sulfur melts with burn to a blood-red liquid (above). The blue flame (down), developing thereby, ideal-proves observed in the darkness.


Sulfur arises in different modifications :

Firm sulfur

  • The modification of the sulfur thermodynamically most stable at ambient temperature is α-sulfur, rhombically crystallizing (rhombic sulfur). It has the typical sulfur-yellow color.


hochreine Schwefelkristalle
highly pure sulfur crystals


  • with 95,6 °C the change point lies to β-sulfur. This sulfur modification is nearly colorless and crystallized monoclinic(monoclinic sulfur).
  • The likewise monoclinically crystallizing γ-sulfur (Rosickyit) is rarer.




Liquid sulfur

  • λ-sulfur: S 8 - Rings (yellow)
  • π-sulfur: S n (6 ≤ n ≤ 25, n ≠ 8) low-molecular and larger rings
  • μ-sulfur: S n (103 ≤ n ≤ 10 6) high-molecular chains


Firm sulfur normally consists of S 8 - molecules, with which eight sulfur atoms are zigzag bound in a ring. With heating up the β-sulfur, whereby also different rings (v. melts. A.Arise to S 6, S 7, S 12) in temperature-dependent portions. With further increase of the temperature the rings break open by thermal suggestion and form first long chains (polymerization, so-called. <math> \ lambda< /math> - transition with approx. 159 °C), theseshorten then at rising temperature again. Beside these sulfur chains however always also S-rings, essentially however S 8 are present. At <math> \ lambda< /math> - transition change a number of physical characteristics (z. B. Viscosity, optical absorption and concomitantly the color).Gaseous sulfur is dark red and consists at first of S 8 - rings, which continue to break open at higher temperatures then, so that the molecules become ever smaller. Starting from approximately 1800 °C one has then sulfur atoms.

occurrence



sulfur comes alonga portion of 0,048% in the Earth's shell (15. Place of the element frequency) forwards. In nature the sulfur comes elementarily into powerful stores e.g. in Sicilies, Poland, Iraq, Louis IANA, Texas and Mexico forwards.

Sulfur as mineral

sulfur crystal
Monokliner Schwefel, Fumarole im Teidekrater, Teneriffa, Bildbreite: ca. 10 cm
monoclinic sulfur, Fumarole in the Teidekrater, Teneriffa, display width: approx. appears to 10
Schwefel in Gips aus der Gipsgrube Weenzen
cm sulfur in gypsum from the gypsum pit

Weenzen sulfur gediegen, thus in elementary form, as sulfur bloom in nature. It crystallizes below approximately 95°C in the orthorhombischen crystal system (α-sulfur), a density from 2,0 to 2.1, a hardness from 1,5 to 2.5 and a light to dark-yellow color, has as well as a white line color. Usually it appears lightyellow prism or pyramid-shaped crystals,form on rock surfaces from sulfur-rich gases by incomplete oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) or reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO 2). Above approximately 95 °C sulfur crystallizes monoclinically (β-sulfur). This form changes itself below 95 °C rapidly into the orthorhombischeΑ-form over.

Pure sulfur is relatively rare, however in large quantities with volcanic eruptions is set free. He is in volcanic chimneys or at other post office-volcanic features. In addition, sulfur comes in crude form, i.e., without with the naked eye recognizableCrystals forwards, in particular in sediments or sedimentary rocks. He is frequent in Evaporiten (salt rocks), where it mostly results from reduction of sulfates.

Of the mineral the color and the low melting point 112.8 are characteristic °C apart from the small hardness(Α-s) and/or 119.2 °C (β-s).


production

sulfur in powder form

in former times formed the gediegene mineral an important source for sulfur: 3,5 million tons were diminished annually with the help of the milling CH procedure developed by Hermann Frasch, mainly in the USA and in Poland. However won sulfur constituted the largest portion from sulfide ores: From this source about 50 million tons per year originated. Today the sulfur falls in large quantities as waste product with the desulphurisation of natural gas with the help ofthe Claus procedure on.


use

sulfur is used both in the chemical and in the pharmaceutical industry, among other things for production of sulfuric acid, coloring materials, insecticides and artificial fertilizers. Sulfur finds also with the production of Black powder or with other explosives use.

The pharmaceutical use of sulfur was already in the antiquity well-known. Internally sulfur was used as Laxans (exhausting means). It provokes the intestinal mucosa. Hydrogen sulfide produced thereby by bacteria energizes peristalsis. Outwardly sulfur prescriptions camewith skin diseases such as acne, Ekzemen, scratches, Mykosen among other things to the employment. Today sulfur in the Dermatologie use finds, however not yet completely from the pharmaceutical literature only rarely disappeared. Still there are pharmaceutical preparing, asEffect and/or. Auxiliary material sulfur contain.

In the classical Homöopathie is sulfur one of the large means in such a way specified. As picture the room stool, the zerlumpte philosopher is typical.

important sulfur connections

important one inorganic chemical compounds, in which sulfur occurs,are:

also in different organic material classes comes sulfur bound forwards (Organoschwefelverbindung), for example:

proof

it exist different proof reactions for sulfur. Sulfur is transferred in connections after reduction by elementary sodium in sodium sulfide. Sulfide anions pointsone with lead ii-salt solutions post it develops a black precipitation of lead ii-sulfide:

<math> \ mathrm {S^ {\ operator name {2}} + Pb (NO_3) _2 \ longrightarrow PbS + 2 \ NO_3^ {\ operator name {-}}} </math>

When acidifying firm, thus unresolved sulfides develops besides a characteristic smell, after putrid eggs (displacement reaction,Caution: The gas hydrogen sulfide is poisonous; Inhale avoid, departure!). Also this gas blackens lead acetate paper.

From oxidation of schwefelhaltiger connections sulfite and sulfate result. The latter prove one with barium ii-salt solutions: A white precipitation of barium sulfate develops:

<math> \ mathrm {SO_4^ {2 \ operator name {-}} + BaCl_2 \ longrightarrowBaSO_4 \! \ downarrow + 2 \, Cl^ {\ operator name {-}}}< /math>

Sulfite is proven with potassium hydraulic gene sulfate. When rubbing the substance with potassium hydraulic gene sulfate, which can be examined for sulfite, that develops stinging smelling sulfur dioxide. For Natriumsulfit the following reaction equation results:

<math> \ mathrm {2 \ KHSO_4 + Na_2SO_3 \ longrightarrow K_2SO_4 + Na_2SO_4 + H_2O+ SO_2 \! \ uparrow}< /math>

trivia

sees also

literature

  • R. Steudel (Hrsg.): Elemental sulfur and sulfur-smell Compounds (part I & II), Topicsin Current Chemistry of volume. 230 & 231, Springer, Berlin 2003.

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