Submarine cable

a submarine cable is a cable laid in a waters for transmission of news or also for the transmission of electricity. For longer submarine cables for transfer of energy the application of the technology of the high voltage direct current transmission is inevitable.

Submarine cables must be extraordinarily durably built because of technically aufwändigen maintenance. Monopoly acres submarine cables for the high voltage direct current transmission must be marked on sea charts, since they can disturb compass plants of ships by their magnetic field considerably.

Table of contents

history

for the idea of the transfer of submerged cables since invention of the electrical telegraphs several methods were tried out. But only the invention the gutta-percha - press 1847 by Werner von Siemens makes isolated cables possible for the underwater transfer well.

In the year 1850 from Dover to Calais the first submarine cable was laid, which however already broke after transmission of a first telegram. One year after was shifted a reinforced submarine cable between England and France. This proven and solved itself the transfer of further submarine cables out with not always long durability.

Attempts like the transfer of a cable in the Mediterranean between Algeria and Sardinien failed however first because of unsatisfactory equipment. Thus z was missing. B. a suitable cable brake, with which one could control an unreeling of the cable from the cable drum also with large water depths. Such became only available with the braking dynamometer Werner von Siemens'.

Since dispatching a message lasted at that time from America to England still over one week, Cyrus W came. Field on the idea to lay a cable at the sea-bottom of the Atlantiks.

To be procured, shifted map

of the cable route of 1858 in the year 1856 „the Atlantic telegraph of cost “based over over their share sales the necessary funds should a cable from Ireland to Newfoundland, long over 4500km. The assigned ships Agamemnon and Niagara began at the 3. , Had to give up to August 1857 with Ireland after several remediable cable losses and - breaks however after some time by the final loss of the cable.

After exercises in the Biskaya in the spring 1858 and a further luckless attempt in June 1858, glückt the enterprise in third, to 17. July begun, approach after some difficulties finally and to 5. August is manufactured the connection. To 16. August was taken this first Tiefseekabel between southwest Ireland and Newfoundland with the exchange of congratulations telegrams between queen Viktoria and the American president James Buchanan in enterprise. The initial attraction developed however to a large failure, because the greeting message of the English queen at the American presidents took 16 hours, although it covered only 103 words. September 1858 malfunctioned the cable.

1864 were prepared 5100 km a long submarine cable and „the Great Eastern “, at that time world largest Liniendampfer, when transfer ship procures.

Later it succeeded to reach few years primarily the Englishmen both the USA by means of submarine cables and over Freetown in Sierra Leone the South American continent. A further submarine cable ran over Freetown until Capetown.

Also Egypt became an important relay station for the submarine cable telegraphy. In the year 1868 a submarine cable was laid from the island Malta to Alexandria in Egypt. This section connected London starting from 1870 indirectly with Bombay.

telecommunications cables in the deep sea

Querschnitt von 1858 des Meeresgrundes zwischen England und Neufundland
cross section of 1858 of the sea-bottom between England and Newfoundland

Tiefseekabel are the only genuine alternative to satellite connections over large distance. Tiefseekabel have the advantage to be able to transport with very small probability of failure compared with large communication satellites immense data arising. A further advantage over satellite connections is the clearly smaller running time of the signals. They divide a large disadvantage however with satellites: Tiefseekabel can be modified, waited, extended just like satellites only with large expenditure or be worked on on otherwise a way afterwards.

Particularly frequently Tiefseekabel are used in particular because of the high data arising between the USA and Europe in the Atlantic. There also the first approaches (at the beginning of by the dozen failed) were started and for the first time successfully shifted Tiefseekabel finally.

At the beginning one still worked with similar electrical signals at the signal transmission. Meanwhile thick strands of optical waveguide cables are on the sea-bottom. The optical impulses must be detected after approximately 80 kilometers and again again fed, there otherwise the strength of the signal on the one hand by the large distance be become too weak and on the other hand the light signals “be blurred” (dispersion) became. That is, that the individual sequential “flashes” are no longer clearly from each other separated signals, but it into one another-runs and in extreme cases to several like a signal was understood. These stopovers form today a needle eye for the transmission, there the speed of the data communication contrary to the actual optical waveguide cables on them are dependent and them - can be exchanged as already above mentioned - not so easily.

implemented submarine cable plants

communication cable

  • ACT (Great Britain North America)
  • CAN ACT (Canada Scotland)
  • SCOTICE (Scotland Iceland)
  • ICECAN (Iceland Greenland Canada)
  • SAFEC (Taiwan Japan)
  • COMPAC (Hawaii New Zealand Australia)
  • HW (California Hawaii)
  • COMPAC (Canada Hawaii)
  • T.P.C. (Hawaii Japan)
  • SEA ME incoming goods 4 S outh e branch A sia, the M iddle E branch and W esters E urope. (Singapore France)

three-phase alternating current cable

Gleichstromkabel

see to high voltage direct current transmission

  • HGÜ Gotland
  • HGÜ CROSS Channel (submarine cable England France)
  • HGÜ interIceland (line connection between the two islands of New Zealand)
  • Kontiskan (submarine cable connection between Sweden and Denmark)
  • HGÜ Italy Korsika Sardinien (SACOI, submarine cable connection between Italy, Korsika and Sardinien)
  • HGÜ Vancouver Iceland (submarine cable connection between the Canadian mainland and Vancouver Iceland)
  • HGÜ Hokkaido Honschu (submarine cable connection between the Japanese islands Hokkaido and Honschu)
  • CROSS Skagerak (submarine cable connection between Norway and Denmark)
  • Kontek (submarine cable connection between Germany and Denmark)
  • Baltic Cable (submarine cable connection between Germany and Sweden)
  • Swepol (submarine cable connection between Sweden and Poland)
  • HGÜ connection Italy Greece (submarine cable connection between Italy and Greece)
  • HGÜ Leyte Luzon (submarine cable connection between the islands Leyte and Luzon of the Philippines)
  • HGÜ Kii channel (submarine cable by the Kii channel)
  • HGÜ Moyle (submarine cable connection between Scotland and Northern Ireland)
  • bass Strait (submarine cable connection between Australia and Tasmanien)

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