Sulfuric acid

Structural formula and Kalottenmodell
Schwefelsäure mit Polaritäten Kalottenmodell Schwefelsäure
general
name sulfuric acid
other names sulfur (VI) - acid, oil of vitriol
sum formula H 2 SO 4
CAS number 7664-93-9
short description colorless, viscose rayon liquid
characteristics
molecular mass 98.08 g mol
state of aggregation liquid with ambient temperature (20°C) and constant pressure
density 1.84 g/cm ³
melting point -15 °C
boiling point 310 °C
steam pressure 0.0001 hPa with 20 °C
solubility for an unlimited period in water under heat development
of safety references
of Gefahrensymbole

C
corrosive
R and S-sentences of R: 35
S: 26-30-36/37/39-45
MAK 0.1 mg/m 3
LD 50 (rat) 2140 mg/kg
as far as possible andcommon, SI-UNITs are used. If not differently notes, the indicated data apply with standard conditions.

Sulfuric acid, chemical nomenclature after IUPAC: Dihydrogensulfat, is a strong, inorganic acid. It ranks among mineral acids and belongs to the 20 most important Chemicals of the chemical industry. As Food additive has it the number E 513.

One calls diluted sulfuric acid weak acid.

Table of contents

production and representation

sulfuric acid in the Vitriolverfahren and the lead chamber procedure (both historically), the contact procedure or the double contact procedure one manufactures.

The oldest procedure for the sulfuric acid production is the Vitriolverfahren.It became in 13. Century applied by Alchemisten. Vitriole are sulfates, which can be decomposed relatively easily thermally and into sulfur trioxide and a metallic oxide to change.Johann Rudolph Glauber (1604-1670) designed the first sulfuric acid Manufaktur of the world, those around 1650 in (Resin northlive) in this procedure to sulfuric acid manufactured.

characteristics

the sulfuric acid with the sum formula H 2 LIKE THAT 4 is a strong acid (PC S1 = -3, PC S2 (corresponds to the PC S of the hydraulic gene sulfate anion HSO 4 -) = 1,9). As strong inorganic acid it ranks among mineral acids. Concentrated sulfuric acid is also a strong oxidizing agent. Concentrated sulfuric acid works hygroscopically and can be used therefore for drying gases and liquids. Distorts tetrahedrally builtSulfuric acid molecule possesses a large dipole moment, whose positive pole between the two OH-groups to lie comes.

Sulfuric acid forms together with water a Azeotrop. If 100%ige sulfuric acid up to simmering is heated up, sulfur trioxide evaporates to itself a concentration of approximately98 weight percentage adjusts. Turned around diluted sulfuric acid can be brought on this concentration as one it out-cooked.

100%ige sulfuric acid is manufactured, by one in approximately 98 Gew. - introduces %iger sulfuric acid so long sulfur trioxide, until this is water-free. Sulfuric acid knows further sulfur trioxidein large quantities bind, the developing liquid call one oleum, since the viscosity is quite high. Oleum consists of a mixture of sulfuric acid and Polyschwefelsäuren (Dischwefelsäure: H 2 S 2 O 7, tri sulfuric acid H 2 S 3 Othere are 10, etc.) in the trade oleum with up to 65 Gew,% sulfur trioxide. Oleum is used into chemical reactions for sulphonation or if it is necessary to bind as much as possible water from the reaction. Thus consumption can by sulfuric acid to be minimized and often also the yields be maximized.

For the identification of the concentration the density of the sulfuric acid is measured. Over standard table works can be closed thereby directly on the concentration. Thus for example the Ladungszusstand of a car battery is determined (see also Lead-acid battery).

When diluting concentrated sulfuric acid very much warmth is set free. Therefore appropriate precautionary measures must be seized. That the acid is always added into the water , thus not the water participates important to the acid! Otherwise it can to evaporation like an explosion of the water it comes whereby the liquid away-squirts uncontrolled; the danger is obvious. The donkey bridge in addition:„First the water, then the acid, otherwise happens the tremendous. “

meaning and use

sulfuric acid are most frequent oneproduced chemicals. 1997 was manufactured world-wide more than 130 million tons. The application possibilities are very various. One uses sulfuric acid

in the foodstuffs industry sulfuric acid is used as technical auxiliary material, in order to manufacture modified strength and Casein and prepare drinking water. It flows not into the final product and is not therefore not or only in traces available, those healthare harmless. In the European union the sulfuric acid does not have to be proven on the product packing. If one loosens potassium permanganate up to the saturation in sulfuric acid, a dark-green oily liquid (dimanganheptoxid) develops some strong oxidizing agent is, it chars organic materials such as woodimmediately and with acetone or other fuel means self final ignition takes place. The produced quantity of sulfuric acid was an indicator for the structure of the chemical industry of a country. In II. Development phase of the chemical industry large quantities of sulfuric acid are used.

Development phases:

structure and connection conditions

the sulfur atom is distorted in the hydraulic gene sulfate anion tetrahedrally coordinated in the sulfuric acid molecule as. The two then connections to the OH-groups are noticeably longer than naked to the two „“Oxygen atoms. The found connection lengths correspond thereby to connection orders of 1 and/or. 2. In the frequently used way of writing with (kovalenten) double bonds and without formal charges the connection of the four oxygen atoms to the sulfur can not be explained however, without 3d-Orbitale of the sulfurfor the pi connections to be used (see.PSE). Detailed ones theoretical views show however that D-orbital with main group element - connections only little to the connection contribute. The shorter connection to „the naked “oxygen atoms is described therefore better than kovalente single bond, by additionalelectrostatic reciprocal effects one shortens. The separation of load can be derived from the only mesomeren border structure, which the Oktettregel obeys.

proof

sulfuric acid can be proven in form of the sulfate anion. As sulfate proof for example the precipitation serves as heavysoluble barium sulfateafter addition of barium chloride - solution.

salts and esters of the sulfuric acid

the salts and ester of the sulfuric acid are called sulfates and Hydrogensulfate. The salt-like sulfates contain the sulfate ion (SO 4 2).

important sulfates

see also: To sulfide

see also

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Wiktionary: Sulfuric acid - word origin, synonyms and translations
 

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